Gas Emissions Control and Utilization

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2023) | Viewed by 13350

Special Issue Editors

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Interests: carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS); gas separation; membrane; polymer; absorption; process modeling; mass transfer; heat transfer; fossil fuel; renewable energy; hydrate; wastewater treatment
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50132 Kozani, Greece
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; electrochemistry; photocatalysis; persulfate; sonochemistry; wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Gas emissions have caused severe environmental issues to human beings. Various physical, chemical, and biological technologies have been employed in efforts toward the reduction and utilization of gas pollutants. This Special Issue is partially associated with the 17th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2021). This conference will be held in Athens from 1 to 4 September 2021. The best presentations of the session "Gas Emission Control and Utilization" will be published in this Special Issue, following the normal peer review process. We are pleased to invite you to submit your work in, but not limited to, the following areas:

  • Air pollution;
  • Gas emission reduction (CO2, CO, SO2, H2S, NOx);
  • Gas utilization and production;
  • Gas storage;
  • Gas capture and utilization process modeling;
  • Gas emissions-related energy and environmental issues.
Dr. Zhien Zhang
Dr. Zacharias Frontistis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Climate change
  • Gas emission
  • Gas capture
  • Gas utilization
  • Gas storage
  • Process modeling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3028 KiB  
Article
The Effect of CaO on the CO and NOx Emission Characteristics of Fast-Growing Grass Combustion
by Yan Li, Qingchao Hong, Haili Liu and Heyun Liu
Processes 2023, 11(3), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030760 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Fast-growing grass is a biomass material with characteristics such as high temperature and drought resistance; rapid growth and development; and repeated germination and cutting. Therefore, it is a popular biomass fuel. It is required that the pollutants produced during the biomass combustion process [...] Read more.
Fast-growing grass is a biomass material with characteristics such as high temperature and drought resistance; rapid growth and development; and repeated germination and cutting. Therefore, it is a popular biomass fuel. It is required that the pollutants produced during the biomass combustion process are appropriately controlled. For this purpose, our study analyses the influence of combustion temperature and calcium oxide (CaO) on the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission characteristics of fast-growing grass combustion using the biomass combustion flue gas analysis and testing platform. The results of our analysis revealed that CaO additive can simultaneously reduce the peak and total NOx emissions at 750 °C. Particularly, 5% CaO demonstrated a significant control effect on the NOx emission from the fast-growing grass combustion process, with a peak and total emissions reduction of 47.05% and 56.81%, respectively. In addition, with an increase in temperature, the CO emission curve attains a second peak higher than the first peak, and the peak and total emissions show a decreasing trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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13 pages, 2457 KiB  
Article
3D Printing Multi-Channel Large Volume Microchannel Reactor for Enhanced Removal of Low-Concentration NOx Flue Gas
by Kai Han, Shaohua Ju, Yu Zhou, Jingxi Zhang, Xiaoxi Wan, Na Li and Yongwan Gu
Processes 2023, 11(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010158 - 04 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Compared with conventional reactors that are designed by traditional micromachining technology, the use of 3D-printing technology to manufacture multichannel large-volume microchannel reactors as reaction equipment to remove low-concentration NOX by the wet method is simple and convenient, and the processing cost is [...] Read more.
