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Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B2: Clean Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 25136

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: combustion; adsorption chillers; desalination; cooling production; CFB boilers; oxy-fuel combustion; CLC; biomass; modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: modeling; adsorption chillers; CFB boilers; oxy-fuel combustion; CLC; CaL; biomass; machine learning; artificial neural networks; fuzzy logic; genetic algorithms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: adsorption chillers; energy systems; combustion; modeling; desalination; cooling production; CFB boilers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in energy demand, higher levels of atmospheric pollutants, and global warming are among the most significant human challenges we are facing today. Since the world community currently depends mainly on nonrenewable fossil fuels which are unfriendly to the environment, the development of novel techniques for clean combustion is urgent.

Growing efficiency requirements and limitation of pollutant emissions are factors that lead to the emergence of advanced energy technologies. Some of them are oxyfuel combustion, chemical-looping combustion (CLC), and moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) flameless combustion.

This Special Issue aims to bring together research on advances in design, modeling, and performance of novel combustion techniques for clean energy. Original research articles, as well as review articles, are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Wojciech Nowak
Dr. Jaroslaw Krzywanski
Dr. Karol Sztekler
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • combustion
  • energy policy
  • efficiency
  • emissions
  • pollutants
  • modeling

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 168 KiB  
Editorial
Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy
by Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Wojciech Nowak and Karol Sztekler
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4649; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134649 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
This Special Issue contains successful submissions as an answer to the invitation to bring together research on advances in design, modeling, and performance of novel combustion techniques for clean energy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

