Microbiological Studies on Wine/Baijiu Fermentation

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 1517

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: wine/Baijiu fermentation; functional microbes; lactic acid bacteria; yeasts; microbiota; flavor substances

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microbiological studies on wine or Baijiu fermentation delve into the intricate microbial processes that contribute to the flavors and characteristics of these alcoholic beverages. In the case of wine, yeast, primarily Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays a pivotal role in converting sugars into alcohol. Baijiu, a traditional Chinese spirit, undergoes fermentation with a complex microbial consortium involving molds, bacteria, and yeasts; these functional microbes interact and metabolize, contributing to Baijiu's sensory and flavor profile. This Special Issue focuses on investigating the dynamics and succession of microbiota during fermentation, the core functional microbes involved in fermentation, their metabolic pathways, and their impact on the final product's aroma, taste, flavor, and quality. Understanding the microbiology of fermentation is crucial for optimizing production processes, ensuring product consistency, and exploring avenues for flavor enhancement. The included studies shed light on the science behind these popular beverages and offer insights into potential innovations in fermentation techniques, contributing to the rich tapestry of global brewing industries.

Dr. Shumiao Zhao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wine fermentation
  • baijiu fermentation
  • core functional microbes
  • yeasts
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • caproate-producing microbes
  • microbial interaction and metabolism
  • sensory profiles
  • flavor profiles

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Microbial Diversity Associated with the Cabernet Sauvignon Carposphere (Fruit Surface) from Eight Vineyards in Henan Province, China
by Junjie Zhang, Cancan Zhu, Zeyang Zhao and Chonghuai Liu
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111626 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 241
Abstract
The microbial diversity on the carposphere (berry) surface of the grape cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eight different locations/vineyards of Henan Province was determined by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal 18S rRNA gene. The structure of bacterial and [...] Read more.
The microbial diversity on the carposphere (berry) surface of the grape cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eight different locations/vineyards of Henan Province was determined by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal 18S rRNA gene. The structure of bacterial and fungal communities varied according to the sampling sites, but with some common phyla. Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant/common phyla for bacteria and fungi, respectively. A total of 27 and 20 bacterial and fungal families, respectively, and 39 and 20 bacterial and fungal genera, respectively, with statistically significant differences, were found among different sampling sites. The difference for metabolic pathways of bacteria among the sampling sites existed. In addition, various abundances of enzymes from different sites might indicate that different function patterns exist in microbiota from different sites. The results revealed that locations of grape vineyards might play a significant role in shaping the microbiome, as well as the fact that vineyards can be distinguished based on the abundance of several key bacterial and fungal taxa. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of the similarities and differences in microbial community and their metabolic function on Cabernet Sauvignon grape surfaces from different geographic locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Studies on Wine/Baijiu Fermentation)
18 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Characterizing the Contribution of Functional Microbiota Cultures in Pit Mud to the Metabolite Profiles of Fermented Grains
by Yingdong Wan, Jun Huang, Qiuxiang Tang, Suyi Zhang, Hui Qin, Yi Dong, Xiaojun Wang, Chuanfeng Qiu, Mengyang Huang, Zhu Zhang, Yi Zhang and Rongqing Zhou
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111597 - 21 May 2024
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Abstract
Elevating the flavor profile of strong flavors Baijiu has always been a focal point in the industry, and pit mud (PM) serves as a crucial flavor contributor in the fermentation process of the fermented grains (FG). This study investigated the influence of wheat [...] Read more.
Elevating the flavor profile of strong flavors Baijiu has always been a focal point in the industry, and pit mud (PM) serves as a crucial flavor contributor in the fermentation process of the fermented grains (FG). This study investigated the influence of wheat flour and bran (MC and FC) as PM culture enrichment media on the microbiota and metabolites of FG, aiming to inform strategies for improving strong-flavor Baijiu flavor. Results showed that adding PM cultures to FG significantly altered its properties: FC enhanced starch degradation to 51.46% and elevated reducing sugar content to 1.60%, while MC increased acidity to 2.11 mmol/10 g. PM cultures also elevated FG’s ester content, with increases of 0.36 times for MC-FG60d and 1.48 times for FC-FG60d compared to controls, and ethyl hexanoate rising by 0.91 times and 1.39 times, respectively. Microbial analysis revealed that Lactobacillus constituted over 95% of the Abundant bacteria community, with Kroppenstedtia or Bacillus being predominant among Rare bacteria. Abundant fungi included Rasamsonia, Pichia, and Thermomyces, while Rare fungi consisted of Rhizopus and Malassezia. Metagenomic analysis revealed bacterial dominance, primarily consisting of Lactobacillus and Acetilactobacillus (98.80–99.40%), with metabolic function predictions highlighting genes related to metabolism, especially in MC-FG60d. Predictions from PICRUSt2 suggested control over starch, cellulose degradation, and the TCA cycle by fungal subgroups, while Abundant fungi and bacteria regulated ethanol and lactic acid production. This study highlights the importance of PM cultures in the fermentation process of FG, which is significant for brewing high-quality, strong-flavor Baijiu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Studies on Wine/Baijiu Fermentation)
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15 pages, 5127 KiB  
Article
Temporal Profile of the Microbial Community and Volatile Compounds in the Third-Round Fermentation of Sauce-Flavor baijiu in the Beijing Region
by Weiwei Li, Hui Zhang, Runnan Wang, Chengnan Zhang and Xiuting Li
Foods 2024, 13(5), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050670 - 22 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Sauce-flavor baijiu produced in the Beijing and Guizhou regions has regional characteristic flavors, but the differences in flavor compounds and reasons for their formation remain unclear. The sauce-flavor baijiu brewing process involves several rounds of fermentation. In this study, we investigated the temporal [...] Read more.
Sauce-flavor baijiu produced in the Beijing and Guizhou regions has regional characteristic flavors, but the differences in flavor compounds and reasons for their formation remain unclear. The sauce-flavor baijiu brewing process involves several rounds of fermentation. In this study, we investigated the temporal distribution of microbial communities and flavor substances during the third round of sauce-flavor baijiu fermentation in the Beijing region, and we then compared and analyzed the differences of flavor substances and microorganisms in the fermented grains of sauce-flavor baijiu in the Beijing and Guizhou regions. It was found that 10 bacterial genera and 10 fungal genera were dominant in the fermented grains. The acidity of the fermented grains had a significant driving effect on the microbial community succession. A total of 81 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the fermented grains, of which esters and alcohols were relatively abundant. The differences in 30 microbial community compositions and their resulting differences in terms of the fermentation parameters of fermented grains are responsible for the differences in the profiles of flavor compounds between sauce-flavor baijiu produced in the Beijing and Guizhou regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Studies on Wine/Baijiu Fermentation)
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