Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant-Derived Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020) | Viewed by 59853

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: essential oils; bioactive phytochemicals; ethnopharmacology; antimicrobial resistance; one health; food security
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The urgent need for novel antimicrobial drugs to reduce the global burden of infectious diseases has greatly stimulated the exploration of plant products as a source of novel and effective phytotherapeutic agents. Indeed, plant products represent a nearly unlimited source of (multitarget) active ingredients, consisting in complex mixtures of hundreds of different compounds that may be synergistically active once administered. In addition, plant extracts and phytochemicals can be useful in adjuvant therapy to improve the efficacy of conventional antimicrobials, to decrease their adverse effects, and to reverse multidrug resistance, the latter an emerging and very critical topic due to the genetic plasticity and environmental adaptability of pathogenic microorganisms. Not least, selected phytochemicals can also be used as a template for the development of new scaffolds of drugs.

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Dr. Elena Maria Varoni
Dr. Sara Vitalini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant products
  • marine plant products
  • antibiotics
  • fungicides
  • antibacterial agents
  • antifungal/antimycotic agents
  • crop protection
  • pesticides
  • antibiotic resistance
  • multi-drug resistance
  • cross-resistance
  • ethnopharmacology
  • preclinical (in vitro/in vivo) studies
  • clinical/in human studies
  • evidence-based medicine
  • systematic reviews & meta-analyses

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

7 pages, 714 KiB  
Editorial
Humans, Animals, Food and Environment: One Health Approach against Global Antimicrobial Resistance
by Marcello Iriti, Sara Vitalini and Elena Maria Varoni
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060346 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3322
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most relevant threats to global public health and food security, affecting anyone, of any age, in any country and is responsible for longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality. Resistant microorganisms are present in humans, [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most relevant threats to global public health and food security, affecting anyone, of any age, in any country and is responsible for longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality. Resistant microorganisms are present in humans, animals, food and the environment, and, therefore, the One Health approach is very promising to counteract antimicrobial resistance, since human health and animal health are connected to each other and with the environment and the latter a potential source of resistant microorganisms. In this context, the need for novel antimicrobial drugs has stimulated the exploration of plant products as a source of novel phytotherapeutics able to reverse antimicrobial resistance when used in combination with conventional antibiotic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Abundant Extractable Metabolites from Temperate Tree Barks: The Specific Antimicrobial Activity of Prunus Avium Extracts
by Amin Abedini, Marius Colin, Jane Hubert, Emilie Charpentier, Apostolis Angelis, Heithem Bounasri, Benjamin Bertaux, Alexis Kotland, Fany Reffuveille, Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Jean-Hugues Renault and Sophie C. Gangloff
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9030111 - 4 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4356
Abstract
Tree barks are mainly considered as wood wastes from forestry activities, but represent valuable resources as they may contain antimicrobial compounds. Here, we aimed to evaluate the possible antimicrobial activities of bark extracts and to characterize the chemical composition of the most active [...] Read more.
Tree barks are mainly considered as wood wastes from forestry activities, but represent valuable resources as they may contain antimicrobial compounds. Here, we aimed to evaluate the possible antimicrobial activities of bark extracts and to characterize the chemical composition of the most active extract. Ten methanol bark extracts were tested in vitro against 17 bacterial strains and 5 yeast strains, through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (or fungicidal) concentration (MBC/MFC) assays. The extract from Prunus avium (E2-4) displayed the largest bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with a lethal effect on 6 out of 8 strains. Antibiofilm assays of E2-4 were performed by crystal violet staining and enumeration of adhered bacteria. Assays demonstrated a biofilm inhibitory effect of E2-4 against Staphylococcus aureus CIP 53.154 at concentrations equal to or higher than 250 µg/mL. Chemical profiling of E2-4 by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed the presence of dihydrowogonin as a major constituent of the extract. E2-4 was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography and the three fractions containing dihydrowogonin were tested for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities, revealing similar activities to those of E2-4. Dihydrowogonin was positively assessed as an interesting antimicrobial compound, which could be valued from wastes of Prunus avium barks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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13 pages, 3194 KiB  
Article
In vitro Antibiotic and Modulatory Activity of Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze against Candida strains
by Adrielle Rodrigues Costa, José Weverton Almeida Bezerra, Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Maria Audilene de Freitas, Viviane Bezerra da Silva, João Cruz Neto, Antonia Thassya Lucas dos Santos, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais Braga, Leomara Andrade da Silva, Maria Ivaneide Rocha, Jean Paul Kamdem, Marcello Iriti, Sara Vitalini, Antonia Eliene Duarte and Luiz Marivando Barros
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9020046 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4029
Abstract
The emergence of fungal resistance to commercial drugs has been a major problem for the WHO. In this context, research with natural products is promising in the discovery of new active substances. Thus, this work evaluated the antifungal effect of a medicinal plant [...] Read more.
The emergence of fungal resistance to commercial drugs has been a major problem for the WHO. In this context, research with natural products is promising in the discovery of new active substances. Thus, this work evaluated the antifungal effect of a medicinal plant (i.e., Mesosphaerum suaveolens) against strains of the genus Candida, tested the combined effect with the drug fluconazole, and, finally, determined the phenolic constituents present in the species. Initially, aqueous extracts of leaves (AELMs) and aerial parts (AEAPMs) of the species were prepared. For microbiological assays, the minimum fungicidal concentration was determined by broth microdilution, and the combined effect of fluconazole extracts were verified by sub-inhibitory microdilution concentrations (CFM/8) followed by spectrophotometric readings which were used to determine the IC50. HPLC detected the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, detecting eight compounds present in the samples of which caffeic acid and quercetin were major components. The AELMs modulated fluconazole activity since it decreased fluconazole’s IC50 from 7.8 µg/mL to an IC50 of 4.7 µg/mL (CA LM 77) and from 28.8 µg/mL to 18.26 µg/mL (CA INCQS 40006) for the C. albicans strains. The AEAPMs were able to potentiate the effect of fluconazole more effectively than the AELMs. Such an effect was significant for the 16 µg/mL concentration for CA LM 77 and 32 µg/mL for CA INCQS 40006. The AEAPMs as well as the AELMs presented clinically relevant activities for C. tropicalis strains. For the C. tropicalis LM 23 strain, the AEPMs obtained an IC50 of 25 µg/mL and the AELMs an IC50 of 359.9 µg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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8 pages, 1035 KiB  
Article
Effect of α-Bisabolol and Its β-Cyclodextrin Complex as TetK and NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains
by Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Maria do Socorro Costa, Antonia Thassya Lucas dos Santos, Fábia Ferreira Campina, Raimundo Luiz Silva Pereira, José Weverton Almeida Bezerra, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Adriano Antunes De Souza Araújo, José Pinto De Siqueira Júnior, Marcello Iriti, Elena Maria Varoni, Irwin Rose Alencar De Menezes, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho and Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010028 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4650
Abstract
Efflux pumps are proteins present in the plasma membrane of bacteria, which transport antibiotics and other compounds into the extracellular medium, conferring resistance. The discovery of natural efflux pump inhibitors is a promising alternative. α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from several plants such [...] Read more.
Efflux pumps are proteins present in the plasma membrane of bacteria, which transport antibiotics and other compounds into the extracellular medium, conferring resistance. The discovery of natural efflux pump inhibitors is a promising alternative. α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from several plants such as Matricaria chamomilla L. and has important properties such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Currently, the formation of inclusion complexes with β-Cyclodextrin has been used for improving the physicochemical characteristics of the host molecule. This study evaluated the effect of α-Bisabolol, in isolation and in complexation with β-Cyclodextrin, as TetK and NorA efflux pump inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Subsequently, inhibitory activity over the pumps was observed by an MIC reduction for the antibiotics, by using subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8) in combination with tetracycline and norfloxacin. The MIC of the compounds was ≥1024 μg/mL. α-Bisabolol potentiated the action of tetracycline and reduced the MIC of norfloxacin to a clinically relevant concentration. The complexed substance showed synergism however, the effect of the isolated α-Bisabolol was superior to the complex. These results indicate α-Bisabolol is a potential substance to be used as an efflux pump inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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8 pages, 469 KiB  
Article
Essential Oil of Croton ceanothifolius Baill. Potentiates the Effect of Antibiotics against Multiresistant Bacteria
by Ana C. J. de Araújo, Priscilla R. Freitas, Cristina Rodrigues dos Santos Barbosa, Débora F. Muniz, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, José B. de Araújo Neto, Maria M. C. da Silva, Talysson F. Moura, Raimundo L. S. Pereira, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Luiz E. da Silva, Wanderlei do Amaral, Cícero Deschamps, Saulo R. Tintino, Marcello Iriti, Sara Vitalini and Henrique D. Melo Coutinho
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010027 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3739
Abstract
This study is a pioneer in reporting the antibacterial properties of the species Croton ceanothifolius Baill. The genus Croton belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae composed of numerous species with documented biological activities. However, the pharmacological properties of C. ceanothifolius remain poorly understood. The [...] Read more.
This study is a pioneer in reporting the antibacterial properties of the species Croton ceanothifolius Baill. The genus Croton belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae composed of numerous species with documented biological activities. However, the pharmacological properties of C. ceanothifolius remain poorly understood. The leaves of this plant were submitted to hydrodistillation for essential oil (CcEO) extraction and the phytochemical characterization of the oil was performed by GC/MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the CcEO was determined for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The antibiotic-modulating activity of the oil, in combination with antibiotics, was also evaluated. The combination of the CcEO with penicillin, norfloxacin, and gentamicin presented a synergistic effect. This effect was more significant for the association with antibiotics of the quinolone and aminoglycoside classes against Escherichia coli. The association of oil with gentamicin showed better results with regard to the Gram-positive strain. The association of the oil with norfloxacin against P. aeruginosa also showed synergism, but the association with penicillin did not change the effect of this antibiotic. Thus, it is concluded that C. ceanothifolius essential oil selectively potentiates the action of antibiotics against multiresistant strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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11 pages, 1298 KiB  
Article
Photoinduced Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam and Piper mosenii C. DC. by Blue Led Light
by Rakel Olinda Macedo da Silva, José Walber Gonçalves Castro, Orlando de Menezes Dantas Junior, Ana Carolina Justino de Araújo, Maria Karollyna do Nascimento Silva Leandro, Raíra Justino Oliveira Costa, Luciely Leite Pinto, Lívia Maria Garcia Leandro, Luiz E. da Silva, Wanderlei do Amaral, Lucas D. Parabocz, Aurea P. Ferriani, Bruna Garcia, Beatriz H. L. N. Sales Maia, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Camila Fonseca Bezerra, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Maria Socorro Costa, Fábia Ferreira Campina, Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias, Marcello Iriti and Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinhoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040242 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3714
Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical composition and the antibacterial and antibiotic-modulating activities of the essential oils of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam (OEEb) and Piper mosenii C. DC (OEPm) singly or in association with blue LED (Light-emitting diode) light. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical composition and the antibacterial and antibiotic-modulating activities of the essential oils of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam (OEEb) and Piper mosenii C. DC (OEPm) singly or in association with blue LED (Light-emitting diode) light. The antibacterial and antibiotic-modulatory activities of the essential oils on the activity of aminoglycosides were evaluated to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, μg/mL) in the presence or absence of exposure to blue LED light. The chemical analysis showed α-pinene and bicyclogermacrene as major constituents of OEPm, whereas α-muurolol was the main compound of OEEb. Both OEEb and OEPm showed MIC ≥ 512 μg/mL against the strains under study. However, the association of these oils with the blue LED light enhanced the action of the aminoglycosides amikacin and gentamicin. In conclusion, the association of aminoglycosides with the blue LED light and essential oils was effective against resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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14 pages, 1974 KiB  
Article
UPLC-MS-ESI-QTOF Analysis and Antifungal Activity of the Spondias tuberosa Arruda Leaf and Root Hydroalcoholic Extracts
by Antonia Thassya Lucas dos Santos, Joara Nályda Pereira Carneiro, Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Débora Lima Sales, Jacqueline Cosmo Andrade, Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Edy Sousa de Brito, Francisco Lucas Alves Batista, Francisco Ernani Alves Magalhães, Marcello Iriti, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga and Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040240 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4197
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the chemical compositions and effects of the S. tuberosa leaf and root hydroalcoholic extracts (HELST and HERST) against different strains of Candida. Chemical analysis was performed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the chemical compositions and effects of the S. tuberosa leaf and root hydroalcoholic extracts (HELST and HERST) against different strains of Candida. Chemical analysis was performed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole/Time of Flight System (UPLC-MS-ESI-QTOF). The Inhibitory Concentration of 50% of the growth (IC50) as well as the intrinsic and combined action of the extracts with the antifungal fluconazole (FCZ) were determined by the microdilution method while the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) and the effect on fungal morphological transitions were analyzed by subculture and in humid chambers, respectively. From the preliminary phytochemical analysis, the phenols and flavonoids were the most abundant. The intrinsic IC50 values for HELST ranged from 5716.3 to 7805.8 µg/mL and from 6175.4 to 51070.9 µg/mL for the HERST, whereas the combination of the extracts with fluconazole presented IC50 values from 2.65 to 278.41 µg/mL. The MFC of the extracts, individually, for all the tested strains was ≥16384 µg/mL. When fluconazole was combined with each extract, the MFC against CA URM 5974 was reduced (HELST: 2048 and HERST: 4096 µg/mL). Synergism was observed against standard C. albicans (CA) and C. tropicalis (CT) strains and with the root extract against the CT isolate. The leaf extract inhibited the morphological transition of all strains while the root extract inhibited only CT strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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13 pages, 8870 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Vanillic Acid against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae
by Weidong Qian, Yuting Fu, Miao Liu, Ting Wang, Jianing Zhang, Min Yang, Zhaohuan Sun, Xiang Li and Yongdong Li
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040220 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5084 | Retraction
Abstract
Vanillic acid (VA) is a flavoring agent found in edible plants and fruits. Few recent studies exhibited robust antibacterial activity of VA against several pathogen microorganisms. However, little was reported about the effect of VA on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (CREC). The purpose of [...] Read more.
Vanillic acid (VA) is a flavoring agent found in edible plants and fruits. Few recent studies exhibited robust antibacterial activity of VA against several pathogen microorganisms. However, little was reported about the effect of VA on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (CREC). The purpose of the current study was to assess in vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of VA against CREC. Here, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of VA against CREC was determined via gradient diffusion method. Furthermore, the antibacterial mode of VA against CREC was elucidated by measuring changes in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, intracellular pH (pHin), cell membrane potential and membrane integrity. In addition, antibiofilm formation of VA was measured by crystal violet assay and visualized with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that MIC of VA against E. cloacae was 600 μg/mL. VA was capable of inhibiting the growth of CREC and destroying the cell membrane integrity of CREC, as confirmed by the decrease of intracellular ATP concentration, pHin and membrane potential as well as distinctive variation in cellular morphology. Moreover, crystal violet staining, FESEM and CLSM results indicated that VA displayed robust inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of CREC and inactivated biofilm-related CREC cells. These findings revealed that VA exhibits potent antibacterial activity against CREC, and thus has potential to be exploited as a natural preservative to control the CREC associated infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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18 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Decoding Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Malaysian Green Seaweeds: Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa lentillifera
by Wing-Fai Yap, Vangene Tay, Sie-Hui Tan, Yoon-Yen Yow and Jactty Chew
Antibiotics 2019, 8(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8030152 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 11015
Abstract
Seaweeds are gaining a considerable amount of attention for their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa lentillifera, also known as ‘sea grapes’, are green seaweeds commonly found in different parts of the world, but the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are gaining a considerable amount of attention for their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa lentillifera, also known as ‘sea grapes’, are green seaweeds commonly found in different parts of the world, but the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of Malaysian C. racemosa and C. lentillifera have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, crude extracts of the seaweeds were prepared using chloroform, methanol, and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured, followed by in vitro antioxidant activity determination using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Antibacterial activities of these extracts were tested against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis was then used to determine the possible compounds present in the extract with the most potent antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Results showed that C. racemosa chloroform extract had the highest TPC (13.41 ± 0.86 mg GAE/g), antioxidant effect (EC50 at 0.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL), and the strongest antibacterial effect (97.7 ± 0.30%) against MRSA. LCMS analysis proposed that the chloroform extracts of C. racemosa are mainly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, terpenes, and alkaloids. In conclusion, C. racemosa can be a great source of novel antioxidant and antibacterial agents, but isolation and purification of the bioactive compounds are needed to study their mechanism of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

42 pages, 33458 KiB  
Review
Anti-Fungal Efficacy and Mechanisms of Flavonoids
by Mohammed Saleh Al Aboody and Suresh Mickymaray
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9020045 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 189 | Viewed by 14054
Abstract
The prevalence of fungal infections is growing at an alarming pace and the pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. Recurrence of these fungal diseases is often due to their evolutionary avoidance of antifungal resistance. The development of suitable novel antimicrobial agents for fungal [...] Read more.
The prevalence of fungal infections is growing at an alarming pace and the pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. Recurrence of these fungal diseases is often due to their evolutionary avoidance of antifungal resistance. The development of suitable novel antimicrobial agents for fungal diseases continues to be a major problem in the current clinical field. Hence, it is urgently necessary to develop surrogate agents that are more effective than conventional available drugs. Among the remarkable innovations from earlier investigations on natural-drugs, flavonoids are a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many valuable effects on humans. The identification of flavonoids with possible antifungal effects at small concentrations or in synergistic combinations could help to overcome this problem. A combination of flavonoids with available drugs is an excellent approach to reduce the side effects and toxicity. This review focuses on various naturally occurring flavonoids and their antifungal activities, modes of action, and synergetic use in combination with conventional drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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