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Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "I2: Energy and Combustion Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 14587

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Advanced Energy Technologies, Faculty of Infrastructure and Environment, Czestochowa University of Technology, Dabrowskiego 73, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: conventional power engineering; advanced energy technologies; fluidized bed technologies; oxy-fuel combustion; chemical looping combustion
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Guest Editor
Division of Advanced Computational Methods, Faculty of Science and Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej Avenue 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: modelling; fluidized bed (FB) systems; heat transfer; oxy-fuel combustion (OFC); chemical looping combustion (CLC); calcium looping (CaL); machine learning; artificial neural networks; fuzzy logic; genetic algorithms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current Special Issue of the Energies journal deals with a developing technology of chemical looping combustion (CLC), where solid oxygen carriers are employed to transport O2 between air and fuel, which eliminates the direct contact of the oxidant with the combusted fuel. As a result, the flue gas consists of a highly concentrated stream of carbon dioxide and removable water vapour, which is the key point of this technology.

To keep track of the topical achievements made in this field, the Special Issue entitled “Chemical Loping Combustion of Solid Fuels” was set up in the peer-reviewed open access journal Energies (IF: 2.702). This Special Issue covers original research and studies related to the title topic, including, but not limited to, oxygen carrier materials, CLC reactors and plants, new concepts, operational experiences and computer modelling, and techno-economic assessments.

Thereby, we invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue. We look forward to receiving your original research and studies.

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Czakiert
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jaroslaw Krzywanski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Development in oxygen carriers
  • Chemical looping reactors and chemical looping systems
  • New CLC concepts
  • Operational experiences
  • CLC modelling
  • Techno-economic assessments

