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Adsorption Desalination and Cooling Systems: Advances in Design, Modeling and Performance

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "J: Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 31976

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Guest Editor
Department of Advanced Computational Methods, Faculty of Science and Technology Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa 13/15 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: energy engineering; energy conversion; adsorption cooling and desalination systems; combustion and co-combustion; chemical-looping combustion; NOx; SO2; fluidization; circulating fluidized bed technology; modelling; simulation; artificial intelligence; machine learning; fuzzy logic; artificial neural networks; genetic algorithms
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Guest Editor
The Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: metrology; mining; informatics; decision support; fuzzy logic

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; heat and mass transfer; computational domain discretization; computational methods; adsorption; heat pumps; heat storage systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in energy efficiency, reducing energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions and the use of waste, renewable and recycled heat from low-temperature sources are significant challenges today and are set into the idea of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH). On the other hand, currently, about one billion people around the world are suffering from water scarcity, and another three billion are approaching this situation. Only 2.5% of the total is freshwater, of which around 70% is not available, and only 0.4% constitutes the most valuable part of freshwater. Adsorption cooling technology is one of the most effective ways of cooling and potable water production from renewable and waste heat of the near ambient temperature, including sewage water, solar heat, and underground resources. This Special Issue aims to bring together research on advances in design, modeling, and performance of adsorption desalination and cooling systems. Original research articles, as well as review articles, are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Jaroslaw Krzywanski
Dr. Marcin Sosnowski
Prof. Dr. Norbert Skoczylas
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • desalination
  • cooling
  • adsorption systems
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • machine learning
  • artificial intelligence
  • optimization
  • energy systems
  • renewable energy
  • energy policy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

6 pages, 1195 KiB  
Editorial
Adsorption Desalination and Cooling Systems: Advances in Design, Modeling and Performance
by Marcin Sosnowski, Jaroslaw Krzywanski and Norbert Skoczylas
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114036 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
The increase in energy efficiency, reducing energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and the use of waste, renewable and recycled heat from low-temperature sources are significant challenges today and are key parts of the idea of the 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) [...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 3841 KiB  
Article
Possibility of Advanced Modified-Silica-Based Porous Materials Utilisation in Water Adsorption Processes—A Comparative Study
by Karol Sztekler, Agata Mlonka-Mędrala, Nezar H. Khdary, Wojciech Kalawa, Wojciech Nowak and Łukasz Mika
Energies 2022, 15(1), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010368 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Due to a high risk of power outages, a heat-driven adsorption chillers are gaining the attention. To increase the efficiency of the chiller, new adsorbents must be produced and examined. In this study, four newly developed silica–based porous materials were tested and compared [...] Read more.
Due to a high risk of power outages, a heat-driven adsorption chillers are gaining the attention. To increase the efficiency of the chiller, new adsorbents must be produced and examined. In this study, four newly developed silica–based porous materials were tested and compared with silica gel, an adsorber commonly paired with water. Extended sorption tests using mercury intrusion porosimetry, gas adsorption, and dynamic vapor sorption were performed. The morphology of the samples was determined using a scanning electron microscope. The thermal properties were defined using simultaneous thermal analysis and a laser flash method. Metal organic silica (MOS) nanocomposites analysed in this study had thermal properties similar to those of commonly used silica gel. MOS samples have a thermal diffusivity coefficient in the range of 0.17–0.25 mm2/s, whereas silica gel of about 0.2 mm2/s. The highest water adsorption capacity was measured for AFSMo-Cu and equal to 33–35%. For narrow porous silica gel mass uptake was equal about 25%. In the case of water adsorption, it was observed that the pore size of the sorbent is essential, and adsorbents with pore sizes higher than 5 nm, are most recommended in working pairs with water. Full article
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19 pages, 6136 KiB  
Article
CFD Analysis of Elements of an Adsorption Chiller with Desalination Function
by Karol Sztekler, Tomasz Siwek, Wojciech Kalawa, Lukasz Lis, Lukasz Mika, Ewelina Radomska and Wojciech Nowak
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7804; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227804 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
This paper presents the results of numerical tests on the elements of an adsorption chiller that comprises a sorption chamber with a bed, a condenser, and an evaporator. The simulation is based on the data and geometry of a prototype refrigeration appliance. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of numerical tests on the elements of an adsorption chiller that comprises a sorption chamber with a bed, a condenser, and an evaporator. The simulation is based on the data and geometry of a prototype refrigeration appliance. The simulation of this problem is unique and has not yet been performed, and so far, no simulation of the phenomena occurring in the systems on a real scale has been carried out. The presented results are part of the research covering the entire spectrum of designing an adsorption chiller. The full process of numerical modeling of thermal and flow phenomena taking place in the abovementioned components is presented. The computational mesh sensitivity analysis combined in the k-ε turbulence model was performed. To verify and validate the numerical results obtained, they were compared with the results of tests carried out on a laboratory stand at the AGH Center of Energy. The results of numerical calculations are in good agreement with the results of the experimental tests. The maximum deviation between the pressure obtained experimentally and by simulations is 1.8%, while for temperatures this deviation is no more than 0.5%. The results allow the identification of problems and their sources, which allows for future structural modifications to optimize the operation of the device. Full article
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27 pages, 27637 KiB  
Article
Effect of Metal Additives in the Bed on the Performance Parameters of an Adsorption Chiller with Desalination Function
by Karol Sztekler, Wojciech Kalawa, Łukasz Mika and Marcin Sowa
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7226; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217226 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Adsorption chillers with desalination functionality, being devices characterised by very low electricity consumption, provide an alternative to conventional sources of cooling and water. The option of desalinating water means that the use of a single device enables obtaining two useful products. Adsorption chillers [...] Read more.
