Food Chemical Hazards: Formation, Migration, Risk Assessment and Dietary Exposure

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 1918

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
Interests: pollutants; environment; chromatography techniques; particulate matter; air quality indoor and outdoor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the presence of chemical contaminants in food products has received growing attention from specialized researchers. In order to satisfy an ever-increasing demand for food and increase the shelf life of products, plastic containers are increasingly used for the storage or preservation of food products. The chemical composition varies from packaging to packaging, but generally specific chemical substances are added to increase its malleability and workability. Unfortunately, these molecules are able to migrate from the packaging to the food contained within in particular climatic and environmental conditions. Since several international bodies have classified some of these molecules as carcinogenic to human health, the attention of the scientific world has shifted to these particular molecules. Several studies confirm that the migration of molecules is favoured, above all, by strong thermal shocks.

Research is currently focused on developing new applications that are capable of offering similar characteristics but contain a smaller quantity, or even feature a total absence, of these compounds that are potentially dangerous for consumer health.

Dr. Ivan Notardonato
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • food contaminants
  • phthalates
  • packaging
  • migration

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Flavonoid Chemical Structures and Their Antioxidant Capacity in Preventing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Formation in Heated Meat Model System
by Thi Thu Huong Huynh, Wanwisa Wongmaneepratip and Kanithaporn Vangnai
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071002 - 25 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The relationship between the chemical structures of six flavonoids and their abilities to inhibit the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a heated meat model system was investigated. The PAH8 forming in samples was analyzed by using QuEChERS coupled GC-MS. Inhibitory effects [...] Read more.
The relationship between the chemical structures of six flavonoids and their abilities to inhibit the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a heated meat model system was investigated. The PAH8 forming in samples was analyzed by using QuEChERS coupled GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of PAHs were myricetin (72.1%) > morin (55.7%) > quercetin (57.3%) > kaempferol (49.9%) > rutin (32.7%) > taxifolin (30.2%). The antioxidant activities of these flavonoids, assessed through (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity assay (DPPH), [2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] free radical scavenging activity assay (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) assays, exhibited a significant negative correlation with PAH reduction. Notably, myricetin that contained three hydroxyl groups on the B-ring, along with a 2,3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-keto moiety on the C-ring, demonstrated strong antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging abilities, which significantly contributed to their ability to inhibit PAH formation. However, rutin and taxifolin, substituted at the C-3 position of the C-ring, decreased the PAH inhibitory activity. The ABTS assay proved the most effective in demonstrating the correlation between flavonoid antioxidant properties and their capacity to inhibit PAH formation in heated meat model systems. Thus, the inhibition of PAHs can be achieved by dietary flavonoids according to their chemical structures. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 652 KiB  
Review
There’s Something in What We Eat: An Overview on the Extraction Techniques and Chromatographic Analysis for PFAS Identification in Agri-Food Products
by Alessia Iannone, Fabiana Carriera, Sergio Passarella, Alessandra Fratianni and Pasquale Avino
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071085 - 1 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic chemicals used in a range of industrial processes and consumer products. Recently, their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as their toxicological effects in humans have gained relevant attention. Although the [...] Read more.
Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic chemicals used in a range of industrial processes and consumer products. Recently, their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as their toxicological effects in humans have gained relevant attention. Although the occurrence of PFASs is widely investigated in scientific community, the standardization of analytical method for all matrices still remains an important issue. In this review, we discussed extraction and detection methods in depth to evaluate the best procedures of PFAS identification in terms of analytical parameters (e.g., limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), recoveries). Extraction approaches based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), alkaline digestion, and solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis are the main analytical methods applied in the literature. The results showed detectable recoveries of PFOA and PFOS in meat, milk, vegetables, eggs products (90.6–101.2% and of 89.2–98.4%), and fish (96–108%). Furthermore, the low LOD and LOQ values obtained for meat (0.00592–0.01907 ng g−1; 0.050 ng g−1), milk (0.003–0.009 ng g−1; 0.010–0.027 ng g−1), fruit (0.002–0.009 ng g−1; 0.006–0.024 ng g−1), and fish (0.00369–0.017.33 ng g−1; 0.05 ng g−1) also confirmed the effectiveness of the recent quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method (QuEChERS) for simple, speedy, and sensitive ultra-trace PFAS analysis. Full article
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