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 5657 KiB  
Article
Modelling of SO2 and NOx Emissions from Coal and Biomass Combustion in Air-Firing, Oxyfuel, iG-CLC, and CLOU Conditions by Fuzzy Logic Approach
by Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Tomasz Czakiert, Anna Zylka, Wojciech Nowak, Marcin Sosnowski, Karolina Grabowska, Dorian Skrobek, Karol Sztekler, Anna Kulakowska, Waqar Muhammad Ashraf and Yunfei Gao
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8095; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218095 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most advanced technologies allowing for the reduction in CO2 emissions during the combustion of solid fuels. The modified method combines chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) and in situ gasification chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC). [...] Read more.
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most advanced technologies allowing for the reduction in CO2 emissions during the combustion of solid fuels. The modified method combines chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) and in situ gasification chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC). As a result, an innovative hybrid chemical looping combustion came into existence, making the above two technologies complementary. Since the complexity of the CLC is still not sufficiently recognized, the study of this process is of a practical significance. The paper describes the experiences in the modelling of complex geometry CLC equipment. The experimental facility consists of two reactors: an air reactor and a fuel reactor. The paper introduces the fuzzy logic (FL) method as an artificial intelligence (AI) approach for the prediction of SO2 and NOx (i.e., NO + NO2) emissions from coal and biomass combustion carried out in air-firing; oxyfuel; iG-CLC; and CLOU conditions. The developed model has been successfully validated on a 5 kWth research unit called the dual fluidized bed chemical looping combustion of solid fuels (DFB-CLC-SF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels)
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29 pages, 8016 KiB  
Article
Steel Converter Slag as an Oxygen Carrier—Interaction with Sulfur Dioxide
by Fredrik Hildor, Henrik Leion and Tobias Mattisson
Energies 2022, 15(16), 5922; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15165922 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Steel converter slag, also called Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag, has been considered as an oxygen carrier for biofuel chemical looping applications due to its high availability. In addition to its content of iron which contributes to its oxygen-carrying capacity, LD slag also contains a [...] Read more.
Steel converter slag, also called Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag, has been considered as an oxygen carrier for biofuel chemical looping applications due to its high availability. In addition to its content of iron which contributes to its oxygen-carrying capacity, LD slag also contains a significant amount of calcium. Calcium, however, is known to interact with sulfur, which may affect the usability of LD slag. To get a better understanding of the interaction between sulfur and LD slag, batch scale experiments have been performed using solid and gaseous fuel with or without sulfur dioxide, together with LD slag as an oxygen carrier. The reactivity and sulfur interaction were compared to the benchmark oxygen carrier ilmenite. Sulfur increases the gasification rate of biofuel char and the conversion of CO for both LD slag and ilmenite. However, no effect of sulfur could be seen on the conversion of the model tar species benzene. The increased gasification rate of char was suspected to originate from both surface-active sulfur and gaseous sulfur, increasing the reactivity and oxygen transfer of the oxygen carrier. Sulfur was partly absorbed into the LD slag particles with calcium, forming CaS and/or CaSO4. This, in turn, blocks the catalytic effect of CaO towards the water gas shift reaction. When the SO2 vapor pressure was decreased, the absorbed sulfur was released as SO2. This indicates that sulfur may be released in loop-seals or in the air reactor in a continuous process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels)
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25 pages, 8673 KiB  
Article
Investigations on the Effect of Pre-Treatment of Wheat Straw on Ash-Related Issues in Chemical Looping Gasification (CLG) in Comparison with Woody Biomass
by Florian Lebendig, Ibai Funcia, Rául Pérez-Vega and Michael Müller
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3422; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093422 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Biomass chemical looping gasification (BCLG) is a promising autothermic route for producing sustainable, N2-free, and carbon neutral syngas for producing liquid biofuels or high value hydrocarbons. However, different ash-related issues, such as high-temperature corrosion, fouling and slagging, bed agglomeration, or poisoning [...] Read more.
Biomass chemical looping gasification (BCLG) is a promising autothermic route for producing sustainable, N2-free, and carbon neutral syngas for producing liquid biofuels or high value hydrocarbons. However, different ash-related issues, such as high-temperature corrosion, fouling and slagging, bed agglomeration, or poisoning of the oxygen carrier might cause significant ecologic and economic challenges for reliable implementation of BCLG. In this work, lab-scale investigations under gasification-like conditions at 950 °C and thermodynamic modelling were combined for assessing the influence of composition, pre-treatment methods, such as torrefaction and water-leaching, and Ca-based additives on the release and fate of volatile inorganics, as well as on ash melting behavior. A deep characterization of both (non-)condensable gas species and ash composition behavior, joint with thermodynamic modelling has shown that different pre-treatment methods and/or Ca-additives can significantly counteract the above-mentioned problems. It can be concluded that torrefaction alone is not suitable to obtain the desired effects in terms of ash melting behavior or release of problematic volatile species. However, very promising results were achieved when torrefied or water-leached wheat straw was blended with 2 wt% CaCO3, since ash melting behavior was improved up to a similar level than woody biomass. Generally, both torrefaction and water-leaching reduced the amount of chlorine significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels)
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Review

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19 pages, 2615 KiB  
Review
Chemical Looping Combustion: A Brief Overview
by Tomasz Czakiert, Jaroslaw Krzywanski, Anna Zylka and Wojciech Nowak
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041563 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 8058
Abstract
The current development of chemical looping combustion (CLC) technology is presented in this paper. This technique of energy conversion enables burning of hydrocarbon fuels with dramatically reduced CO2 emission into the atmosphere, since the inherent separation of carbon dioxide takes place directly [...] Read more.
The current development of chemical looping combustion (CLC) technology is presented in this paper. This technique of energy conversion enables burning of hydrocarbon fuels with dramatically reduced CO2 emission into the atmosphere, since the inherent separation of carbon dioxide takes place directly in a combustion unit. In the beginning, the general idea of the CLC process is described, which takes advantage of solids (so-called oxygen carriers) being able to transport oxygen between combustion air and burning fuel. The main groups of oxygen carriers (OC) are characterized and compared, which are Fe-, Mn-, Cu-, Ni-, and Co-based materials. Moreover, different constructions of reactors tailored to perform the CLC process are described, including fluidized-bed reactors, swing reactors, and rotary reactors. The whole systems are based on the chemical looping concept, such as syngas CLC (SG-CLC), in situ Gasification CLC (iG-CLC), chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU), and chemical looping reforming (CLR), are discussed as well. Finally, a comparison with other pro-CCS (carbon capture and storage) technologies is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels)
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