Adsorption chillers with desalination functionality, being devices characterised by very low electricity consumption, provide an alternative to conventional sources of cooling and water. The option of desalinating water means that the use of a single device enables obtaining two useful products. Adsorption chillers are not widely used at present. due to their low performance characteristics; these are, however, constantly being improved. This paper presents a verification of the possibility of increasing the cooling coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP) of a laboratory adsorption chiller by optimising the length of cycle times and using a copper additive to silica gel with a mass fraction of 15% to increase heat transport in the bed. The choice of copper among other considered additives was determined by the conclusions from the research on the sorption kinetics of various mixtures, price and availability, and a high thermal conductivity. The device was operated in a two-bed mode aimed at producing cooling. The adsorbate was distilled water. The results were compared with those obtained under similar conditions when the beds were only filled with silica gel. As a result of the testing, it was found that the use of the copper additive with the sorbent increased both the COP and SCP. The tests were performed for different cycle times, of 100, 200, 300 and 600 s. With increasing cycle time COP also increased. In contrast, the specific cooling power increased only up to a certain point, whereafter its value decreased. Full article
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16 pages, 4004 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Using Steam to Preheat the Beds of an Adsorption Chiller with Desalination Function
by Karol Sztekler, Wojciech Kalawa, Lukasz Mika, Lukasz Lis, Ewelina Radomska and Wojciech Nowak
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6454; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206454 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Adsorption chillers are a promising alternative to traditional compressor-based devices. Adsorption chillers can be supplied with low- or medium-temperature waste heat or heat from renewable energy sources. In addition, they can be used for water desalination purposes. Thus, the adsorption chillers are unique [...] Read more.
Adsorption chillers are a promising alternative to traditional compressor-based devices. Adsorption chillers can be supplied with low- or medium-temperature waste heat or heat from renewable energy sources. In addition, they can be used for water desalination purposes. Thus, the adsorption chillers are unique devices that meet essential problems of the modern world: a need to limit the negative impact of humankind on the natural environment and growing problems with access to drinking water. However, adsorption chillers also have disadvantages, including ineffective operation and large size. Therefore, in this paper, the influence of steam utilization on the operation of an adsorption chiller with water desalination function was investigated experimentally, which has not been done before. The research was carried out on the adsorption chiller, working on a silica gel–water pair, installed in the AGH UST Center of Energy. The chiller was modified to preheat the sorbent with the use of steam. The results show that the use of steam instead of water for preheating the bed leads to higher temperatures in the heat exchanger and the bed. As a result, heat transfer from the heating medium to the bed is more intense, and a significant shortening of the desorption process is observed. In the case of using steam for preheating, the desorption time was about 30 s, while for water, it was 300 s. Thanks to this solution, it is possible to reduce the size of the device and increase its efficiency. The proposed solution opens a new course of research on adsorption chillers and broadens the horizon of their applications, as steam is a by-product of many industrial processes. Full article
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26 pages, 5365 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Variable Mode Adsorption Chiller at Different Recooling Water Temperatures
by Ahmad A. Alsarayreh, Ayman Al-Maaitah, Menwer Attarakih and Hans-Jörg Bart
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3871; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133871 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Adsorption cooling can recover waste heat at low temperature levels, thereby saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An air-cooled adsorption cooling system reduces water consumption and the technical problems associated with wet-cooling systems; however, it is difficult to maintain a constant recooling [...] Read more.
