New Methods for the Identification of Origin, Composition and Label Authentication in Foods, Beverages and Wines

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Drinks and Liquid Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 December 2021) | Viewed by 19851

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Vassilis Dourtoglou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Wine, Vine & Beverage Sciences Dept. West Attica University, Egaleo Campus 1, Ag. Spyridonos 28, 12241 Egaleo Attica, Greece
Interests: analysis and biochemistry of natural products

Special Issue Information

Traceability and identification of origin are becoming more and more important for the food industry. With regard to wine, whiskey, oils, in particular olive oil, dairy products, mineral waters, coffee, and many others, the variety and origin of the product are, among other factors, among the most researched criteria which determine quality and commercial added value. Current legislation imposes rules against different types of adulteration. Analysis of volatile compounds, isotopic techniques, and NMR are some techniques that serve to certify the origin and the production process. Metabolomics applied to volatiles are used for fine tuning the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolites.

This Special Issue is dedicated to the techniques applied to different foods to discriminate the real from the faulty and to guarantee the authenticity of the label.

Prof. Dr. Vassilis Dourtoglou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • traceability
  • composition and origin identification
  • foods
  • wine
  • beverages
  • label authentication
  • regulatory issues

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2559 KiB  
Article
Rosemary Extract and Essential Oil as Drink Ingredients: An Evaluation of Their Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antioxidant Properties
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123143 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5652
Abstract
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) is in high demand in the food and drink industries due to its distinct organoleptic properties. With the aim of evaluating the rosemary leaves as drink ingredients, both the essential oil and alcoholic (38%, v/v) extract [...] Read more.
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) is in high demand in the food and drink industries due to its distinct organoleptic properties. With the aim of evaluating the rosemary leaves as drink ingredients, both the essential oil and alcoholic (38%, v/v) extract were studied in terms of chemical composition, genotoxicity, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. GC–MS analysis showed that the main volatile compounds in the essential oil were eucalyptol (40.1%), camphor (12.4%), and α-pinene (12.9%). LC–MS analysis revealed gallocatechin and rosmarinic acid as the main extract ingredients. Both the essential oil and the extract were not genotoxic (Ames test) against TA98 and TA100 at the dilutions of 5% and 90%, respectively; those dilutions were selected as the maximum possible ones in the drink industry. Their activity was investigated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Adenovirus 35. Both were effective against Adenovirus and A. niger, even the essential oil at 5% (v/v). The extract at dilutions of 25–90% had more pronounced activity against tested bacteria than the essential oil at the dilutions of 5–100%; the essential oil at the dilution of 5% inhibited S. aureus growth. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid decolorization assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Both exhibited good antioxidant activity, but rosemary essential oil was far more effective than the extract. Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil and extract are safe and have beneficial biological properties. Therefore, they could serve as health-promoting ingredients in the drink industry. Full article
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14 pages, 2037 KiB  
Article
Effect of Age of Agave tequilana Weber Blue Variety on Quality and Authenticity Parameters for the Tequila 100% Agave Silver Class: Evaluation at the Industrial Scale Level
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123103 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4476
Abstract
Due to the oversupply and scarcity cycles of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety, the effect of agave age (harvested in 4, 5, and 6 years) as raw material for the tequila 100% agave silver class was studied for each stage in a [...] Read more.
Due to the oversupply and scarcity cycles of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety, the effect of agave age (harvested in 4, 5, and 6 years) as raw material for the tequila 100% agave silver class was studied for each stage in a full-scale (industrial) process. Harvested plants showed differences in their morphological characteristics that affected the amount of juice; this had an impact in the fermentation stage since must composition was modified in the nitrogen content and juice/exudate ratio. This was noticed due to an increase in the production of higher alcohols attributed to the odd-chain fatty of the exudate, which affects n-propanol production. The characterization of the final product showed the feasibility to use agaves (less than 7 years) to produce the Tequila 100% agave silver class and to comply with the quality criteria. Furthermore, the final product was analyzed with the gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry technique to determine its authenticity. The δ13CVPDB isotopic parameter (−13.40‰ in average) values show the type of plant used as a raw material for ethanol production, while the δ18OVSMOW (20.52‰ in average) isotopic parameter can be helpful in corroborating and ensuring the traceability of the product and the geographical location of the beverage production. Full article
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13 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity Level, Bioactive Compounds, Colour and Spectroscopic Analysis (UV-Vis and FT-IR) of Flavoured Drinks Made with Wine and Sour Cherries (Prunuscerasus Var. austera)
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081953 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
In recent years, the increase in consumer interest towards simpler and authentic lifestyles has led to an explosive growth in the production and business of typical agri-food products and, among these, of wines and its derived beverages. With the aim of promoting a [...] Read more.
