Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 7469

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
Interests: meat science and technology; meat microbiology; meat quality and safety; meat flavor; microbial fermentation; functional starter cultures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
Interests: meat science and technology; food microbiology; new product development; new processing techniques; protein and lipid oxidation; meat quality; meat flavor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Meat and meat products play an important role in one’s daily diet, due to their nutritional value, delicious flavour and desirable texture. In order to maintain the quality and safety of meat and meat products, a comprehensive understanding of microbial populations and compositions, dynamic changes and microbial interactions during processing and storage seems important. Recent advancements in microbial analysis techniques and in the roles of functional microbial strains in meat and meat products have attracted extensive attention.

Therefore, this Special Issue of Foods, entitled Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II, invites works (original research papers or reviews) on the current state of knowledge of the subject. Specifically, this Special Issue should include, but is not limited to, the following points:

(1) Microbial ecology and microbial interactions of meat and meat products during processing and storage;

(2) Biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of microorganisms related to the quality, fermentation, spoilage and foodborne diseases of meat and meat products;

(3) Microbial analysis and application involved in fermented meat products (including probiotics and starter cultures);

(4) Methods/techniques for microbial detection, identification and enumeration of meat and meat products.

Prof. Dr. Qian Chen
Prof. Dr. Baohua Kong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • meat and meat products
  • microbial ecology
  • microbial interactions
  • molecular biology
  • spoilage
  • fermentation
  • starter cultures
  • bioprotective cultures
  • quality characteristics
  • microbial analysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2688 KiB  
Article
Hydrolysis of Beef Sarcoplasmic Protein by Dry-Aged Beef-Isolated Penicillium oxalicum and Its Associated Metabolic Pathways
by Yujia Liu, Depeng Sun, Anqi Peng, Tingyu Li, Hongmei Li, Baide Mu, Juan Wang, Mingxun Cui, Chunxiang Piao and Guanhao Li
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071038 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Yanbian cattle have a unique meat flavor, and high-grade meat is in short supply. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to improve the added value of Yanbian cattle low-fat meat and provide a theoretical reference for the subsequent development of an excellent starter. [...] Read more.
Yanbian cattle have a unique meat flavor, and high-grade meat is in short supply. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to improve the added value of Yanbian cattle low-fat meat and provide a theoretical reference for the subsequent development of an excellent starter. Rump meat from Yanbian cattle was dry-aged and then screened for protease-producing fungi. Three protease-producing fungi (Yarrowia hollandica (D4 and D11), Penicillium oxalicum (D5), and Meesziomyces ophidis (D20)) were isolated from 40 d dry-aged beef samples, and their ability to hydrolyze proteins was determined using bovine sarcoplasmic protein extract. SDS-PAGE showed that the ability of Penicillium oxalicum (D5) to degrade proteins was stronger than the other two fungi. In addition, the volatile component content of sarcoplasmic proteins in the D5 group was the highest (45.47%) and comprised the most species (26 types). Metabolic pathway analysis of the fermentation broth showed that phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis was the most closely related metabolic pathway in sarcoplasmic protein fermentation by Penicillium oxalicum (D5). Dry-aged beef-isolated Penicillium oxalicum serves as a potential starter culture for the fermentation of meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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27 pages, 2663 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Relationship between the Causes of Off-Odour and Microorganism Communities in Xuanwei Ham
by Haoyi Wang, Xiaoyu Yin, Lu Zhang, Xuejiao Wang, Jiliang Zhang, Rongxin Wen and Jianxin Cao
Foods 2024, 13(5), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050776 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
To expound on the correlation between the microorganism communities and the formation of off-odour in Xuanwei ham, the microorganism communities and volatile compounds were investigated in the biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) of Xuanwei ham with different quality grades (normal ham and [...] Read more.
To expound on the correlation between the microorganism communities and the formation of off-odour in Xuanwei ham, the microorganism communities and volatile compounds were investigated in the biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) of Xuanwei ham with different quality grades (normal ham and spoiled ham). The single molecule real-time sequencing showed that differential bacteria and fungi were more varied in normal hams than in spoiled hams. Headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC-MS) results indicated that aldehydes and alcohols were significantly higher in spoiled hams than those in normal hams (p < 0.05). The off-odour of spoiled hams was dominated by ichthyic, malodourous, sweaty, putrid, sour, and unpleasant odours produced by compounds such as trimethylamine (SM: 13.05 μg/kg), hexanal (BF: 206.46 μg/kg), octanal (BF: 59.52 μg/kg), methanethiol (SM: 12.85 μg/kg), and valeric acid (BF: 15.08 μg/kg), which are positively correlated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas sp., Aspergillus ruber, and Moraxella osloensis. Furthermore, the physicochemical property and quality characteristics results showed that high moisture (BF: 56.32 g/100 g), pH (BF: 6.63), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (SM: 1.98 MDA/kg), and low NaCl content (SM: 6.31%) were also responsible for the spoilage of hams with off-odour. This study provided a deep insight into the off-odour of Xuanwei ham from the perspective of microorganism communities and a theoretical basis for improving the flavour and overall quality of Xuanwei hams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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16 pages, 3609 KiB  