Adsorption cooling can recover waste heat at low temperature levels, thereby saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An air-cooled adsorption cooling system reduces water consumption and the technical problems associated with wet-cooling systems; however, it is difficult to maintain a constant recooling water temperature using such a system. To overcome this limitation, a variable mode adsorption chiller concept was introduced and investigated in this study. A prototype adsorption chiller was designed and tested experimentally and numerically using the lumped model. Experimental and numerical results showed good agreement and a similar trend. The adsorbent pairs investigated in this chiller consisted of silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34)/water. The experimental isotherm data were fitted to the Dubinin–Astakhov (D–A), Freundlich, Hill, and Sun and Chakraborty (S–C) models. The fitted data exhibited satisfactory agreement with the experimental data except with the Freundlich model. In addition, the adsorption kinetics parameters were calculated using a linear driving force model that was fitted to the experimental data with high correlation coefficients. The results show that the kinetics of the adsorption parameters were dependent on the partial pressure ratio. Four cooling cycle modes were investigated: single stage mode and mass recovery modes with duration times of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the cooling cycle time (denoted as short, medium, and long mass recovery, respectively). The cycle time was optimized based on the maximum cooling capacity. The single stage, short mass recovery, and medium mass recovery modes were found to be the optimum modes at lower (<35 °C), medium (35–44 °C), and high (>44 °C) recooling temperatures. Notably, the recooling water temperature profile is very important for assessing and optimizing the suitable working mode. Full article
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15 pages, 4691 KiB  
Article
MIL-160 as an Adsorbent for Atmospheric Water Harvesting
by Marina Solovyeva, Irina Krivosheeva, Larisa Gordeeva and Yuri Aristov
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123586 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4170
Abstract
Nowadays, the rapidly growing population, climate change, and environment pollution put heavy pressure on fresh water resources. The atmosphere is the immense worldwide and available water source. The Adsorptive Water Harvesting from the Atmosphere (AWHA) method is considered a promising alternative to desalination [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the rapidly growing population, climate change, and environment pollution put heavy pressure on fresh water resources. The atmosphere is the immense worldwide and available water source. The Adsorptive Water Harvesting from the Atmosphere (AWHA) method is considered a promising alternative to desalination technologies for remote arid regions. The development of novel adsorbents with advanced water-adsorption properties is a prerequisite for practical realization of this method. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a novel class of porous crystalline solids that bring a great potential for AWHA due to their extremely high specific surface area, porosity, and tailored adsorption properties. This work addresses MIL-160 as a water adsorbent for AWHA. The water-adsorption equilibrium of MIL-160 was studied by volumetric method, the isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated, and finally, the potential of MIL-160 for AWHA was evaluated for climatic conditions of the deserts of Saudi Arabia, Mongolia, the Sahara, Atacama, and Mojave as reference arid regions. MIL-160 was shown to ensure a maximum specific water productivity of 0.31–0.33 gH2O/gads per cycle. High fractions of water extracted (0.90–0.98) and collected (0.48–0.97) could be achieved at a regeneration temperature of 80 °C with natural cooling of the condenser by ambient air. The specific energy consumption for water production varied from 3.5 to 6.8 kJ/g, which is acceptable if solar heat is used to drive the desorption. The AWHA method employing MIL-160 is a promising way to achieve a fresh water supply in remote arid areas. Full article
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20 pages, 9664 KiB  
Article
Optimisation of Operation of Adsorption Chiller with Desalination Function
by Karol Sztekler
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092668 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
The demand for electricity is growing rapidly along with economic development and increasing population. At present, its production is mainly based on non-renewable sources, which has negative impacts on the environment and contributes to global warming. A large proportion of the produced electricity [...] Read more.
