Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2024) | Viewed by 31190

Special Issue Editors

School of Vehicle and Mobility, Department of Automotive Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: electric vehicles; renewable energy technologies; energy management; energy storage; automotive industry; e-mobility; lithium-ion batteries; electrical energy conservation; power system analysis; lithium battery

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, China
Interests: energy storage management; battery management systems; energy management in power systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Interests: battery state estimation; battery balancing; battery aging and life prediction; battery thermal management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Interests: energy storage; electric vehicle; battery management systems; battery safety warning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, with the rapid development of new energy power generation, such as wind power and photovoltaics, energy storage technology has received much attention from researchers that are attempting to solve the problems around the consumption of these new sources of energy. The safe and reliable operation of energy storage systems involves a series of technologies, from materials to energy management. This Special Issue aims to address the lack of knowledge surrounding these topics. We invite papers to be submitted that discuss energy storage battery materials, management, and system analysis.

For this Special Issue, we are interested in receiving theoretical and practical articles on the latest technologies and applications of energy storage. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: innovative materials for batteries, advanced battery management algorithms, thermal management of energy storage systems, safety management of batteries in energy storage systems, thermal management of energy storage systems, composite energy storage systems, energy storage systems, power electronic technology in energy storage systems, energy management technology in energy storage systems, etc.

Dr. Jiuyu Du
Prof. Dr. Xiaogang Wu
Dr. Jinlei Sun
Dr. Jianing Xu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • battery material
  • battery system
  • energy storage system analysis
  • battery management systems

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 3425 KiB  
Article
State of Health (SOH) Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on ABC-BiGRU
by Hao Li, Chao Chen, Jie Wei, Zhuo Chen, Guangzhou Lei and Lingling Wu
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091675 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 742
Abstract
As a core component of new energy vehicles, accurate estimation of the State of Health (SOH) of lithium-ion power batteries is essential. Correctly predicting battery SOH plays a crucial role in extending the lifespan of new energy vehicles, ensuring their safety, and promoting [...] Read more.
As a core component of new energy vehicles, accurate estimation of the State of Health (SOH) of lithium-ion power batteries is essential. Correctly predicting battery SOH plays a crucial role in extending the lifespan of new energy vehicles, ensuring their safety, and promoting their sustainable development. Traditional physical or electrochemical models have low accuracy in measuring the SOH of lithium batteries and are not suitable for the complex driving conditions of real-world vehicles. This study utilized the black-box characteristics of deep learning models to explore the intrinsic correlations in the historical cycling data of lithium batteries, thereby eliminating the need to consider the internal chemical reactions of lithium batteries. Through Pearson correlation analysis, this study selects health indicators (HIs) from lithium battery cycling data that significantly impact SOH as input features. In the field of lithium batteries, this paper applies ABC-BiGRU for the first time to SOH prediction. Compared with other recursive neural network models, ABC-BiGRU demonstrates superior predictive performance, with maximum root mean square error and mean absolute error of only 0.016799317 and 0.012626847, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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23 pages, 10826 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Charging Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Guan-Jhu Chen and Wei-Hsin Chung
Electronics 2023, 12(19), 4095; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12194095 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3057
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries, due to their high energy and power density characteristics, are suitable for applications such as portable electronic devices, renewable energy systems, and electric vehicles. Since the charging method can impact the performance and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries, the development of [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries, due to their high energy and power density characteristics, are suitable for applications such as portable electronic devices, renewable energy systems, and electric vehicles. Since the charging method can impact the performance and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries, the development of high-quality charging strategies is essential. Efficient charging strategies need to possess advantages such as high charging efficiency, low battery temperature rise, short charging times, and an extended battery lifespan. The challenges of charging algorithms encompass battery performance variation, temperature management, charging rate control, battery state estimation, and consideration of diverse charging requirements. Effective charging algorithms must strike a balance within these challenging conditions to ensure the battery’s longevity, high efficiency, and safety. This paper introduces and investigates five charging methods for implementation. These five charging methods include three different constant current–constant voltage charging methods with different cut-off voltage values, the constant loss–constant voltage charging method, and the constant power–constant voltage charging method. This paper will implement and compare the performance of the aforementioned five charging methods, including charging efficiency, battery temperature rise, charging time, and cycle life count, providing experimental data to enable users to choose a charging method more efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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19 pages, 5559 KiB  