In recent years, the increase in consumer interest towards simpler and authentic lifestyles has led to an explosive growth in the production and business of typical agri-food products and, among these, of wines and its derived beverages. With the aim of promoting a typical Italian beverage, the so-called “Vino di visciole” or “Visner”, listed in the national table of traditional agri-food products, the antioxidant and colour properties of fifteen samples from different provinces of the Marche region and obtained with different recipes were analysed. The “in vitro” total antioxidant activity (TAA) determined using ABTS assays, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), and colour (Somers assay) were measured. In addition, a spectroscopic FT-IR and UV-Vis analysis was carried out to analyse samples with multivariate techniques. The results showed that the production area, the recipe, and the type of cherries used to make the alcoholic beverage do not influence the antioxidant properties and the phytochemical contents of the samples. The multivariate treatment of the spectroscopic features (mainly UV-Vis) rather allowed the differentiation of samples with high antioxidant activity using easy and low-cost instrumental techniques that require little time and can be employed in routine analysis. Full article
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12 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
A Novel Quantitative Prediction Approach for Pungency Level of Chinese Liquor (Baijiu) Based on Infrared Thermal Imager
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051107 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Pungency is a crucial sensory feature that influences consumers’ appreciation and preferences toward alcoholic beverages. However, the quantitation of pungency is challenging to achieve using sensory analysis because of persistence, accumulation, and desensitization to the pungency perception. This study aimed to design a [...] Read more.
Pungency is a crucial sensory feature that influences consumers’ appreciation and preferences toward alcoholic beverages. However, the quantitation of pungency is challenging to achieve using sensory analysis because of persistence, accumulation, and desensitization to the pungency perception. This study aimed to design a novel pungency evaluation method based on the measurement of tongue surface temperature. An infrared thermal (IRT) imager technique for measuring tongue surface temperature was established. To validate its feasibility, the IRT technique was used to measure tongue surface temperatures after the tongue was stimulated by (1) water and Baijiu, (2) different concentrations of ethanol aqueous solution (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%, v/v), (3) ethanol aqueous solution and Baijiu samples with the same ethanol content, and (4) 26 Baijiu samples with different pungency level. For all cases, tongue surface temperatures showed large differences as a result of the different stimulation. The results showed that the tongue surface temperature correlated with the pungency intensity obtained by the sensory analysis. The relationship between tongue surface temperature and pungency intensity was established by multiple linear regression analysis. The IRT technique was able to be a useful support tool to quantitatively predict the pungency of alcoholic beverages, based on the measurement of tongue surface temperature. Full article
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15 pages, 1863 KiB  
Article
Detection of Carrageenan in Meat Products Using Lectin Histochemistry
Foods 2021, 10(4), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040764 - 03 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that is widely used in the food industry. Due to its water holding capacity, there is a higher risk of adulteration for economic reasons related to it. A verifiable method for detecting carrageenan is still missing in the food [...] Read more.
Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that is widely used in the food industry. Due to its water holding capacity, there is a higher risk of adulteration for economic reasons related to it. A verifiable method for detecting carrageenan is still missing in the food inspection sector. The detection of carrageenan in meat products is not well described. Our study describes lectin histochemistry as a novel approach for carrageenan detection. Within this study, the detection of carrageenan in meat products by lectin histochemistry is validated. Lectins of Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Bandeiraea simlicifolia (BSA), specific for galactose units of carrageenan, were used. The samples included model meat products (ground chicken-meat products) and meat products from retail markets (chicken and pork hams, sausages, salami, and dried sausages). The limit of determination (LoD) of this method was set at 0.01 g kg−1. The method sensitivity for lectin PNA reached 1, and, for lectin BSA, it reached 0.96. Method specificity for lectin PNA was 1, and, for lectin BSA, it was 1.33. Cross-reactivity with other hydrocolloids tested was not confirmed. The results confirm that lectin histochemistry is suitable for detecting carrageenan in meat products. Full article
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19 pages, 3587 KiB  
Article
Methodological Approaches to DNA Authentication of Foods, Wines and Raw Materials for Their Production
Foods 2021, 10(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030595 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
DNA authentication of wines is a process of verifying their authenticity by genetic identification of the main plant component. The sample preparation of experimental and commercial wines was carried out by precipitation of wine debris by centrifugation with preliminary exposure with precipitators and [...] Read more.
DNA authentication of wines is a process of verifying their authenticity by genetic identification of the main plant component. The sample preparation of experimental and commercial wines was carried out by precipitation of wine debris by centrifugation with preliminary exposure with precipitators and co-precipitators, including developed macro- and micro-volume methods applicable to white or red wines, using polyvinylpyrrolidone as a co-precipitator. Addition of 2-mercaptoethanol and proteinase K to the lysing solution made it possible to adapt the technology for DNA extraction from the precipitated wine debris. The additionally tested technique of DNA extraction from wine debris by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) lysis had fewer stages and, consequently, a lower risk of contamination. The results of further testing of one of the designed primer pairs (UFGT-F1 and UFGT-R1) in conjunction with the tested methods of wine material sample preparation and nucleic acid extraction, showed the advantage in the given set of oligonucleotides over previously used ones in terms of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. The developing strategy for genetic identification of grape varieties and DNA authentication of wines produced from them based on direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products is implemented by interpreting the detected polymorphic positions of variable Vitis vinifera L. UFGT gene locus with distribution and split into 13 UFGT gene-associated groups. Full article
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