Innovative Catalytic Materials for Environmental Remediation and Energy Applications

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 17698

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environment, Ionian University, M. Minotou-Giannopoulou Street, Panagoula, 29100 Zakynthos, Greece
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; heterogeneous catalysis; environmental engineering; photocatalysis; synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials for environmental applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50132 Kozani, Greece
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; electrochemistry; photocatalysis; persulfate; sonochemistry; wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global population growth and modern lifestyle are continuously increasing energy demands and environmental pollution. Consequently, research efforts focus on developing alternative energy sources to meet the increasing energy needs and the deployment of advanced technologies towards the effective removal of organic contaminants from wastewater. Catalytic processes are of high significance in both energy applications and environmental management.

The reforming of hydrocarbons for H2 or syn-gas production, various types of fuel cells, batteries, or supercapacitors for power production are only some of the employed technologies requiring catalytic materials for their operation. Photocatalysis, catalytic or electrocatalytic activation of persulfate and Fenton-like process are some of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) using catalytic materials that are implemented for environmental remediation.

This Special Issue aims to highlight current trends and future perspectives in the development of innovative catalytic materials in energy applications and environmental management. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Novel catalytic materials for AOPs.
  • Innovative electrocatalytic materials for fuel cells, batteries, and
  • Novel catalytic materials for hydrocarbon-reforming reactions, water–gas shift reaction, methanation etc.
  • Novel photocatalytic materials for photocatalytic hydrogen production and photoelectrochemical water splitting.
  • Innovative catalytic materials derived from agro-industrial residuals.

Dr. Georgios Bampos
Dr. Athanasia Petala
Dr. Zacharias Frontistis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • innovative catalytic materials
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • photocatalysis
  • electrocatalysis
  • fuel cells
  • batteries
  • supercapacitors
  • reforming

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Innovative Catalytic Materials for Environmental Remediation and Energy Applications
by Georgios Bampos, Athanasia Petala and Zacharias Frontistis
Catalysts 2024, 14(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal14020102 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 989
Abstract
The need for low-cost and environmentally friendly energy is greater than ever nowadays due to the global population growth as well as the modern lifestyle [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

20 pages, 3091 KiB  
Article
CO and Propane Combustion on La0.8Sr0.2CoxFe1−xO3−δ Perovskites: Effect of Fe-to-Co Ratio on Catalytic Activity
by Alexandros Safakas, Vasileios Ch. Kournoutis, Georgios Bampos and Symeon Bebelis
Catalysts 2023, 13(10), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13101342 - 4 Oct 2023
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Perovskites are promising alternative catalysts for oxidation reactions due to their lower cost compared to noble metals, and their greater thermal stability. The catalytic oxidation of CO is essential in order to control CO emissions in a series of applications whereas the catalytic [...] Read more.
Perovskites are promising alternative catalysts for oxidation reactions due to their lower cost compared to noble metals, and their greater thermal stability. The catalytic oxidation of CO is essential in order to control CO emissions in a series of applications whereas the catalytic combustion of propane is considered an economical and environmentally acceptable solution for energy production and gaseous pollutant management, since propane is among the organic compounds involved in photochemical reactions. This work concerns the effect of the Co/Fe ratio in the B-sites of a series of eight La0.8Sr0.2CoxFe1−xO3−δ perovskites, with x ranging from 0 to 1, on the catalytic activity towards CO and C3H8 oxidation. The perovskite oxides were synthesized using the combustion synthesis method and characterized with respect to their specific surface areas, structures, and reduction properties. Increasing the Co/Fe ratio resulted in an increase in CO and propane conversion under both oxidative and stoichiometric conditions. The increase in Co content is considered to facilitate the formation of oxygen vacancies due to the lower redox stability of the cobalt cations compared to iron cations, favoring oxygen ion mobility and oxygen exchange between the gas phase and the oxide surface, thus enhancing the catalytic performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4111 KiB  
Article
A New Mixed-Metal Phosphate as an Efficient Heterogeneous Catalyst for Knoevenagel Condensation Reaction
by Avik Chowdhury, Sudip Bhattacharjee, Sayantan Chongdar, Bhabani Malakar, Anindita Maity and Asim Bhaumik
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071053 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
The escalating demand for the cost-effective synthesis of valuable fine chemicals has fueled the search for sustainable heterogeneous catalysts. Among these catalytic reactions, Knoevenagel condensation has emerged as a very demanding reaction due to its involvement in the synthesis of new C–C bond [...] Read more.
