Advances in Toxicity Induction and Safety Evaluation of Mycotoxins in Food

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3452

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estelles, s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: mycotoxins; food toxins; in vitro systems; molecular mechanisms; food safety

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estelles, s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Interests: mechanistic toxicology of natural contaminants and chemical substances by applying in vitro methods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few decades, the high prevalence of mycotoxin-contaminated food has led to a focus on the study of these toxic natural contaminants. Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites known to induce adverse health effects in humans and animals following consumption of contaminated foodstuffs. To prevent and contain the hazard associated with their exposure, regulatory limits and guidance values have been set in several countries for many mycotoxins. However, given the increasing need to establish a better risk assessment for mycotoxins, scientific and technological advances for the evaluation of their toxicity are mandatory. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive overview on mycotoxin-induced toxic effects, as well as the related mechanisms of action. Original research articles or reviews on the use of innovative approaches are welcome. We trust that a move to more advanced toxicological studies will provide deeper insights into mycotoxin toxicity and represent an attractive strategy for a more reliable risk assessment.

Dr. Veronica Zingales
Prof. Dr. María José Ruiz Leal
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • in vitro toxicity
  • mechanisms of action
  • risk assessment
  • advanced methods

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 6502 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Spheroids (3D) and Monolayer Cultures (2D) for the In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity Induced by the Mycotoxins Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Patulin
by Veronica Zingales, Maria Rosaria Esposito, Martina Quagliata, Elisa Cimetta and María-José Ruiz
Foods 2024, 13(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13040564 - 13 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi associated with a variety of acute and chronic foodborne diseases. Current toxicology studies mainly rely on monolayer cell cultures and animal models, which are undeniably affected by several limitations. To bridge the gap between the [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi associated with a variety of acute and chronic foodborne diseases. Current toxicology studies mainly rely on monolayer cell cultures and animal models, which are undeniably affected by several limitations. To bridge the gap between the current in vitro toxicology approach and the in vivo predictability of the data, we here investigated the cytotoxic effects induced by the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin (STE), ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin (PAT) on different 2D and 3D cell cultures. We focused on human tumours (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and epithelial breast cancer MDA-MB-213 cells) and healthy cells (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, BM-MSC, and umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVECs). The cytotoxicity of STE, OTA, and PAT was determined after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure using an ATP assay in both culture models. Three-dimensional spheroids’ morphology was also analysed using the MATLAB-based open source software AnaSP 1.4 version. Our results highlight how each cell line and different culture models showed specific sensitivities, reinforcing the importance of using more complex models for toxicology studies and a multiple cell line approach for an improved and more comprehensive risk assessment. Full article
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16 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Co-Occurrence of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone and Ochratoxin A in Feed and Feed Materials in Central Italy from 2018 to 2022
by Stefano Sdogati, Tommaso Pacini, Rita Bibi, Angela Caporali, Emanuela Verdini, Serenella Orsini, Roberta Ortenzi and Ivan Pecorelli
Foods 2024, 13(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020313 - 18 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Mycotoxin contamination of feed and feed materials represent a serious health hazard. This study details the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 826 feed and 617 feed material samples, collected in two Italian Regions [...] Read more.
Mycotoxin contamination of feed and feed materials represent a serious health hazard. This study details the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 826 feed and 617 feed material samples, collected in two Italian Regions (Umbria and Marche) from 2018 to 2022 analyzed using a UPLC-FLD platform. The developed method was validated and accredited (ISO/IEC 17025) with satisfactory accuracy and precision data obtained in repeatability and intralaboratory reproducibility conditions. Feed had a higher incidence of contaminated samples (26%) with respect to feed materials (6%). AFB1 was found up to 0.1045 mg/kg in cattle feeds and 0.1234 mg/kg in maize; ZEN was detected up to 6.420 mg/kg in sheep feed while OTA was rarely reported and in lower concentrations (up to 0.085 mg/kg). Co-contamination of at least two mycotoxins was reported in 0.8% of the analyzed samples. The incidence of above maximum content/guidance level samples was 2% for feed and feed materials while almost 3-fold-higher for maize (5.8%) suggesting how mycotoxin contamination can affect some matrices more than others. Obtained data can be useful to improve official monitoring plans and therefore further raise awareness of this issue between agriculture stakeholders, healthcare entities and non-professionals. Full article
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12 pages, 1107 KiB  
Article
Migration Degree of Selected Mycotoxins in the Distillation Process and Their Determination in Distilled Spirits from Pilot-Scale Continuous Distillation
by Jung-Ah Shin and Ki-Teak Lee
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234189 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Mycotoxins (ochratoxin A (20 ppb), aflatoxin B1 (40 ppb), deoxynivalenol (4 ppm), and zearalenone (800 ppb)) were intentionally added to rice bran raw materials. After fermentation, their contents were determined in the distillate and distillery stillage obtained using single-stage and continuous pilot plant-scale [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins (ochratoxin A (20 ppb), aflatoxin B1 (40 ppb), deoxynivalenol (4 ppm), and zearalenone (800 ppb)) were intentionally added to rice bran raw materials. After fermentation, their contents were determined in the distillate and distillery stillage obtained using single-stage and continuous pilot plant-scale columns. After single-stage distillation, aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone were not detected in the distillate, indicating that even if a certain amount (four times the maximum residue limit (MRL)) was present in the raw material, it would not remain in the distillate after fermentation and distillation. Most mycotoxins remained in the distillery stillage, and their residual rates ranged from 54.0–96.2%. For ochratoxin A, 0.19 ppb was found in the distillate and this migration occurred in three consecutive distillations (0.11–0.22 ppb). Ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 were not detected in the distillate (alcohol content 93.9% and 95.4%, respectively) obtained from the contaminated fermented liquid (approximately three times the MRL based on the raw material) using the pilot-plant scale continuous distillation column. Therefore, the migration of mycotoxins is difficult when the distilled spirit is produced using a continuous distillation column, even if the raw material is contaminated with certain amounts of the investigated mycotoxins. Full article
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