Mucocutaneous Manifestations of HIV after 40 Years from the First Case

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 10028

Special Issue Editors


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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Interests: oral medicine; oral diseases; oral health; evidence based dentistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The year 1991 represents a crucial year for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. In June of that year, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported two clusters of rare diseases, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s Sarcoma, respectively, which mostly affected gay American men, previously healthy.

Since then, the scientific community has been tirelessly devoted to investigating etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and treatment, achieving important successes.

Most patients show at least one mucocutaneous HIV/AIDS-related manifestation in their clinical history; it often occurs at the early onset of the infection and correlates with the immunologic stage and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Efforts towards new, additional therapies and preventive strategies are now underway, following the important recent discoveries on AIDS pathogenesis. These therapies have outcomes on oral and cutaneous disorders, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary approach to these patients.

We kindly invite clinical and basic researchers to submit original research, review or expert opinion articles about pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS, with a particular focus on skin and oral disorders.

Prof. Dr. Elena Maria Varoni
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giovanni Lodi
Co-Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • muco-cutaneous diseases
  • oral diseases
  • acquired immunodeficiency
  • HIV vaccine
  • virome
  • Kaposi’s Sarcoma
  • human papillomavirus
  • candidiasis
  • anti-retroviral therapy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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29 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses among HIV-Positive Women with Clinical Manifestations of Tuberculosis in a Middle-Income Country
by Maria Isaguliants, Marina Nosik, Anastasia Karlsen, Natalia Petrakova, Marina Enaeva, Natalia Lebedeva, Daria Podchufarova, Vita Laga, Konstantin Gromov, Anatoly Nazarov, Sona Chowdhury, Mikhail Sinitsyn, Alexander Sobkin, Natalya Chistyakova, Svetlana Aleshina, Alexei Grabarnik and Joel M. Palefsky
Biomedicines 2021, 9(6), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060683 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
Women living with HIV-1 are at high risk of infection with human papillomavirus of high carcinogenic risk (HR HPVs). M. tuberculosis (TB) promotes HPV infection and increases the risk to develop HPV-associated cancer. Our knowledge of persisting HR HPVs genotypes, and of the [...] Read more.
Women living with HIV-1 are at high risk of infection with human papillomavirus of high carcinogenic risk (HR HPVs). M. tuberculosis (TB) promotes HPV infection and increases the risk to develop HPV-associated cancer. Our knowledge of persisting HR HPVs genotypes, and of the factors promoting HR HPV infection in people living with HIV-1 with clinical TB manifestations is sparse. Here, we analyzed 58 women living with HIV-1 with clinical TB manifestations (WLWH with TB) followed up in specialized centers in Russia, a middle income country endemic for HIV-1 and TB, for the presence in cervical smears of DNA of twelve HR HPV genotypes. DNA encoding HPV16 E5, E6/E7 was sequenced. Sociodemographic data of patients was collected by questionnaire. All women were at C2-C3 stages of HIV-infection (by CDC). The majority were over 30 years old, had secondary education, were unemployed, had sexual partners, experienced 2–3 pregnancies and at least one abortion, and were smokers. The most prevalent was HPV16 detected in the cervical smears of 38% of study participants. Altogether 34.5% of study participants were positive for HR HPV types other than HPV16; however, but none of these types was seen in more than 7% of tested samples. Altogether, 20.7% of study participants were positive for several HR HPV types. Infections with HPVs other than HPV16 were common among WLWH with generalized TB receiving combined ART/TB-therapy, and associated with their ability to work, indirectly reflecting both their health and lifestyle. The overall prevalence of HR HPVs was associated with sexual activity of women reflected by the number of pregnancies, and of HPV 16, with young age; none was associated to CD4+-counts, route of HIV-infection, duration of life with HIV, forms of TB-infection, or duration of ART, characterizing the immune status. Thus, WLWH with TB—especially young—were predisposed to infection with HPV16, advancing it as a basis for a therapeutic HPV vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis of HPV16 E5, E6/E7 DNA revealed no common ancestry; sequences were similar to those of the European and American HPV16 strains, indicating that HPV vaccine for WLWH could be the same as HPV16 vaccines developed for the general population. Sociodemographic and health correlates of HR HPV prevalence in WLWH deserve further analysis to develop criteria/recommendations for prophylactic catch-up and therapeutic HPV vaccination of this highly susceptible and vulnerable population group. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 2577 KiB  
Review
Molecular Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Disease of Oropharyngeal Mucosal Epithelium
by Sharof M. Tugizov
Biomedicines 2023, 11(5), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11051444 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
The oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia have a polarized organization, which is critical for maintaining a highly efficient barrier as well as innate immune functions. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, the barrier and innate immune functions of the oral mucosa [...] Read more.
The oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia have a polarized organization, which is critical for maintaining a highly efficient barrier as well as innate immune functions. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, the barrier and innate immune functions of the oral mucosa are impaired via a number of mechanisms. The goal of this review was to discuss the molecular mechanisms of HIV/AIDS-associated changes in the oropharyngeal mucosa and their role in promoting HIV transmission and disease pathogenesis, notably the development of opportunistic infections, including human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus. In addition, the significance of adult and newborn/infant oral mucosa in HIV resistance and transmission was analyzed. HIV/AIDS-associated changes in the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium and their role in promoting human papillomavirus-positive and negative neoplastic malignancy are also discussed. Full article
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27 pages, 2250 KiB  
Review
HIV-1-Mediated Acceleration of Oncovirus-Related Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers
by Jessica Proulx, Maria Ghaly, In-Woo Park and Kathleen Borgmann
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040768 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), overall survival has been improved, and the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers has also been remarkably reduced. However, non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated malignancies have increased significantly so that cancer is [...] Read more.
With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), overall survival has been improved, and the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers has also been remarkably reduced. However, non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated malignancies have increased significantly so that cancer is the leading cause of death in people living with HIV in certain highly developed countries, such as France. However, it is currently unknown how HIV-1 infection raises oncogenic virus-mediated cancer risks in the HIV-1 and oncogenic virus co-infected patients, and thus elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for how HIV-1 expedites the oncogenic viruses-triggered tumorigenesis in the co-infected hosts is imperative for developing therapeutics to cure or impede the carcinogenesis. Hence, this review is focused on HIV-1 and oncogenic virus co-infection-mediated molecular processes in the acceleration of non-AIDS-defining cancers. Full article
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