Article
Research on Double LCC Compensation Network for Multi-Resonant Point Switching in Underwater Wireless Power Transfer System
by Yongqin Zhou, Minghu Qiu, Qiaobei Wang, Zhengnan Ma, Hao Sun and Xiaoyu Zhang
Electronics 2023, 12(13), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12132798 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
This paper introduces a control method suitable for AUVs to transmit underwater radio energy that improves the stability of AUV charging under water based on double LCC compensation. The coupling coefficient decreases with the rise of the coil offset in the underwater wireless [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a control method suitable for AUVs to transmit underwater radio energy that improves the stability of AUV charging under water based on double LCC compensation. The coupling coefficient decreases with the rise of the coil offset in the underwater wireless power transfer system, such that the power transmission capability is reduced. To solve the above-mentioned problem, a double LCC resonant compensation network impedance characteristic is proposed in this study through the analysis of the double LCC resonant compensation network. To be specific, the wireless power transmission method for multi-resonant point switching of the LCC compensation network is developed. The multiple resonance points of the developed method are not correlated with the load impedance in the double LCC resonance compensation network, and the multiple resonance points are consistent with the power transmission characteristics. Moreover, the appropriate resonance frequency is matched based on different coupling coefficients, and the multi-resonance points are switched to each other to increase the system’s transmission power and transmission efficiency. As revealed by the results of the simulation and experimental studies, the double LCC compensation network with multi-resonance point switching is capable of achieving the output characteristics of constant-voltage/constant-current of the wireless power transfer system, reducing the system current harmonics effectively, and enhancing the power transmission capability and anti-offset capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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21 pages, 9489 KiB  
Article
Thermal Runaway Characteristics and Gas Composition Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Different LFP and NCM Cathode Materials under Inert Atmosphere
by Hengjie Shen, Hewu Wang, Minghai Li, Cheng Li, Yajun Zhang, Yalun Li, Xinwei Yang, Xuning Feng and Minggao Ouyang
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071603 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 9983
Abstract
During thermal runaway (TR), lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) produce a large amount of gas, which can cause unimaginable disasters in electric vehicles and electrochemical energy storage systems when the batteries fail and subsequently combust or explode. Therefore, to systematically analyze the post-thermal runaway characteristics [...] Read more.
During thermal runaway (TR), lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) produce a large amount of gas, which can cause unimaginable disasters in electric vehicles and electrochemical energy storage systems when the batteries fail and subsequently combust or explode. Therefore, to systematically analyze the post-thermal runaway characteristics of commonly used LIBs with LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM) cathode materials and to maximize the in situ gas generation during battery thermal runaway, we designed experiments using an adiabatic explosion chamber (AEC) under an inert atmosphere to test LIBs. Additionally, we conducted in situ analysis of the gas components produced during thermal runaway. Our research findings indicate that after thermal runaway, NCM batteries produce more gas than LFP batteries. Based on battery gas production, the degree of harm caused by TR can be ranked as follows: NCM9 0.5 0.5 > NCM811 > NCM622 > NCM523 > LFP. The primary gas components during thermal runaway for both NCM and LFP batteries include H2,CO,CO2,C2H4, and CH4. The gas produced by LFP batteries contains a high proportion of H2. The high concentration of H2 results in a lower flammability limit (LFL) for the gas generated by LFP batteries during TR compared to the mixed gas produced by NCM batteries. Therefore, in terms of battery TR gas composition, the order of hazard level is LFP > NCM811 > NCM622 > NCM523 > NCM9 0.5 0.5 0.5. Although experimental results show that LFP batteries have superior thermal stability and lower gas production during large-scale battery thermal runaway events, considering gas generation composition and thermal runaway products, the thermal runaway risk of LFP batteries may be higher than that of NCM batteries. Although LFP batteries are considered very safe, our research results have once again drawn researchers’ attention to LFP batteries. These gases can also serve as detection signals for battery thermal runaway warnings, providing a cautionary note for the future development of electrochemical energy storage and the renewable energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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16 pages, 11548 KiB  
Article
Interacting Multiple Model for Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
by Ce Huang, Haibin Wu, Zhi Li, Ran Li and Hui Sun
Electronics 2023, 12(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040808 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
In terms of the dynamic changes of battery model parameters in a single-model filtering algorithm, the filter estimation accuracy can be poor, and filtering is scattered due to the different internal state parameters of lithium-ion batteries in different aging states, which affects the [...] Read more.