Article
The Characterization of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Sunit Sheep at Different Growth Stages: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Morphology, Fatty Acid Profile, and Metabolite Profile
by Yunfei Han, Xige He, Yueying Yun, Lu Chen, Yajuan Huang, Qiong Wu, Xia Qin, Haiyan Wu, Jindi Wu, Rina Sha and Gerelt Borjigin
Foods 2024, 13(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13040544 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Adipose tissue is a crucial economically significant trait that significantly influences the meat quality and growth performance of domestic animals. To reveal the changes in adipose tissue metabolism during the growth of naturally grazing sheep, we evaluated the thickness, adipocyte morphology, fatty acid [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is a crucial economically significant trait that significantly influences the meat quality and growth performance of domestic animals. To reveal the changes in adipose tissue metabolism during the growth of naturally grazing sheep, we evaluated the thickness, adipocyte morphology, fatty acid profile, and metabolite profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from naturally grazing Sunit sheep at 6, 18, and 30 months of age (referred to as Mth-6, Mth-18, and Mth-30, respectively). The fat thickness and adipocyte number were significantly increased with the growth of the sheep (p < 0.05), and the increase of which from Mth-18 to Mth-30 was less than that from Mth-6 to Mth-18. Additionally, the alpha-linolenic acid metabolism was enhanced and fatty acid (FA) elongation increased with growth. The metabolomic analysis revealed 76 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) in the SAT in different growth stages. Interestingly, we observed elongation of FAs in lipids correlated with sheep growth. Furthermore, the expression of acylcarnitines was downregulated, and fatty acid amides, aspartic acid, acetic acid and phosphocholine were upregulated in Mth-18 and Mth-30 compared to Mth-6. Altogether, the study found that the difference in SAT in Mth-6 was great compared to Mth-18 and Mth-30. An increase in fat deposition via adipocyte proliferation with the growth of the sheep in naturally grazing. The DEMs of acylcarnitines, fatty acid amides, aspartic acid, acetic acid, and phosphocholine emerged as potential key regulators of adipose tissue metabolism. These findings illustrate the variation in and metabolic mechanism of sheep adipose tissue development under natural grazing, thus providing valuable insights into improving the edible quality of sheep meat and developing the mutton sheep industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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13 pages, 2725 KiB  
Article
Effect of Yeast Inoculation on the Bacterial Community Structure in Reduced-Salt Harbin Dry Sausages: A Perspective of Fungi–Bacteria Interactions
by Yumeng Sui, Xiangao Li, Yuan Gao, Baohua Kong, Yitong Jiang and Qian Chen
Foods 2024, 13(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020307 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 962
Abstract
Yeast strains are promising starters to compensate for the flavor deficiencies of reduced-salt dry sausages, but their influence on the bacterial community’s structure has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effect of separately inoculating Pichia kudriavzevii MDJ1 (Pk) and Debaryomyces hansenii [...] Read more.
Yeast strains are promising starters to compensate for the flavor deficiencies of reduced-salt dry sausages, but their influence on the bacterial community’s structure has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effect of separately inoculating Pichia kudriavzevii MDJ1 (Pk) and Debaryomyces hansenii HRB3 (Dh) on the bacterial community structure in reduced-salt dry sausage was investigated. The results demonstrated that the inoculation of two yeast strains significantly reduced the pH, and enhanced the total acid content, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts, and total bacterial counts of reduced-salt sausages after a 12-day fermentation (p < 0.05). Furthermore, high-throughput sequencing results elucidated that the inoculation of yeast strains significantly affected the bacterial composition of the dry sausages. Especially, the relative abundance of bacteria at the firmicute level in the Pk and Dh treatments exhibited a significant increase of 83.22% and 82.19%, respectively, compared to the noninoculated reduced-salt dry sausage treatment (Cr). The relative abundance of Latilactobacillus, especially L. sakei (0.46%, 2.80%, 65.88%, and 33.41% for the traditional dry sausage (Ct), Cr, Pk, and Dh treatments, respectively), increased significantly in the reduced-salt sausages inoculated with two yeast strains. Our work demonstrates the dynamic changes in the bacterial composition of reduced-salt sausages inoculated with different yeast strains, which could provide the foundation for the in-depth study of fungi–bacteria interactions in fermented foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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19 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum x3-2b Bacterial Powder on the Physicochemical Quality and Biogenic Amines of Fermented Lamb Jerky
by Xiaotong Li, Guanhua Hu, Xueying Sun, Erke Sun, Yue Zhang, Yancheng Zhong, Lin Su, Ye Jin, Fan Yang and Lihua Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4147; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224147 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
In this study, a protective agent was added to prepare a high-activity Lactiplantibacillus plantarum x3-2b bacterial powder as a fermentation agent and explore its effect on the physicochemical quality, biogenic amines, and flavor of fermented lamb jerky. A composite protective agent, composed of [...] Read more.