Compared with conventional reactors that are designed by traditional micromachining technology, the use of 3D-printing technology to manufacture multichannel large-volume microchannel reactors as reaction equipment to remove low-concentration NOX by the wet method is simple and convenient, and the processing cost is low. The results showed that when the concentration of NO was 400 ppm, the mixed solution of (NH2)2CO mass fraction of 3% and H2O2 concentration of 0.5 mol/L was used, and the flow rates of gas and liquid were 100 mL/min, respectively, under the experimental conditions of pH = 11, solution temperature of 20 °C and 500 mL solution recycling for 20 min, the best removal effect of NOX was achieved, and the removal efficiency was 100%. When the O2 content in the flue gas was increased and the number and length of microchannels were increased, the NOX removal efficiency increased accordingly, which was conducive to the rapid and efficient reaction. The application of the microchannel reactor presents a new method for improving the air quality and reducing environmental pollution in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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13 pages, 3594 KiB  
Article
New Generation of SF6-Free Medium-Voltage Switchgear for the Electrical Network: Stability and Toxicity Studies of Trans-1,1,1,4,4,4-Hexafluorobut-2-ene with N2 Gas Mixture
by Maria Luz Alonso, Ane Espinazo, Rosa Maria Alonso, Jose Ignacio Lombraña, Jesús Izcara and Josu Izaguirre
Processes 2023, 11(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010136 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Binary gas mixture of N2 and trans-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-ene (HFO4E) is presented as an alternative to SF6 in medium-voltage electrical equipment. Its stability was tested under different conditions. No change was observed in the gas mixture after a permanent AC voltage of 30 kV [...] Read more.
Binary gas mixture of N2 and trans-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluorobut-2-ene (HFO4E) is presented as an alternative to SF6 in medium-voltage electrical equipment. Its stability was tested under different conditions. No change was observed in the gas mixture after a permanent AC voltage of 30 kV applied for two years or during the making operations with a standard load-break switch. The same behavior was obtained under dielectric tests, electrical arcs and temperature rise tests according to the IEC 62271-1:2011 standard. For all of these conditions, the concentration of HFO4E remains practically unchanged; there is no impact on the insulation properties of the system and the degradation products formed would not affect the health and the environment if there were leaks. In these studies, gas mixtures samples were analyzed by a validated methodology based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and thermal conductivity detectors. Finally, an OECD TG 403 acute inhalation toxicity test was also carried out with the gas mixture aged after the mentioned making operations. None of the mice used in the toxicity test were affected after 4 h of exposition to an ambient air with 30,000 ppmv of the gas mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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20 pages, 4874 KiB  
Article
Indicators of Impact Selected Municipal Units on the Air Quality—Case Study from Poland and Romania
by Irimia Oana, Przydatek Grzegorz, Panainte-Lehadus Mirela, Tomozei Claudia, Mosnegutu Emilian and Gawron Piotr
Processes 2022, 10(12), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122485 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
A 2020 investigation into air quality in urban areas found that nitrogen oxide and PM10 concentrations were above average. With the exception of summer, three seasons were found to have the highest nitrogen oxide concentrations, with a significant decrease during COVID-19. The [...] Read more.
A 2020 investigation into air quality in urban areas found that nitrogen oxide and PM10 concentrations were above average. With the exception of summer, three seasons were found to have the highest nitrogen oxide concentrations, with a significant decrease during COVID-19. The significant PM10 relationship showed how communication affects the worsening of air quality, especially in the winter. The highest concentration of nitrogen oxide of 53.99 µg m−3 indicated the possibility of advection of pollutants from outside the agglomeration. The highest level of nitrogen oxide content, 95.95 µg m−3 in the atmospheric air, confirmed the significant presence of pollutants of communication origin. The advancement of electro-mobility and the application of cutting-edge technologies alongside renewable energy sources may contribute to a decrease in the amount of harmful substances released into the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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24 pages, 5323 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Experimental Results and Modelling Study of Olive Kernel Gasification in a 2 MWth BFB Gasifier
by Athanasios Lampropoulos, Idoya Goñi Zubillaga, Raúl Pérez-Vega, Nikolaos Ntavos, Yannis Fallas and Georgios Varvoutis
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102020 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Gasification is a promising and attractive thermochemical method for biomass-to-energy conversion, with fluidized bed reactors being one of the best options for large-scale operations. Olive residues in particular are potentially excellent candidate biomass fuels in the Mediterranean area, due to the region’s increased [...] Read more.
