Novel Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Applications and Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 7746

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Sustainable Agriculture, University of Patras, 2 Georgiou Seferi St., Agrinio, Greece
Interests: microbial fuel cells (MFCs); microbial electrolysis cells (MECs); biofuel production via microbial processes (anaerobic digestion, fermentative hydrogen production and bioethanol production)
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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50132 Kozani, Greece
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; electrochemistry; photocatalysis; persulfate; sonochemistry; wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global population growth and the modern way of life result in increasing energy needs and environmental pollution due to the widespread use of fossil fuels. Environmentally friendly alternative power sources appear as the most effective solution in order to cover the increasing energy demands while minimizing the environmental impact. Towards that direction, research interest focuses on the development of electrochemical technologies for power production, such as fuel cells, batteries, electrolysis cells or supercapacitors. Among the various types of fuel and electrolysis cells, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity production and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for the production of chemical energy receive a great deal of attention because they valorize the energy contained in the biomass feedstock while reducing the energy needed for wastewater treatment.

However, apart from the great need for energy, wastewater management is a major concern that results in the development of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for environmental remediation. Among the AOPs, electrochemical oxidation processes (EOPs) such as direct or indirect oxidation processes gain a great deal of attention because they are efficient technologies which are combined easily with other AOPs as well as biological treatment.

The aim of the present Special Issue is tο highlight current and future electrochemical technologies concerning both energy applications as well as wastewater treatment. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • New aspects in MFC technology (new materials, innovative designs, alternative feedstocks);
  • Design of efficient processes for biogas upgrading through MECs;
  • Production of hydrogen and chemicals in MECs;
  • Electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide;
  • Combined electro-assisted processes for water treatment (electro-Fenton, electrochemical activation of persulfate);
  • Use of 3D particle electrodes for water purification;
  • Electrocoagulation;
  • Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.

Dr. Georgios Bampos
Dr. Georgia Antonopoulou
Dr. Zacharias Frontistis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microbial fuel cell
  • MFC
  • microbial electrolysis cell
  • MEC
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • AOPs
  • electrochemical oxidation processes
  • EOPs
  • direct oxidation
  • indirect oxidation
  • reactive oxygen species
  • ROS