In this study, a protective agent was added to prepare a high-activity Lactiplantibacillus plantarum x3-2b bacterial powder as a fermentation agent and explore its effect on the physicochemical quality, biogenic amines, and flavor of fermented lamb jerky. A composite protective agent, composed of 15% skim milk powder and 10% trehalose, was used, and bacterial mud was mixed with the protective agent at a 1:1.2 mass ratio. The resulting freeze-dried bacterial powder achieved a viable count of 5.1 lg CFU/g with a lyophilization survival rate of 87.58%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed enhanced cell coverage by the composite protective agent, maintaining the cell membrane’s integrity. Inoculation with x3-2b bacterial powder increased the pH and the reduction in aw, enhanced the appearance and texture of fermented lamb jerky, increased the variety and quantity of flavor compounds, and reduced the accumulation of biogenic amines (phenethylamine, histamine, and putrescine). This research provides a theoretical basis for improving and regulating the quality of lamb jerky and establishes a foundation for the development of bacterial powder for the commercial fermentation of meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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14 pages, 2716 KiB  
Article
Differences in Bacterial Communities of Retail Raw Pork in Different Market Types in Hangzhou, China
by Wen Wang, Zhengkai Yi, Wei Cai, Jiele Ma, Hua Yang, Min Zhou and Xingning Xiao
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183357 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Pork is widely consumed globally, and pigs’ microbiota can potentially harbor foodborne pathogens. Contaminated pork in retail markets poses significant implications for food quality and safety. However, limited studies have compared pork microbiomes in various marketing environments. In this study, we utilized traditional [...] Read more.
Pork is widely consumed globally, and pigs’ microbiota can potentially harbor foodborne pathogens. Contaminated pork in retail markets poses significant implications for food quality and safety. However, limited studies have compared pork microbiomes in various marketing environments. In this study, we utilized traditional microbial culture methods and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to assess pathogen contamination and bacterial diversity in raw pork samples purchased from farmers’ markets and two types of supermarkets (upscale and ordinary) in Hangzhou, China. Traditional microbial plate cultures identified E. coli and Salmonella spp. in 32.1% (27/84) and 15.5% (13/84) of the collected pork samples, respectively. Moreover, 12 out of 13 Salmonella strains were found in farmers’ markets. The MIC results indicated a high prevalence of MDR strains, accounting for 51.9% in E. coli and 53.8% in Salmonella. The prevalence of NaClO tolerant strains was 33.3% and 92.3% for E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. Sequencing results indicated significantly higher microbial diversity in farmers’ market samples compared to supermarket samples. Farmers’ market pork samples exhibited a greater abundance of Acinetobacter, while Pseudomonas and Brochothrix were predominant in supermarket samples. The total abundance of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria was also higher for the farmers’ market samples. Cross-contamination during market trading was evident through a high correlation between bacterial abundance in pork from different stalls within the same farmers’ market. PICRUSt2 analysis identified significant differences in the average proportions of genes for carbohydrate, energy, and lipid metabolism from the farmers’ markets, suggesting an exacerbation of microbial metabolic activity and increased perishability of pork in this environment. In conclusion, this study revealed variations in the characteristics of raw pork bacterial contamination across different types of retail stores, as well as differences in the composition and diversity of their respective bacterial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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17 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fat to Lean Meat Ratios on the Formation of Volatile Compounds in Mutton Shashliks
by Mingcheng Zhang, Mingyang Li, Fangfang Bai, Wensheng Yao, Litang You and Dengyong Liu
Foods 2023, 12(10), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12101929 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the release of volatile compounds in mutton shashliks (named as FxLy, x-fat cubes: 0-4; y-lean cubes: 4-0) with different fat–lean ratios before and during consumption, respectively. In total, 67 volatile compounds were identified in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the release of volatile compounds in mutton shashliks (named as FxLy, x-fat cubes: 0-4; y-lean cubes: 4-0) with different fat–lean ratios before and during consumption, respectively. In total, 67 volatile compounds were identified in shashliks using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Aldehyde, alcohol, and ketone were the major volatile substances, accounting for more than 75% of the total volatile compounds. There were significant differences in the volatile compounds of mutton shashliks with different fat–lean ratios. With the increase of the fat content, the types and content of volatile substances released also increase. However, when the percentage of fat exceeded 50%, the number of furans and pyrazine, which were characteristic of the volatile compounds of roasted meat, was decreased. The release of volatiles during the consumption of mutton shashliks was measured using the exhaled breath test and the results showed that adding an appropriate amount of fat (<50%) helps to enrich the volatile compound components in the mouth. However, shashliks with higher fat–lean ratios (>2:2) shorten the mastication duration and weaken the breakdown of bolus particles in the consumption process, which is not conducive to the release potential of volatile substances. Therefore, setting the fat to lean ratio to 2:2 is the best choice for making mutton shashliks, as it (F2L2) can provide rich flavor substances for mutton shashliks before and during consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Microbial Analysis II)
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