The escalating demand for the cost-effective synthesis of valuable fine chemicals has fueled the search for sustainable heterogeneous catalysts. Among these catalytic reactions, Knoevenagel condensation has emerged as a very demanding reaction due to its involvement in the synthesis of new C–C bond formation. Porous metal phosphates have attracted significant attention in catalysis due to their unique surface properties. In this study, we report the synthesis of a novel porous magnesium aluminum phosphate (MALPO) material through a hydrothermal template-free approach. MALPO exhibited very promising specific surface area and hierarchical porosity. Moreover, the plate-like morphology of the material can enhance the exposure of the catalytic sites located at the surfaces, leading to enhanced catalytic activity. MALPO demonstrated excellent catalytic performance, yielding a series of Knoevenagel products with up to 99% yield. Notably, the catalyst displayed remarkable recyclability, retaining its structural integrity throughout multiple reaction cycles. The findings highlight the potential of porous mixed-metal phosphates, exemplified by MALPO, as sustainable and efficient base catalyst for the synthesis of value-added chemicals, contributing to the growing demand of the chemical industry. Further investigations are warranted to explore their catalytic potential in diverse chemical transformations and optimize their performance for large-scale operations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4991 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Promotion of CO2 Hydrogenation Using Rh Catalysts Supported on O2− Conducting Solid Electrolyte
by Nikoleta Kokkinou, Fotios Xydas, Susanne Brosda, Georgios Kyriakou and Alexandros Katsaounis
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13061014 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
Electrochemical promotion was used to modify the activity and selectivity of a Rh catalyst electrode in the CO2 hydrogenation reaction. The experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 350–430 °C at ambient pressure and at different CO2 to H [...] Read more.
Electrochemical promotion was used to modify the activity and selectivity of a Rh catalyst electrode in the CO2 hydrogenation reaction. The experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 350–430 °C at ambient pressure and at different CO2 to H2 gas feeding ratios (1:2 to 4:1). The only reaction products observed were CO and CH4, both under open- and closed-circuit conditions. The CH4 formation rate was found to increase with both positive and negative potential or current application. The CO formation rate followed the opposite trend. The selectivity to CH4 increased under high values of hydrogen partial pressure and decreased at high pressures of CO2. The results demonstrate how electrochemical promotion can be used to finely tune activity and selectivity for a reaction of high technical and environmental importance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4422 KiB  
Article
Nd2−xSrxNiO4 Solid Solutions: Synthesis, Structure and Enhanced Catalytic Properties of Their Reduction Products in the Dry Reforming of Methane
by Oleg A. Shlyakhtin, Grigoriy M. Timofeev, Sergey A. Malyshev, Alexey S. Loktev, Galina N. Mazo, Tatiana Shatalova, Veronika Arkhipova, Ilya V. Roslyakov and Alexey G. Dedov
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13060966 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Solid solutions Nd2−xSrxNiO4±δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.4) with a K2NiF4 structure can be obtained from freeze-dried precursors. The end members of this series can be obtained at T ≥ 1000 °C only, [...] Read more.
Solid solutions Nd2−xSrxNiO4±δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.4) with a K2NiF4 structure can be obtained from freeze-dried precursors. The end members of this series can be obtained at T ≥ 1000 °C only, while complex oxides with x = 1; 1.5 are formed at T ≥ 700 °C. Thermal analysis revealed the two stages of Nd2−xSrxNiO4±δ thermal reduction in a 10%H2/Ar gas mixture that was completed at 900 °C. For x < 0.2, the reduction products demonstrated an exsolution-like morphology with Ni nanoparticles allocated at the surface of oxide grains. As-obtained nanocomposites with x = 0 and x > 1 revealed the outstanding catalytic activity and selectivity in the dry reforming of the methane (DRM) reaction at 800 °C with CH4 conversion close to the thermodynamic values. The appearance of two different maxima of the catalytic properties of Ni/(Nd2O3,SrCO3) nanocomposites could be affiliated with the domination of the positive contributions of Nd2O3 and SrCO3, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5024 KiB  
Article
Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction from Acetic Acid over Gold Immobilized Glassy Carbon Surface
by Basmah H. Alshammari, Humayra Begum, Fatma A. Ibrahim, Mohamed S. Hamdy, Tahamida A. Oyshi, Nazia Khatun and Mohammad A. Hasnat
Catalysts 2023, 13(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13040744 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
A hydrogen fuel cell is a highly promising alternative to fossil fuel sources owing to the emission of harmless byproducts. However, the operation of hydrogen fuel cells requires a constant supply of highly pure hydrogen gas. The scarcity of sustainable methods of producing [...] Read more.