11 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of Temperature Influence on Waste Tire Pyrolysis
by Zoran Čepić, Višnja Mihajlović, Slavko Đurić, Milan Milotić, Milena Stošić, Borivoj Stepanov and Milana Ilić Mićunović
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5403; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175403 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Pyrolysis is an optimal thermochemical process for obtaining valuable products (char, oil, and gas) from waste tires. The preliminary research was done on the three groups of samples acquired by cutting the same waste tire of a passenger vehicle into cylindrical granules with [...] Read more.
Pyrolysis is an optimal thermochemical process for obtaining valuable products (char, oil, and gas) from waste tires. The preliminary research was done on the three groups of samples acquired by cutting the same waste tire of a passenger vehicle into cylindrical granules with a base diameter of 3, 7, and 11 mm. Each batch weighed 10 g. The heating rate was 14 °C/min, and the final pyrolysis temperature was 750 °C, with 90 s residence time. After the pyrolysis product yields were determined for all of the three sample groups, further research was performed only on 3 mm granules, with the same heating rate, but with altered final pyrolytic temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, and 750 °C). The results of this study show that thermochemical decomposition of the waste tire sample takes place in the temperature range of 200–500 °C, with three distinct phases of degradation. The highest yield of the pyrolytic oil was achieved at a temperature of 500 °C, but further heating of volatile matters reduced the oil yield, and simultaneously increased the yield of gas, due to the existence of secondary cracking reactions. The analysis of pyrolytic oil and char showed that these products can be used as fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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13 pages, 3785 KiB  
Article
Co-Combustion Studies of Low-Rank Coal and Refuse-Derived Fuel: Performance and Reaction Kinetics
by Mudassar Azam, Asma Ashraf, Saman Setoodeh Jahromy, Sajjad Miran, Nadeem Raza, Florian Wesenauer, Christian Jordan, Michael Harasek and Franz Winter
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3796; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133796 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
In connection to present energy demand and waste management crisis in Pakistan, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is gaining importance as a potential co-fuel for existing coal fired power plants. This research focuses on the co-combustion of low-quality local coal with RDF as a mean [...] Read more.
In connection to present energy demand and waste management crisis in Pakistan, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is gaining importance as a potential co-fuel for existing coal fired power plants. This research focuses on the co-combustion of low-quality local coal with RDF as a mean to reduce environmental issues in terms of waste management strategy. The combustion characteristics and kinetics of coal, RDF, and their blends were experimentally investigated in a micro-thermal gravimetric analyzer at four heating rates of 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C/min to ramp the temperature from 25 °C to 1000 °C. The mass percentages of RDF in the coal blends were 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. The results show that as the RDF in blends increases, the reactivity of the blends increases, resulting in lower ignition temperatures and a shift in peak and burnout temperatures to a lower temperature zone. This indicates that there was certain interaction during the combustion process of coal and RDF. The activation energies of the samples were calculated using kinetic analysis based on Kissinger–Akahira–Sunnose (KAS) and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO), isoconversional methods. Both of the methods have produced closer results with average activation energy between 95–121 kJ/mol. With a 30% refuse-derived fuel proportion, the average activation energy of blends hit a minimum value of 95 kJ/mol by KAS method and 103 kJ/mol by FWO method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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10 pages, 6023 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on the Effects of the Geometry of the Pilot Burner on Main Flame
by Cheol Woo Lee, In Su Kim and Jung Goo Hong
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041115 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Various kinds of pilot burners were experimentally investigated to examine the effects of their geometry and their location relative to the main burner of a real size combustor. In addition, a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios were investigated to analyze the feasibility [...] Read more.
Various kinds of pilot burners were experimentally investigated to examine the effects of their geometry and their location relative to the main burner of a real size combustor. In addition, a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios were investigated to analyze the feasibility of the novel pilot burner for the conventional burner application. From the results, it is shown that the novel pilot burner with multi air holes had a thin, straight, long and stable pilot flame, while the conventional pilot burner had a thick, lifted, short and unstable flame. It is also shown that the novel pilot burner with an upper air flow hole had a straight pilot flame which led to less thermal damage to the burner combustor. This study suggests that not only pilot burner flame shape but also the vertical location of the pilot burner from the main burner combustor has a significant effect on combustor durability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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11 pages, 1863 KiB  
Article
A Model for Predicting Arsenic Volatilization during Coal Combustion Based on the Ash Fusion Temperature and Coal Characteristic
by Bo Zhao, Geng Chen, Zijiang Xiong, Linbo Qin, Wangsheng Chen and Jun Han
Energies 2021, 14(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020334 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Arsenic emission from coal combustion power plants has attracted increasing attention due to its high toxicity. In this study, it was found that there was a close relationship between the ash fusion temperature (AFT) and arsenic distribution based on the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. [...] Read more.
Arsenic emission from coal combustion power plants has attracted increasing attention due to its high toxicity. In this study, it was found that there was a close relationship between the ash fusion temperature (AFT) and arsenic distribution based on the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. In addition to the AFT, coal characteristics and combustion temperature also considerably affected the distribution and morphology of arsenic during coal combustion. Thus, an arsenic volatilization model based on the AFT, coal type, and combustion temperature during coal combustion was developed. To test the accuracy of the model, blending coal combustion experiments were carried out. The experimental results and published data proved that the developed arsenic volatilization model can accurately predict arsenic emission during co-combustion, and the errors of the predicted value for bituminous and lignite were 2.3–9.8%, with the exception of JingLong (JL) coal when combusted at 1500 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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22 pages, 2069 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a 660 MWe Supercritical Power Plant Performance—A Case of Industry 4.0 in the Data-Driven Operational Management. Part 2. Power Generation
by Waqar Muhammad Ashraf, Ghulam Moeen Uddin, Ahmad Hassan Kamal, Muhammad Haider Khan, Awais Ahmad Khan, Hassan Afroze Ahmad, Fahad Ahmed, Noman Hafeez, Rana Muhammad Zawar Sami, Syed Muhammad Arafat, Sajawal Gul Niazi, Muhammad Waqas Rafique, Ahsan Amjad, Jawad Hussain, Hanan Jamil, Muhammad Shahbaz Kathia and Jaroslaw Krzywanski
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5619; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215619 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4340