Gasification is a promising and attractive thermochemical method for biomass-to-energy conversion, with fluidized bed reactors being one of the best options for large-scale operations. Olive residues in particular are potentially excellent candidate biomass fuels in the Mediterranean area, due to the region’s increased capacity in olive oil production. Herein, the gasification experiments of olive kernels in a 2 MWth air-blown, bubbling fluidized bed reactor located at CENER’s facilities (BIO2C) in Navarra, Spain are presented. Even though technical issues were demonstrated due to the operation of the plant with a high-density biomass fuel and given the scale of the process, a quasi-steady-state and isothermal 12 h operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.25 ± 0.03 was attained. Given the satisfactory experimental results, an Aspen Plus simulation model of the process was also attempted. Notably, the proposed methodology agrees well with the experimental results and can be regarded as a starting point in future studies examining the gasification of relevant biomass in a MW-scale unit. Next, the effect of equivalence ratio and residual biomass moisture content were also evaluated, with the scope of designing future experiments that require minor modifications in the already existing apparatus. Finally, a syngas utilization route through the provision of energy for district heating purposes in the nearby village of Aoiz was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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15 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
THC and CO Emissions from Diesel Engines Using Biodiesel Produced from Residual Frying Oil by Non-Thermal Plasma Technology
by Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Elisa Helena Siegel Moecke, Franciele Mendonça Ferreira and Fernando da Silva Osório
Processes 2022, 10(8), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10081663 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Research aimed at finding alternative fuels to replace petroleum diesel (petrodiesel) used in controlled combustion engines (CCEs) has identified biodiesel as one of the main candidates, due to its sustainability and potential for use in energy matrices. In this study, the gas emissions [...] Read more.
Research aimed at finding alternative fuels to replace petroleum diesel (petrodiesel) used in controlled combustion engines (CCEs) has identified biodiesel as one of the main candidates, due to its sustainability and potential for use in energy matrices. In this study, the gas emissions from a diesel CCE were investigated, with a focus on total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO). Biodiesel (B100) samples derived from the transesterification of frying oil, produced applying conventional chemical catalysis (CC) or non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology, were tested as alternative fuels. Three engine rotation speeds were investigated (900, 1500, and 2500 rpm) and biodiesel samples obtained from the residual frying oil were compared with conventional road diesel (S-500) without biodiesel added, acquired from a gas station. Blends were also prepared with S-500 and B100 obtained applying NTP for 15 or 30 min, in mixes containing 2, 12, 20, and 50% of biodiesel. These blends showed reductions in THC and CO emissions of 62% and 80%, respectively, compared with the emissions for 100% S-500. Thus, biodiesel produced from frying oil offers low emissions of CO and THC, highlighting the potential for reductions using biodiesel produced applying the NTP technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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12 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
CFD Study of the Numbering up of Membrane Microreactors for CO2 Capture
by Eleana Harkou, Sanaa Hafeez, George Manos and Achilleas Constantinou
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091515 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG). The continuous increase of CO2 concentration and its long atmospheric lifetime may cause long-term negative effects on the climate. It is important to develop technologies to capture and [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG). The continuous increase of CO2 concentration and its long atmospheric lifetime may cause long-term negative effects on the climate. It is important to develop technologies to capture and minimize those emissions into the atmosphere. The objective of this work is to design and study theoretically and experimentally a numbering-up/scale-out membrane microreactor in order to be used as a capture system. The main aim of the work is to obtain an even flow distribution at each plate of the reactor. Nearly uniform flow distribution was achieved at each layer of the numbering-up microreactor according to the carried-out CFD models. The maximum difference between the average velocities was less than 6% for both gas and liquid flows. To obtain better flow distribution into the microreactor, the radius of the inlet/outlet tube was optimized. Results from CFD and experimental simulations do not match, and slightly maldistribution in achieved in the experimental system due to phase breakthrough and imperfections on the fabrication of the plates. Moreover, comparing the single channel microreactor to the scale-out microreactor, the latter showed poorer performance on CO2 removal while expecting the reactors to have similar performance. By installing inserts with different channel widths, the experimental results were identical to the original case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions Control and Utilization)
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