The demand for electricity is growing rapidly along with economic development and increasing population. At present, its production is mainly based on non-renewable sources, which has negative impacts on the environment and contributes to global warming. A large proportion of the produced electricity is consumed by refrigeration equipment. Climate change and the progress of civilisation are additionally increasing the demand for cooling, with increasing electricity consumption as a consequence. One of the options for obtaining eco-friendly cooling is the use of adsorption chillers. These devices are powered by low-temperature heat and their operation only requires a small amount of electrical energy. The source of low-temperature heat can be, e.g., waste heat generated in many industrial processes. Its use allows one to increase energy efficiency and achieve additional financial benefits. However, adsorption chillers are characterised by low coefficients of performance. This paper presents possibilities to improve their performance. It also presents the results of tests carried out on a three-bed adsorption chiller with desalination function. The aim of the investigation was to determine the effect of the cycle time on the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP). The working pair was silica gel and water. The results confirmed the effect of the duration of adsorption and desorption on the COP and SCP of the adsorption chiller. Increasing the duration of the cycle led to an increase in the COP. Full article
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15 pages, 27351 KiB  
Article
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Adsorption Chiller at Various Recooling-Water and Dead-State Temperatures
by Ahmad A. Alsarayreh, Ayman Al-Maaitah, Menwer Attarakih and Hans-Jörg Bart
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082172 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
We conducted energy and exergy analyses of an adsorption chiller to investigate the effect of recooling-water temperatures on the cooling capacity and Coefficient of Performance (COP) with variable cycle modes. We investigated both the effect of the recooling-water temperature and the dead state [...] Read more.
We conducted energy and exergy analyses of an adsorption chiller to investigate the effect of recooling-water temperatures on the cooling capacity and Coefficient of Performance (COP) with variable cycle modes. We investigated both the effect of the recooling-water temperature and the dead state temperature on the exergy destruction in the chiller components. Our results show that there is an optimum reheat cycle mode for each recooling-water temperature range. For the basic single stage cycle, the exergy destruction is mainly accrued in the desorber (49%), followed by the adsorber (27%), evaporator (13%), condenser (9%), and expansion valve (2%). The exergy destruction for the preheating process is approximately 35% of the total exergy destruction in the desorber. By contrast, the precooling process is almost 58% of the total exergy destruction in the adsorber. The exergy destruction decreases when increasing the recooling-water and the dead state temperatures, while the exergy efficiency increases. Nonetheless, the exergy efficiency decreases with an increase in the recooling-water temperature at fixed dead state temperatures. The effect of the mass recovery time in the reheat cycle on exergy destruction was also investigated, and the results show that the exergy destruction increases when the mass recovery time increases. The exergy destruction in the adsorbent beds was the most sensitive to the increase in mass recovery time. Full article
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13 pages, 25844 KiB  
Article
Effect of Additives on the Sorption Kinetics of a Silica Gel Bed in Adsorption Chiller
by Karol Sztekler, Wojciech Kalawa, Łukasz Mika, Agata Mlonka-Medrala, Marcin Sowa and Wojciech Nowak
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041083 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3258
Abstract
The article presents experimental results of the metal-based and carbon nanotube additives influence on sorption kinetics of a silica-gel-based adsorption bed in an adsorption chiller. The purpose of the doping is to improve the efficiency of sorption processes within the bed by use [...] Read more.
The article presents experimental results of the metal-based and carbon nanotube additives influence on sorption kinetics of a silica-gel-based adsorption bed in an adsorption chiller. The purpose of the doping is to improve the efficiency of sorption processes within the bed by use of metallic and non-metallic additives characterized by higher thermal diffusivity than basic adsorption material. The higher the thermal conductivity of the bed, the faster the sorption processes take place, which directly translates into greater efficiency of the refrigerator. In this study, sorption kinetics of pure silica gel sorbent doped with a given amount of aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) powders and carbon nanotubes (CNT) were analyzed. The tests were performed on DVS Dynamic Gravimetric Vapor Sorption System apparatus used for dynamic vapor sorption measurements. A decrease in the amount of adsorbed water was observed with an increase in the mass share of the additives in the performed studies. Experimental results show that, CNTs seems to be the most promising additive as the sorption process time was reduced with the smallest decrease in water uptake. Any significant reduction of adsorption time was noted in case of the Al addition. Whereas, in case of Cu doping, delamination of the mixture was observed. Full article
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16 pages, 4115 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Sorption Processes Using the Deep Learning Methods (Long Short-Term Memory)
by Dorian Skrobek, Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Marcin Sosnowski, Anna Kulakowska, Anna Zylka, Karolina Grabowska, Katarzyna Ciesielska and Wojciech Nowak
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6601; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246601 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 2720
Abstract
The paper introduces the artificial intelligence (AI) approach for modeling fluidized adsorption beds. The idea of fluidized bed application allows a significantly increased heat transfer coefficient between adsorption bed and the surface of a heat exchanger, improving the performance of adsorption cooling and [...] Read more.
