Biowaste from the Food Industry as a Biomass Resource of Foods, Bioenergies and Biomaterials

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2023) | Viewed by 23307

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Engineering Research Center for Biomass Conversion, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China
Interests: carbon materials; catalytic pyrolysis; value-added products; biodiesel production; hydrocarbon-rich fuel; nanoparticles; sustainable biorefinery; biohydrogen
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Engineering Research Center for Biomass Conversion, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China
Interests: biomass waste; adsorbent materials; microalgae cultivation; anaerobic digestion; wastewater treatment; wine wastewater; resource recovery; bioproducts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world’s demand for food is increasing with the development of human society. Every year, the food industry produces inevitably large amounts of biowastes, including gaseous, liquid, and solid biowastes generated during the processing of cereals, grease, condiment, meat product, drinks, instant food, biscuits, frozen foods, puffed food, candy products, tea products, liquor, vegetable products, fruit products, egg products, aquatic products, starch products, bean products, health foods, infant formula, food additives, etc. These biowastes were a source of biomass not only with no or litter pollution of pathogenic microbes, heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, etc. but also contain considerable nutrients and resources such as polysaccharide, protein, lipids, amino acid, trace elements. Conversion of these biomass into high value foods, foods additives, raw food materials, bioenergy, and biomaterial is a way of resource recovery which can make the food industry sustainable and environment friendly. The main goal of this Special Issue is to promote the conversion and utilization of biowaste from the food industry as a biomass resource for food, bioenergy, and biomaterial production.

Prof. Dr. Yunpu Wang
Dr. Qi Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food solid waste
  • food wastewater
  • waste-to-resource
  • bioenergy
  • biomaterial