In terms of the dynamic changes of battery model parameters in a single-model filtering algorithm, the filter estimation accuracy can be poor, and filtering is scattered due to the different internal state parameters of lithium-ion batteries in different aging states, which affects the state of charge (SOC). In order to address these issues, an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm was proposed in this study, which adopted an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) to better approximate the nonlinear characteristics of the state equation while better stabilizing the filter and having lower computational requirements. Accordingly, the IMM was used to solve the problem of the accurate estimation of the SOC under the dynamic change of model parameters. Moreover, an electrochemical impedance spectrum was used to establish the electrochemical model, after which the lithium-ion equivalent electrochemical circuit model was established, which improved the complexity problem due to its high accuracy but complicated the calculation of the multi-order equivalent circuit model. By conducting experiments and simulations, the algorithm of IMM-UKF was shown to achieve an effective estimation of the battery SOC, even when the state parameters of lithium-ion batteries were uncertain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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28 pages, 16318 KiB  
Article
Charging Behavior Analysis Based on Operation Data of Private BEV Customers in Beijing
by Hao Tian, Yujuan Sun, Fangfang Hu and Jiuyu Du
Electronics 2023, 12(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12020373 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Charging behavior is essential to understanding the real performance and evaluating the sustainability of battery electric vehicle (BEV) development and providing the basis for optimal infrastructure deployment. However, it is very hard to obtain the rules, due to lack of the data support, [...] Read more.
Charging behavior is essential to understanding the real performance and evaluating the sustainability of battery electric vehicle (BEV) development and providing the basis for optimal infrastructure deployment. However, it is very hard to obtain the rules, due to lack of the data support, etc. In this research, analyzing the charging behavior of users with private charging piles (PCPs) is carried out based on the real vehicle data of 168 BEV users in Beijing, covering 8825 charging events for a one-year duration. In this study, the charging behaviors are defined by five indexes: the starting state of charge (SOC) of batteries, charging location selection, charging start time, driving distance, and duration between two charging events. To further find the influencing rules of the PCPs owning state, we setup a method to divide the data into two categories to process further analysis and comparison. Meanwhile, in order to better observe the impact of electric vehicle charging on the power grid, we use a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to predict the charging load of different users based on the analysis. In addition, an agent-based trip chain model (ABTCM), a multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and a machine learning algorithm (MLA) approach are proposed to analyze the charging behavior. The results show that with 40% or lower charging start SOC, the proportion of users without PCPs (weekday: 55.9%; weekend: 59.9%) is larger than users with PCPs (weekday: 45.5%; weekend: 42.6%). Meanwhile, users without PCPs have a certain decrease in the range of 60–80% charging start SOC. The median charging time duration is 51.44 h for users with PCPs and is 17.25 h for users without PCPs. The charging peak effect is evident, and the two types of users have different power consumption distributions. Due to the existence of PCPs, users have lower mileage anxiety and more diverse charging time choices. The analysis results and method can provide a basis for optimal deployment and allocation of charging infrastructure, and to make suitable incentive policies for changing the charging behavior, targeting the carbon neutral objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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18 pages, 6466 KiB  
Article
Bridgeless PFC Converter without Electrolytic Capacitor Based on Power Decoupling
by Ning-Zhi Jin, Zhi-Qiang Wu, Long Zhang, Yu Feng and Xiao-Gang Wu
Electronics 2023, 12(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12020321 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
Due to fewer conduction devices in operating condition, the bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) converter is more efficient than the traditional PFC circuit. However, to achieve a low output voltage ripple on the DC side, a large electrolytic capacitor must be connected in [...] Read more.
Due to fewer conduction devices in operating condition, the bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) converter is more efficient than the traditional PFC circuit. However, to achieve a low output voltage ripple on the DC side, a large electrolytic capacitor must be connected in parallel to the output end. To reduce the value of capacitance, this paper proposes a dual-boost bridgeless PFC converter with a bidirectional buck/boost power decoupling converter in the latter stage. The bidirectional converter absorbs double-line-frequency ripple, lowering the power pulsation at the output end while realizing power decoupling. The one-cycle control is adopted in bridgeless PFC converter, so that the input current can follow the input voltage to achieve power factor correction and decrease harmonic pollution. The power decoupling circuit is designed with a voltage outer loop using PI control and a current inner loop using model predictive current control, which alleviates the output voltage fluctuation caused by the reduction of the capacitance value of the filter capacitor, for the purpose of realizing non-electrolytic capacitor. Finally, the topology and control strategy involved in this paper are simulated and experimented to verify the validity and superiority of the theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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27 pages, 7812 KiB  
Article
Research on the Primary Frequency Regulation Control Strategy of a Wind Storage Hydrogen-Generating Power Station
by Dongyang Sun, Wenyuan Zheng, Jixuan Yu and Ji Li
Electronics 2022, 11(22), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11223669 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Wind curtailment and weak inertia characteristics are two factors that shackle the permeability of wind power. An electric hydrogen production device consumes electricity to produce hydrogen under normal working conditions to solve the problem of abandoning wind. When participating in frequency regulation, it [...] Read more.
Wind curtailment and weak inertia characteristics are two factors that shackle the permeability of wind power. An electric hydrogen production device consumes electricity to produce hydrogen under normal working conditions to solve the problem of abandoning wind. When participating in frequency regulation, it serves as a load reduction method to assist the system to rebuild a power balance and improve the wind power permeability. However, due to its own working characteristics, an electric hydrogen production device cannot undertake the high-frequency component of the frequency regulation power command; therefore, an energy storage device was selected to undertake a high-frequency power command to assist the electric hydrogen production device to complete the system frequency regulation. This paper first proposes and analyzes the architecture of a wind storage hydrogen-generating station for centralized hydrogen production with a distributed energy storage, and proposes the virtual inertia and droop characteristic mechanism of the wind storage hydrogen-generating station to simulate a synchronous unit. Secondly, an alkaline electrolysis cell suitable for large-scale engineering applications is selected as the research object and its mathematical model is established, the matching between different energy storage devices and their cooperation in power grid frequency regulation is analyzed, and a super capacitor is selected. A control strategy for the wind storage hydrogen-generating power station to participate in power grid frequency regulation with a wide time scale is then proposed. Using the first-order low-pass filter, the low-frequency component of the frequency regulation power command is realized by an electric hydrogen production device load reduction, and a high-frequency component is realized by the energy storage device. Finally, the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed control strategy are verified by establishing the simulation model of the wind storage hydrogen-generating power station with different initial wind speed states, comparing the system frequency dip values under the proposed multi-energy cooperative control strategy and a single energy device control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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29 pages, 16333 KiB  
Article
Research on Bidirectional Isolated Charging System Based on Resonant Converter
by Kai Zhou and Yue Sun
Electronics 2022, 11(21), 3625; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11213625 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