The paper introduces the artificial intelligence (AI) approach for modeling fluidized adsorption beds. The idea of fluidized bed application allows a significantly increased heat transfer coefficient between adsorption bed and the surface of a heat exchanger, improving the performance of adsorption cooling and desalination systems. The Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network algorithm was used, classified as a deep learning method, to predict the vapor mass quantity in the adsorption bed. The research used an LSTM network with two hidden layers. The network used in the study is composed of seven inputs (absolute pressures in the adsorption chamber and evaporator, the temperatures in adsorption chamber and evaporator, relative pressure, the temperatures in the center of adsorption bed and 25 mm from the bed center, the kind of the solids mixture, the percentage value of the addition) and one output (mass of the sorption bed). The paper presents numerical research concerning mass prediction with the algorithm mentioned above for three sorbents in fixed ad fluidized beds. The results obtained by the developed algorithm of the LSTM network and the experimental tests are in good agreement of the matching the results above 0.95. Full article
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13 pages, 3028 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Three-Bed Adsorption Chiller with Desalination Function
by Karol Sztekler, Wojciech Kalawa, Wojciech Nowak, Lukasz Mika, Slawomir Gradziel, Jaroslaw Krzywanski and Ewelina Radomska
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5827; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215827 - 8 Nov 2020
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 2501
Abstract
Energy efficiency is one of the most important topics nowadays. It is strictly related to energy demand, energy policy, environmental pollution, and economic issues. Energy efficiency can be increased and operating costs reduced by using waste heat from other processes. One of the [...] Read more.
Energy efficiency is one of the most important topics nowadays. It is strictly related to energy demand, energy policy, environmental pollution, and economic issues. Energy efficiency can be increased and operating costs reduced by using waste heat from other processes. One of the possibilities is to use sorption chillers to produce chilled water and desalinated water. Low-temperature waste heat is not easy to utilize because of the low energy potential. Using adsorption chillers in low-temperature conditions allows utilizing waste heat and producing useful products in many regions of the world. The paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out on a three-bed adsorption chiller with desalination function, using silica gel and water as a working pair. The laboratory test stand included one evaporator, one condenser, and three separate tanks for water, desalinated water, and brine, respectively. The test stands scheme and description were presented. All results were obtained during several test hours with stable temperature conditions in the range of 57–85 °C for the heating water. It is found that the Coefficient of Performance (COP) increased from 0.20 to 0.58 when the heating water temperature increased from 57 to 85 °C. A similar finding is reported for Specific Cooling Power (SCP), which increased from 27 to 160 W/kg as the heating water temperature increased from 57 to 85 °C. It can be concluded that the heating water temperature strongly impacts the performance of the adsorption chiller. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

41 pages, 1306 KiB  
Review
Adsorbents, Working Pairs and Coated Beds for Natural Refrigerants in Adsorption Chillers—State of the Art
by Piotr Boruta, Tomasz Bujok, Łukasz Mika and Karol Sztekler
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4707; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154707 - 3 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2977
Abstract
Adsorption refrigeration systems are promising, sustainable solutions for many cooling applications. The operating range and the performance of an adsorption cooling cycle are strongly dependent on the properties of adsorbents, adsorbates, and bed coatings. Therefore, further research and analysis may lead to improved [...] Read more.
Adsorption refrigeration systems are promising, sustainable solutions for many cooling applications. The operating range and the performance of an adsorption cooling cycle are strongly dependent on the properties of adsorbents, adsorbates, and bed coatings. Therefore, further research and analysis may lead to improved performance of adsorption coolers. In this paper, studies on working pairs using natural refrigerants and the properties of adsorbent coatings were reviewed. The selected working pairs were then thermodynamically characterised and ranked in terms of refrigerant evaporation temperature values. This was found to be a key parameter affecting the applicability of a given adsorbent/adsorbate pair and the value of SCP (Specific Cooling Power), COP (Coefficient of Performance) parameters, which are now commonly used comparison criteria of adsorption chillers. In the analysis of the coating studies, the focus was on the effect of individual parameters on the performance of the cooling system and the effect of using coated beds compared to packed beds. It was found that a fundamental problem in comparing the performance of different cooling systems is the use of different operating conditions during the tests. Therefore, the analysis compares the performance of the systems along with the most important thermodynamic cycle parameters for the latest studies. Full article
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