A hydrogen fuel cell is a highly promising alternative to fossil fuel sources owing to the emission of harmless byproducts. However, the operation of hydrogen fuel cells requires a constant supply of highly pure hydrogen gas. The scarcity of sustainable methods of producing such clean hydrogen hinders its global availability. In this work, a noble Au-atom-decorated glassy carbon electrode (Au/GCE) was prepared via a conventional electrodeposition technique and used to investigate the generation of hydrogen from acetic acid (AA) in a neutral electrolyte using 0.1 M KCl as the supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential measurement, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and rotating disk electrode voltammetry (RDE) were performed for the characterization and investigation of the catalytic properties. The constructed catalyst was able to produce hydrogen from acetic acid at a potential of approximately −0.2 V vs. RHE, which is much lower than a bare GCE surface. According to estimates, the Tafel slope and exchange current density are 178 mV dec−1 and 7.90×106 A cm−2, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that the hydrogen evolution reaction from acetic acid has a turnover frequency (TOF) of approximately 0.11 s−1. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5472 KiB  
Article
The Combined Impact of Ni-Based Catalysts and a Binary Carbonate Salts Mixture on the CO2 Gasification Performance of Olive Kernel Biomass Fuel
by Athanasios Lampropoulos, Stamatia A. Karakoulia, Georgios Varvoutis, Stavros Spyridakos, Vassilios Binas, Leila Zouridi, Sofia Stefa, Michalis Konsolakis and George E. Marnellos
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030596 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
In the present work, the individual or synergistic effect of Ni-based catalysts (Ni/CeO2, Ni/Al2O3) and an eutectic carbonate salt mixture (MS) on the CO2 gasification performance of olive kernels was investigated. It was found that the [...] Read more.
In the present work, the individual or synergistic effect of Ni-based catalysts (Ni/CeO2, Ni/Al2O3) and an eutectic carbonate salt mixture (MS) on the CO2 gasification performance of olive kernels was investigated. It was found that the Ni/CeO2 catalyst presented a relatively superior instant gasification reaction rate (Rco) compared to Ni/Al2O3, in line with the significant redox capability of CeO2. On the other hand, the use of the binary eutectic carbonate salt mixture (MS) lowered the onset and maximum CO2 gasification temperatures, resulting in a notably higher carbon conversion efficiency (81%) compared to the individual Ni-based catalysts and non-catalytic gasification tests (60%). Interestingly, a synergetic catalyst-carbonate salt mixture effect was revealed in the low and intermediate CO2 gasification temperature regimes, boosting the instant gasification reaction rate (Rco). In fact, in the temperature range of 300 to 550 °C, the maximum Rco value for both MS-Ni/Al2O3 and MS-Ni/CeO2 systems were four times higher (4 × 10−3 min−1 at 460 °C) compared to the individual counterparts. The present results demonstrated for the first time the combined effect of two different Ni-based catalysts and an eutectic carbonate salt mixture towards enhancing the CO production rate during CO2 gasification of olive kernel biomass fuel, especially in the devolatilization and tar cracking/reforming zones. On the basis of a systematic characterization study and lab-scale gasification experiments, the beneficial role of catalysts and molten carbonate salts on the gasification process was revealed, which can be ascribed to the catalytic activity as well as the improved mass and heat transport properties offered by the molten carbonate salts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4746 KiB  
Article
Transition Metal (Fe2O3, Co3O4 and NiO)-Promoted CuO-Based α-MnO2 Nanowire Catalysts for Low-Temperature CO Oxidation
by Haiou Zhang, Yixin Zhang, Huikang Song, Yan Cui, Yingying Xue, Cai-e Wu, Chao Pan, Jingxin Xu, Jian Qiu, Leilei Xu and Mindong Chen
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030588 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
As a toxic pollutant, carbon monoxide (CO) usually causes harmful effects on human health. Therefore, the thermally catalytic oxidation of CO has received extensive attention in recent years. The CuO-based catalysts have been widely investigated due to their availability. In this study, a [...] Read more.