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 5307 KiB  
Article
Advancement in Microbial Fuel Cells Technology by Using Waste Extract as an Organic Substrate to Produce Energy with Metal Removal
by Ghada Mohamed Aleid, Anoud Saud Alshammari, Alamri Rahmah Dhahawi Ahmad, Fida Hussain, Sang-Eun Oh, Akil Ahmad, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim and Khalid Umar
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082434 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Energy generation using microbial fuel cells (MFC) and removing toxic metal ions is a potentially exciting new field of study as it has recently attracted a lot of interest in the scientific community. However, MFC technology is facing several challenges, including electron production [...] Read more.
Energy generation using microbial fuel cells (MFC) and removing toxic metal ions is a potentially exciting new field of study as it has recently attracted a lot of interest in the scientific community. However, MFC technology is facing several challenges, including electron production and transportation. Therefore, the present work focuses on enhancing electron generation by extracting sugarcane waste. MFC was successfully operated in a batch mode for 79 days in the presence of 250 mg/L Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions. Sugarcane extract was regularly fed to it without interruption. On day 38, the maximum current density and power density were recorded, which were 86.84 mA/m2 and 3.89 mW/m2, respectively. The electrochemical data show that a sufficient voltage generation and biofilm formation produce gradually. The specific capacitance was found to be 11 × 10−4 F/g on day 79, indicating the steady growth of biofilm. On the other hand, Pb2+ and Hg2+ removal efficiencies were found to be 82% and 74.85%, respectively. Biological investigations such as biofilm analysis and a recent literature survey suggest that conductive-type pili species can be responsible for energy production and metal removal. The current research also explored the oxidation method of sugarcane extract by bacterial communities, as well as the metal removal mechanism. According to the parameter optimization findings, a neutral pH and waste produced extract can be an optimal condition for MFC operation. Full article
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19 pages, 3470 KiB  
Article
Impact of Self-Fabricated Graphene–Metal Oxide Composite Anodes on Metal Degradation and Energy Generation via a Microbial Fuel Cell
by Akil Ahmad, Mohammed B. Alshammari and Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim
Processes 2023, 11(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010163 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are thought to be ecologically friendly, despite electron transport and generation challenges. In order to address this, the efficiency of MFCs was investigated using two different anode electrodes made from biomass: graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide-metal oxide (GO-MO) [...] Read more.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are thought to be ecologically friendly, despite electron transport and generation challenges. In order to address this, the efficiency of MFCs was investigated using two different anode electrodes made from biomass: graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide-metal oxide (GO-MO) (GO-ZnO). After 18 days of operation, the maximum power density for GO was 0.69 mW/m2, whereas the maximum power density for GO-ZnO was 1.05 mW/m2. Furthermore, the ability of MFCs to transform the soluble metal ions (Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+, and Ni2+) into an insoluble state was investigated, which is a secondary use of MFCs with significant benefits. In the soluble state of metal ion transformation into an insoluble state, the rate of GO-ZnO was higher (92.71%) than that of GO (81.20%). The outcomes of material, analytical, and biological tests undertaken to validate the efficiency of anodes are presented. It has been shown that using innovative materials as electrodes in MFCs is a potential method for improving electron transport. Furthermore, as an organic substrate, food waste seems to be a viable alternative to more traditional options. In light of these discoveries, we investigate various unanswered issues and possibilities for MFCs. Organic substrate evaluation trials were also included in the present results to demonstrate that organic waste may be a reliable source of MFC performance. This article also has a thorough discussion of food waste oxidation, as well as challenges and future recommendations. Full article
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12 pages, 1734 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Oxidation of Anastrozole over a BDD Electrode: Role of Operating Parameters and Water Matrix
by Rebecca Dhawle, Zacharias Frontistis and Dionissios Mantzavinos
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2391; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112391 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
The electrochemical oxidation (EO) of the breast-cancer drug anastrozole (ANZ) is studied in this work. The role of various operating parameters, such as current density (6.25 and 12.5 mA cm−2), pH (3–10), ANZ concentration (0.5–2 mg L−1), nature of [...] Read more.
The electrochemical oxidation (EO) of the breast-cancer drug anastrozole (ANZ) is studied in this work. The role of various operating parameters, such as current density (6.25 and 12.5 mA cm−2), pH (3–10), ANZ concentration (0.5–2 mg L−1), nature of supporting electrolytes, water composition, and water matrix, have been evaluated. ANZ removal of 82.4% was achieved at 1 mg L−1 initial concentration after 90 min of reaction at 6.25 mA cm−2 and 0.1 M Na2SO4. The degradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with the apparent rate constant, kapp, equal to 0.022 min−1. The kapp increases with increasing current density and decreasing solution pH. The addition of chloride in the range 0–250 mg L−1 positively affects the removal of ANZ. However, chloride concentrations above 250 mg L−1 have a detrimental effect. The presence of bicarbonate or organic matter has a slightly negative but not significant effect on the process. The EO of ANZ is compared to its degradation by solar photo-Fenton, and a preliminary economic analysis is also performed. Full article
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16 pages, 6270 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Hydroquinone Coupled with Energy Generation through Microbial Fuel Cells Energized by Organic Waste
by Tasnim Aisya Mahmuelee Torlaema, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Akil Ahmad, Claudia Guerrero-Barajas, Mohammed B. Alshammari, Sang-Eun Oh and Fida Hussain
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102099 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has captured the scientific community’s attention in recent years owing to its ability to directly transform organic waste into electricity through electrochemical processes. Currently, MFC systems faces a number of barriers, with one of the most significant being [...] Read more.
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has captured the scientific community’s attention in recent years owing to its ability to directly transform organic waste into electricity through electrochemical processes. Currently, MFC systems faces a number of barriers, with one of the most significant being the lack of organic substrate to provide enough energy for bacterial growth and activity. In the current work, rotten rice was utilized as an organic substrate to boost bacterial activity to produce more energy and break down the organic pollutant hydroquinone in an effort to improve the performance of MFCs. There are only a few studies that considered the waste as an organic substrate and simultaneously degraded the organic pollutant vis-à-vis MFCs. The oxidation of glucose derived from rotten rice generated electrons that were transported to the anode surface and subsequently flowed through an external circuit to the cathode, where they were used to degrade the organic pollutant hydroquinone. The results were consistent with the MFC operation, where the 168-mV voltage was generated over the course of 29 days with a 1000 Ω external resistance. The maximum power and current densities were 1.068 mW/m2 and 123.684 mA/m2, respectively. The hydroquinone degradation was of 68%. For the degradation of organic pollutants and the production of energy, conductive pili-type bacteria such as Lacticaseibacillus, Pediococcus acidilactici and Secundilactobacillus silagincola species were identified during biological characterization. Future recommendations and concluding remarks are also included. Full article
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