Abstract
Modern data analytics techniques and computationally inexpensive software tools are fueling the commercial applications of data-driven decision making and process optimization strategies for complex industrial operations. In this paper, modern and reliable process modeling techniques, i.e., multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network [...] Read more.
Modern data analytics techniques and computationally inexpensive software tools are fueling the commercial applications of data-driven decision making and process optimization strategies for complex industrial operations. In this paper, modern and reliable process modeling techniques, i.e., multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), and least square support vector machine (LSSVM), are employed and comprehensively compared as reliable and robust process models for the generator power of a 660 MWe supercritical coal combustion power plant. Based on the external validation test conducted by the unseen operation data, LSSVM has outperformed the MLR and ANN models to predict the power plant’s generator power. Later, the LSSVM model is used for the failure mode recovery and a very successful operation control excellence tool. Moreover, by adjusting the thermo-electric operating parameters, the generator power on an average is increased by 1.74%, 1.80%, and 1.0 at 50% generation capacity, 75% generation capacity, and 100% generation capacity of the power plant, respectively. The process modeling based on process data and data-driven process optimization strategy building for improved process control is an actual realization of industry 4.0 in the industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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33 pages, 6774 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a 660 MWe Supercritical Power Plant Performance—A Case of Industry 4.0 in the Data-Driven Operational Management Part 1. Thermal Efficiency
by Waqar Muhammad Ashraf, Ghulam Moeen Uddin, Syed Muhammad Arafat, Sher Afghan, Ahmad Hassan Kamal, Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Haider Khan, Muhammad Waqas Rafique, Uwe Naumann, Sajawal Gul Niazi, Hanan Jamil, Ahsaan Jamil, Nasir Hayat, Ashfaq Ahmad, Shao Changkai, Liu Bin Xiang, Ijaz Ahmad Chaudhary and Jaroslaw Krzywanski
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5592; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215592 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 6086
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive step-wise methodology for implementing industry 4.0 in a functional coal power plant. The overall efficiency of a 660 MWe supercritical coal-fired plant using real operational data is considered in the study. Conventional and advanced AI-based techniques are [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive step-wise methodology for implementing industry 4.0 in a functional coal power plant. The overall efficiency of a 660 MWe supercritical coal-fired plant using real operational data is considered in the study. Conventional and advanced AI-based techniques are used to present comprehensive data visualization. Monte-Carlo experimentation on artificial neural network (ANN) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) process models and interval adjoint significance analysis (IASA) are performed to eliminate insignificant control variables. Effective and validated ANN and LSSVM process models are developed and comprehensively compared. The ANN process model proved to be significantly more effective; especially, in terms of the capacity to be deployed as a robust and reliable AI model for industrial data analysis and decision making. A detailed investigation of efficient power generation is presented under 50%, 75%, and 100% power plant unit load. Up to 7.20%, 6.85%, and 8.60% savings in heat input values are identified at 50%, 75%, and 100% unit load, respectively, without compromising the power plant’s overall thermal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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17 pages, 4128 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Chemical Looping Combustion of Hard Coal and Biomass Using Ilmenite as the Oxygen Carrier
by Anna Zylka, Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Tomasz Czakiert, Kamil Idziak, Marcin Sosnowski, Marcio L. de Souza-Santos, Karol Sztekler and Wojciech Nowak
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5394; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205394 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
This paper presents a 1.5D model of a fluidized bed chemical looping combustion (CLC) built with the use of a comprehensive simulator of fluidized and moving bed equipment (CeSFaMB) simulator. The model is capable of calculating the effect of gas velocity in the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a 1.5D model of a fluidized bed chemical looping combustion (CLC) built with the use of a comprehensive simulator of fluidized and moving bed equipment (CeSFaMB) simulator. The model is capable of calculating the effect of gas velocity in the fuel reactor on the hydrodynamics of the fluidized bed and the kinetics of the CLC process. Mass of solids in re actors, solid circulating rates, particle residence time, and the number of particle cycles in the air and fuel reactor are considered within the study. Moreover, the presented model calculates essential emissions such as CO2, SOX, NOX, and O2. The model was successfully validated on experimental tests that were carried out on the Fluidized-Bed Chemical-Looping-Combustion of Solid-Fuels unit located at the Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland. The model’s validation showed that the maximum relative errors between simulations and experiment results do not exceed 10%. The CeSFaMB model is an optimum compromise among simulation accuracy, computational resources, and processing time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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18 pages, 19883 KiB  
Article
Study of Visualization Experiment on the Influence of Injector Nozzle Diameter on Diesel Engine Spray Ignition and Combustion Characteristics
by Yuanzhi Tang, Diming Lou, Chengguan Wang, Pi-qiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu, Yunhua Zhang and Liang Fang
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5337; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205337 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
The elementary research of spray and combustion is of great significance to the development of compactness of modern diesel engines. In this paper, three injectors with different nozzle orifice diameters (0.23 mm, 0.27 mm and 0.31 mm) were used to study the diesel [...] Read more.
The elementary research of spray and combustion is of great significance to the development of compactness of modern diesel engines. In this paper, three injectors with different nozzle orifice diameters (0.23 mm, 0.27 mm and 0.31 mm) were used to study the diesel spray, ignition and flame-wall impingement visualization experiment. This paper studied the influence of different nozzle sizes on the trends of spray, ignition and flame diffusion under the flame-wall impinging combustion and used the flame luminosity to characterize the soot generation in combustion. By analyzing the quantitative data, such as spray penetration, ignition delay, flame area and flame luminosity systematically, it was shown that the smaller nozzle benefitted diesel combustion to some extent. The 0.23 mm nozzle injector in these experiments had the best fuel-air mixing effect under 800 K. The length of the spray liquid under the 0.23 mm nozzle condition was 19% and 23% shorter than that of 0.27 and 0.31 mm, respectively. Smaller orifice size of the nozzle can help to reach the gas ignition conditions more effectively. Without liquid fuel impingement, the simple flame-wall impingement will not change the trend of the nozzle influence on combustion. The total amount of accumulated soot according to the approximate luminosity spatial integral calculation in the combustion process was reduced by 37% and 43% under 0.27 mm and 0.23 mm nozzles, respectively, which is favorable for the clean combustion of diesel engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Combustion Techniques for Clean Energy)
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