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2291 KiB  
Article
Optimisation and Characterisation of the Protein Hydrolysate of Scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) Visceral By-Products
by Nancy Chasquibol, Billy Francisco Gonzales, Rafael Alarcón, Axel Sotelo, José Carlos Márquez-López, Noelia M. Rodríguez-Martin, María del Carmen Millán-Linares, Francisco Millán and Justo Pedroche
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102003 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
In this research, scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) visceral meal (SVM) and defatted meal (SVMD) were analysed for their proximal composition, protein solubility, and amino acid profile. Hydrolysed proteins isolated from the scallop’s viscera (SPH) were optimised and characterised using response surface methodology [...] Read more.
In this research, scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) visceral meal (SVM) and defatted meal (SVMD) were analysed for their proximal composition, protein solubility, and amino acid profile. Hydrolysed proteins isolated from the scallop’s viscera (SPH) were optimised and characterised using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The effects of three independent variables were examined: temperature (30–70 °C), time (40–80 min), and enzyme concentration (0.1–0.5 AU/g protein) on the degree of hydrolysis (DH %) as a response variable. The optimised protein hydrolysates were analysed for their proximal composition, yield, DH %, protein solubility, amino acid composition, and molecular profile. This research showed that defatted and isolation protein stages are not necessaries to obtain the hydrolysate protein. The conditions of the optimization process were 57 °C, 62 min and 0.38 AU/g protein. The amino acid composition showed a balanced profile since it conforms to the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation recommendations for healthy nutrition. The predominant amino acids were aspartic acid + asparagine, glutamic acid + Glutamate, Glycine, and Arginine. The protein hydrolysates’ yield and DH % were higher than 90% and close to 20%, respectively, with molecular weight between 1–5 kDa. The results indicate that the protein hydrolysates of scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) visceral by product optimised and characterised was suitable a lab-scale. Further research is necessary to study the bioactivity properties with biologic activity of these hydrolysates. Full article
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15 pages, 2772 KiB  
Article
Aerobic Cultivation of Mucor Species Enables the Deacidification of Yogurt Acid Whey and the Production of Fungal Oil
by Xingrui Fan, Viviana K. Rivera Flores, Timothy A. DeMarsh, Dana L. deRiancho and Samuel D. Alcaine
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091784 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
As the Greek-style yogurt market continues to experience prosperous growth, finding the most appropriate destination for yogurt acid whey (YAW) is still a challenge for Greek yogurt manufacturers. This study provides a direct alternative treatment of YAW by leveraging the abilities of Mucor [...] Read more.
As the Greek-style yogurt market continues to experience prosperous growth, finding the most appropriate destination for yogurt acid whey (YAW) is still a challenge for Greek yogurt manufacturers. This study provides a direct alternative treatment of YAW by leveraging the abilities of Mucor circinelloides and Mucor genevensis to raise the pH of YAW and to produce fungal biomass with a high lipid content. Aerobic cultivations of these species were conducted in YAW, both with and without the addition of lactase, at 30 °C, and 200 rpm agitation. The density, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), biomass production, lipid content, fatty acid profile, and sugar and lactic acid concentrations were regularly measured throughout the 14-day cultivations. The data showed that M. genevensis was superior at deacidifying YAW to a pH above 6.0—the legal limit for disposing of cultured dairy waste. On the other hand, M. circinelloides generated more fungal biomass, containing up to 30% w/w of lipid with high proportions of oleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. Additionally, the treatments with lactase addition showed a significant decrease in the BOD. In conclusion, our results present a viable treatment to increase the pH of YAW and decrease its BOD, meanwhile generating fungal oils that can be further transformed into biodiesel or processed into functional foods or dietary supplements. Full article
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15 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Carbon Conversion and Value-Added Compound Production in Heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris Using Sweet Sorghum Extract
by Kangping Wu, Yilin Fang, Biyuan Hong, Yihui Cai, Honglei Xie, Yunpu Wang, Xian Cui, Zhigang Yu, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan and Qi Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172579 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
High-cost carbon sources are not economical or sustainable for the heterotrophic culture of Chlorella vulgaris. In order to reduce the cost, this study used sweet sorghum extract (SE) and its enzymatic hydrolysate (HSE) as alternative carbon sources for the heterotrophic culture of [...] Read more.
High-cost carbon sources are not economical or sustainable for the heterotrophic culture of Chlorella vulgaris. In order to reduce the cost, this study used sweet sorghum extract (SE) and its enzymatic hydrolysate (HSE) as alternative carbon sources for the heterotrophic culture of Chlorella vulgaris. Under the premise of the same total carbon concentration, the value-added product production performance of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in HSE (supplemented with nitrogen sources and minerals) was much better than that in the glucose medium. The conversion rate of the total organic carbon and the utilization rate of the total nitrogen were both improved in the HSE system. The biomass production and productivity using HSE reached 2.51 g/L and 0.42 g/L/d, respectively. The production of proteins and lipids using HSE reached 1.17 and 0.35 g/L, respectively, and the production of chlorophyll-a, carotenoid, and lutein using HSE reached 30.42, 10.99, and 0.88 mg/L, respectively. The medium cost using HSE decreased by 69.61% compared to glucose. This study proves the feasibility and practicability of using HSE as a carbon source for the low-cost heterotrophic culture of Chlorella vulgaris. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1724 KiB  
Review
Current Technologies and Uses for Fruit and Vegetable Wastes in a Sustainable System: A Review
by Yingdan Zhu, Yueting Luan, Yingnan Zhao, Jiali Liu, Zhangqun Duan and Roger Ruan
Foods 2023, 12(10), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12101949 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 9411
Abstract
The fruit and vegetable industry produces millions of tons of residues, which can cause large economic losses. Fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products contain a large number of bioactive substances with functional ingredients that have antioxidant, antibacterial, and other properties. Current technologies can [...] Read more.
The fruit and vegetable industry produces millions of tons of residues, which can cause large economic losses. Fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products contain a large number of bioactive substances with functional ingredients that have antioxidant, antibacterial, and other properties. Current technologies can utilize fruit and vegetable waste and by-products as ingredients, food bioactive compounds, and biofuels. Traditional and commercial utilization in the food industry includes such technologies as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and high hydrostatic pressure technique (HHP). Biorefinery methods for converting fruit and vegetable wastes into biofuels, such as anaerobic digestion (AD), fermentation, incineration, pyrolysis and gasification, and hydrothermal carbonization, are described. This study provides strategies for the processing of fruit and vegetable wastes using eco-friendly technologies and lays a foundation for the utilization of fruit and vegetable loss/waste and by-products in a sustainable system. Full article
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25 pages, 3740 KiB  
Review
The Valorization of Banana By-Products: Nutritional Composition, Bioactivities, Applications, and Future Development
by Fanglei Zou, Chunming Tan, Bo Zhang, Wei Wu and Nan Shang
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203170 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8097
Abstract
Bananas are among the world’s main economic crops and one of the world’s most-selling fresh fruits. However, a great deal of waste and by-products is produced during banana harvesting and consumption, including stems, leaves, inflorescences, and peels. Some of them have the potential [...] Read more.
Bananas are among the world’s main economic crops and one of the world’s most-selling fresh fruits. However, a great deal of waste and by-products is produced during banana harvesting and consumption, including stems, leaves, inflorescences, and peels. Some of them have the potential to be used to develop new foods. Furthermore, studies have found that banana by-products contain many bioactive substances that have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties and other functions. At present, research on banana by-products has mainly focused on various utilizations of banana stems and leaves, as well as the extraction of active ingredients from banana peels and inflorescences to develop high-value functional products. Based on the current research on the utilization of banana by-products, this paper summarized the composition information, functions, and comprehensive utilization of banana by-products. Moreover, the problems and future development in the utilization of by-products are reviewed. This review is of great value in expanding the potential applications of banana stems, leaves, inflorescences, and peels, which will not only help to reduce waste of agricultural by-product resources and ecological pollution but will also be useful for the development of essential products as alternative sources of healthy food in the future. Full article
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