As a toxic pollutant, carbon monoxide (CO) usually causes harmful effects on human health. Therefore, the thermally catalytic oxidation of CO has received extensive attention in recent years. The CuO-based catalysts have been widely investigated due to their availability. In this study, a series of transition metal oxides (Fe2O3, Co3O4 and NiO) promoted CuO-based catalysts supported on the α-MnO2 nanowire catalysts were prepared by the deposition precipitation method for catalytic CO oxidation reactions. The effects of the loaded transition metal type, the loading amount, and the calcination temperature on the catalytic performances were systematically investigated. Further catalyst characterization showed that the CuO/α-MnO2 catalyst modified with 3 wt% Co3O4 and calcined at 400 °C performed the highest CO catalytic activity (T90 = 75 °C) among the investigated catalysts. It was supposed that the loading of the Co3O4 dopant not only increased the content of oxygen vacancies in the catalyst but also increased the specific surface area and pore volume of the CuO/α-MnO2 nanowire catalyst, which would further enhance the catalytic activity. The CuO/α-MnO2 catalyst modified with 3 wt% NiO and calcined at 400 °C exhibited the highest surface adsorbed oxygen content and the best normalized reaction rate, but the specific surface area limited its activity. Therefore, the appropriate loading of the Co3O4 modifier could greatly enhance the activity of CuO/α-MnO2. This research could provide a reference method for constructing efficient low-temperature CO oxidation catalysts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3646 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Role of In Situ Sulfidation and H2O Excess on H2S Decomposition to Carbon-Free H2 over Cobalt/Ceria Catalysts
by Tzouliana Kraia, Georgios Varvoutis, George E. Marnellos and Michalis Konsolakis
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030504 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The emerging energy and environmental concerns nowadays are highlighting the need to turn to clean fuels, such as hydrogen. In this regard, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an abundant chemical compound found in several natural sources and industrial streams, can be considered a [...] Read more.
The emerging energy and environmental concerns nowadays are highlighting the need to turn to clean fuels, such as hydrogen. In this regard, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an abundant chemical compound found in several natural sources and industrial streams, can be considered a potential carbon-free H2 source through its decomposition. In the present work, the H2S decomposition performance of Co3O4/CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts toward hydrogen production is investigated under excess H2O conditions (1 v/v% H2S, 90 v/v% H2O, Ar as diluent), simulating the concentrated H2S-H2O inflow by the Black Sea deep waters. The effect of key operational parameters such as feed composition, temperature (550–850 °C), and cobalt loading (0–100 wt.%) on the catalytic performance of Co3O4/CeO2 catalysts was systematically explored. In order to gain insight into potential structure-performance relationships, various characterization studies involving BET, XRD, SEM/EDX, and sulfur elemental analysis were performed over the fresh and spent samples. The experimental results showed that the 30 wt.% Co/CeO2 catalyst demonstrated the optimum catalytic performance over the entire temperature range with a H2 production rate of ca. 2.1 μmol H2∙g−1·s−1 at 850 °C and a stable behavior after 10 h on stream, ascribed mainly to the in-situ formation of highly active and stable cobalt sulfided phases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 6552 KiB  
Article
Molten Salt-Assisted Catalytic Preparation of MoS2/α-MoO3/Graphene as High-Performance Anode of Li-Ion Battery
by Wenhui Zhu and Ali Reza Kamali
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030499 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
We report on the facile and scalable catalytic conversion of natural graphite and MoS2 minerals into α-MoO3 nanoribbons incorporated into hexagonal MoS2 and graphene nanosheets, and evaluate the structural, morphological and electrochemical performances of the hybrid nanostructured material obtained. Mechanochemical [...] Read more.