This paper proposes a two-stage bidirectional isolated charging system, which can realize the bidirectional flow of electric energy, not only making the electric energy flow from the grid side to the battery side but also converting the battery’s energy into single-phase alternating current [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a two-stage bidirectional isolated charging system, which can realize the bidirectional flow of electric energy, not only making the electric energy flow from the grid side to the battery side but also converting the battery’s energy into single-phase alternating current to supply other electric equipment. The charging system also has the function of power factor correction and wide-range voltage output. The front stage of the charging system is a bidirectional totem pole structure power factor correction converter with a voltage and current double closed-loop control strategy to ensure the stability of the DC bus voltage, and the rear stage is a bidirectional CLLLC resonant converter, which adopts a high-frequency soft start strategy to reduce the inrush current during start-up and ensure the safe operation of the converter. Moreover, the frequency control strategy is used to make it have a wide range of DC output characteristics. In this paper, the principle analysis and parameter calculation of the charging system is carried out, the simulation platform and hardware circuit design are built, and a test prototype is piloted to verify the bidirectional operating characteristics of the charging system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical analysis and topology design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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25 pages, 12902 KiB  
Article
Research on Wide Input Voltage LLC Resonant Converter and Compound Control Strategy
by Kai Zhou, Yang Liu and Xiaogang Wu
Electronics 2022, 11(20), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11203379 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2993
Abstract
This paper presents a wide input voltage vehicle DC/DC converter based on an LLC resonant converter for a 48 V light hybrid power system. According to the design requirements of on-board DC/DC converters and an analysis of their system characteristics, a full-bridge LLC [...] Read more.
This paper presents a wide input voltage vehicle DC/DC converter based on an LLC resonant converter for a 48 V light hybrid power system. According to the design requirements of on-board DC/DC converters and an analysis of their system characteristics, a full-bridge LLC resonant converter is employed with a zero-voltage activation of the switching transistors through resonant elements. In terms of the control strategy, the unsatisfactory high-frequency regulation gain of an LLC resonant converter is analyzed under the frequency modulation (FM) control strategy. In addition, to accommodate wide input voltage operating conditions, a composite control strategy is proposed by combining the advantages of the frequency modulation control strategy and phase shift control strategy, analyzing their control principles, and discussing the selection of the control mode switching point. By modeling LLC resonant converters with simulation software, the obtained results verify the effectiveness of the composite control strategy for LLC resonant converters. An experimental platform based on the TMS320F28335 controller, which can achieve stable operation with an input voltage in the range of 300 V–600 V and an output voltage of 48 V, is then built. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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Review

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25 pages, 3321 KiB  
Review
Review of Crucial Problems of Underwater Wireless Power Transmission
by Le Yu, Han Sun, Shangwei Su, Huixuan Tang, Hao Sun and Xiaoyu Zhang
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010163 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
In order to solve the problem of energy supply for underwater equipment, wireless power transmission technology is becoming a new way of underwater power transmission. It has incomparable technical advantages over traditional power supply method, and can effectively improve the safety, reliability, convenience [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem of energy supply for underwater equipment, wireless power transmission technology is becoming a new way of underwater power transmission. It has incomparable technical advantages over traditional power supply method, and can effectively improve the safety, reliability, convenience and concealment of power supply for underwater equipment. The WPT has a natural electrical isolation between the primary and secondary sides to ensure safe charging in an underwater environment. This breakthrough technology greatly facilitates power transmission in the deep sea. However, current transmission power and efficiency levels are not at the level of WPT systems in air. Based on the analysis of the development status of underwater wireless power transmission technology, this paper firstly puts forward the challenges of underwater wireless power transmission, and summarizes the electromagnetic coupler structure, underwater docking mode, compensation topology, control method and eddy current loss. The current research hotspots in the field of underwater wireless power transmission are summarized and analyzed. Finally, according to the development trend of technology, the urgent technical problems in underwater wireless power transmission are expounded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage, Analysis and Battery Usage)
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