We report on the facile and scalable catalytic conversion of natural graphite and MoS2 minerals into α-MoO3 nanoribbons incorporated into hexagonal MoS2 and graphene nanosheets, and evaluate the structural, morphological and electrochemical performances of the hybrid nanostructured material obtained. Mechanochemical treatment of raw materials, followed by catalytic molten salt treatment leads to the formation of nanostructures with promising electrochemical performances. We examined the effect of processing temperature on the electrochemical performance of the products. At 1100 °C, an excellent Li-ion storage capacity of 773.5 mAh g−1 is obtained after 180 cycles, considerably greater than that of MoS2 (176.8 mAh g−1). The enhanced capacity and the rate performance of this electrode are attributed to the well-integrated components, characterized by the formation of interfacial molybdenum oxycarbide layer during the synthesis process, contributing to the reduced electrical/electrochemical resistance of the sample. This unique morphology promotes the charge and ions transfer through the reduction of the Li-ion diffusion coefficient (1.2 × 10−18 cm2 s−1), enhancing the pseudocapacitive performance of the electrode; 59.3% at the scan rate of 0.5 mV s−1. This article provides a green and low-cost route to convert highly available natural graphite and MoS2 minerals into nanostructured hybrid materials with promising Li-ion storage performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3560 KiB  
Article
Performance of Particulate and Structured Pt/TiO2-Based Catalysts for the WGS Reaction under Realistic High- and Low-Temperature Shift Conditions
by Andreas Kouroumlidis, Georgios Bampos, Paraskevi Panagiotopoulou and Dimitris I. Kondarides
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020372 - 8 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
The water–gas shift (WGS) activity of Pt/TiO2-based powdered and structured catalysts was investigated using realistic feed compositions that are relevant to the high-temperature shift (HTS) and low-temperature shift (LTS) reaction conditions. The promotion of the TiO2 support with small amounts [...] Read more.
The water–gas shift (WGS) activity of Pt/TiO2-based powdered and structured catalysts was investigated using realistic feed compositions that are relevant to the high-temperature shift (HTS) and low-temperature shift (LTS) reaction conditions. The promotion of the TiO2 support with small amounts of alkali- or alkaline earth-metals resulted in the enhancement of the WGS activity of 0.5%Pt/TiO2(X) catalysts (X = Na, Cs, Ca, Sr). The use of bimetallic (Pt–M)/TiO2 catalysts (M = Ru, Cr, Fe, Cu) can also shift the CO conversion curve toward lower temperatures, but this is accompanied by the production of relatively large amounts of unwanted CH4 at temperatures above ca. 300 °C. Among the powdered catalysts investigated, Pt/TiO2(Ca) exhibited the best performance under both HTS and LTS conditions. Therefore, this material was selected for the preparation of structured catalysts in the form of pellets as well as ceramic and metallic catalyst monoliths. The 0.5%Pt/TiO2(Ca) pellet catalyst exhibited comparable activity with that of a commercial WGS pellet catalyst, and its performance was further improved when the Pt loading was increased to 1.0 wt.%. Among the structured catalysts investigated, the best results were obtained for the sample coated on the metallic monolith, which exhibited excellent WGS performance in the 300–350 °C temperature range. In conclusion, proper selection of the catalyst structure and reaction parameters can shift the CO conversion curves toward sufficiently low temperatures, rendering the Pt/TiO2(Ca) catalyst suitable for practical applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

36 pages, 7985 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Nanomaterials as Catalysts for Syngas Production and Conversion
by Natarajan Chidhambaram, Samuel Jasmine Jecintha Kay, Saravanan Priyadharshini, Rajakantham Meenakshi, Pandurengan Sakthivel, Shanmugasundar Dhanbalan, Shajahan Shanavas, Sathish-Kumar Kamaraj and Arun Thirumurugan
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020440 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
The conversion of diverse non-petroleum carbon elements, such as coal, biomass, natural/shale gas, and even CO2, into cleaner hydrocarbon fuels and useful chemicals relies heavily on syngas, which is a combination of CO and H2. Syngas conversions, which have [...] Read more.
The conversion of diverse non-petroleum carbon elements, such as coal, biomass, natural/shale gas, and even CO2, into cleaner hydrocarbon fuels and useful chemicals relies heavily on syngas, which is a combination of CO and H2. Syngas conversions, which have been around for almost a century, will probably become even more important in the production of energy and chemicals due to the rising need for liquid fuels and chemical components derived from sources of carbon other than crude oil. Although a number of syngas-based technologies, including the production of methanol, Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, and carbonylation, have been industrialized, there is still a great need for new catalysts with enhanced activity and adjustable product selectivity. New novel materials or different combinations of materials have been investigated to utilize the synergistic effect of these materials in an effective way. Magnetic materials are among the materials with magnetic properties, which provide them with extra physical characteristics compared to other carbon-based or conventional materials. Moreover, the separation of magnetic materials after the completion of a specific application could be easily performed with a magnetic separation process. In this review, we discuss the synthesis processes of various magnetic nanomaterials and their composites, which could be utilized as catalysts for syngas production and conversion. It is reported that applying an external magnetic field could influence the outcomes of any applications of magnetic nanomaterials. Here, the possible influence of the magnetic characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials with an external magnetic field is also discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop