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Eng. Proc., 2024, MEST 2023

The 7th Mechanical Engineering, Science and Technology International Conference

Surakarta, Indonesia | 21–22 December 2023

Volume Editors:

Agus Dwi Anggono, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia
Taurista Perdana Syawitri, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia
Dessy Ade Pratiwi, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia
Ummi Kultsum, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia

Number of Papers: 28
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Cover Story (view full-size image): Now in its seventh year, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta organizes the 7th Mechanical Engineering, Science, and Technology (MEST) annual conference. The [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 141 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the 7th Mechanical Engineering, Science and Technology International Conference (MEST 2023)
by Agus Dwi Anggono, Taurista Perdana Syawitri, Dessy Ade Pratiwi and Ummi Kultsum
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063001 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The 7th Mechanical Engineering, Science, and Technology (MEST) Conference was held at the Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, Siti Walidah Main Building, seventh floor, 21–22 December 2023, in the Mechanical Engineering department [...] Full article
1 pages, 342 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Agus Dwi Anggono, Taurista Perdana Syawitri, Dessy Ade Pratiwi and Ummi Kultsum
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063002 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The publishers have received certification from the volume editors of the proceedings that all papers published in the conference proceedings of the 7th Mechanical Engineering, Science and Technology (MEST) conference were subjected to peer review, organized by the volume editors [...] Full article
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9 pages, 1433 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Assessment of Spark-Ignition Engine Combined with an HHO Generator
by Ummi Kultsum, Andi Ibrahim Soumi, Ananta Baharudin and Putra Dwi Manunggal
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063003 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
This study investigates the performance of a four-stroke, spark-ignition engine equipped with a commercial HHO generator that utilizes tap water for HHO gas production. Employing adjustable voltage levels (15 V, 25 V, and 30 V), the generator’s impact on engine performance was assessed [...] Read more.
This study investigates the performance of a four-stroke, spark-ignition engine equipped with a commercial HHO generator that utilizes tap water for HHO gas production. Employing adjustable voltage levels (15 V, 25 V, and 30 V), the generator’s impact on engine performance was assessed through experimental dyno tests, measuring torque, power, and fuel consumption, complemented by numerical analyses of HHO production and thermal efficiency. The results, comparing engine operation with and without the HHO system, aim to evaluate the HHO generator’s effectiveness as a fuel supplement for enhancing engine performance. Full article
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8 pages, 2680 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels with the Use of Synthetic Data via Generative Adversarial Networks
by Desmarita Leni, Dytchia Septi Kesuma, Maimuzar, Haris and Sicilia Afriyani
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063004 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 425
Abstract
This study involves data augmentation modeling using Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) on the tensile test data of austenitic stainless steel, which encompasses chemical compositions, heat treatments, and mechanical properties. The synthetic data generated by GAN is subsequently used as the training dataset for [...] Read more.
This study involves data augmentation modeling using Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) on the tensile test data of austenitic stainless steel, which encompasses chemical compositions, heat treatments, and mechanical properties. The synthetic data generated by GAN is subsequently used as the training dataset for six different algorithm models. The best-performing algorithm is selected based on the best evaluation metric values. The results of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test indicate that the distribution of synthetic data does not significantly differ from the distribution of experimental data. Furthermore, the training results of predictive models employing synthetic data with the six machine learning algorithms demonstrate that the gradient boosting model exhibits superior performance in predicting the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel. Full article
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10 pages, 585 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Maintenance Analysis of Raw Mill Machines in Cement Production
by Aditya Chandra Nugroho, Taurista Perdana Syawitri and Rafi Miftachul An’am
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063005 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
PT X is one of the companies that produces cement in Indonesia. Engine breakdowns do happen occasionally in raw mill machines in PT X. This study analyzed the cause of occasional breakdowns. The CC-2 raw mill machine had an average operational time of [...] Read more.
PT X is one of the companies that produces cement in Indonesia. Engine breakdowns do happen occasionally in raw mill machines in PT X. This study analyzed the cause of occasional breakdowns. The CC-2 raw mill machine had an average operational time of 4.8 days per week and a total breakdown time of 137.76 h. Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) analysis revealed an average OEE of 57%, with the performance rate being the most significant influence. The OEE of the CC-2 raw mill machine is below 65%, which is unacceptable, because it causes significant economic losses and very low company competitiveness. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) identified various causes for breakdowns, such as gas supply failure, wear/fatigue, electrical issues, and raw material quality. Suggestions for solutions are provided, including repairs, replacements, and preventive maintenance. Full article
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8 pages, 4474 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Microstructural Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Using CuZn and Zn Fillers on Aluminum 6061-T6: A Comparative Study
by Rudy Hantoko, Agus Dwi Anggono, Abdul Munir Hidayat Syah Lubis and Ngafwan.
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063006 - 26 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 271
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a pivotal solid-state method revolutionizing metal joining diverse manufacturing sectors. This study explored the transformative potential of FSW in welding various metal types, both ferrous and nonferrous, by its ability to create a minimal heat-affected zone (HAZ), thereby [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a pivotal solid-state method revolutionizing metal joining diverse manufacturing sectors. This study explored the transformative potential of FSW in welding various metal types, both ferrous and nonferrous, by its ability to create a minimal heat-affected zone (HAZ), thereby mitigating alterations to the microstructure. This research delved into the utilization of filler materials during the FSW process. The investigation centers on scrutinizing the microstructure within the weld nugget area of FSW, employing a 3.1 mm thick aluminum 6061-T6 sheet in a butt joint configuration. Brass and zinc, each 0.2 mm thick, were selected as fillers. Microstructural analyses conducted via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) specifically targeted the weld nugget and HAZ regions. The EDS analysis revealed a higher presence of zinc fillers within the weld nugget than brass, indicating more evenly dispersed grains. SEM observations also highlighted larger grain sizes associated with brass, which could lead to welding defects such as voids and cracks. As such, the study concluded that using zinc fillers manifests a superior microstructure compared to brass during the FSW process involving aluminum 6061-T6. Full article
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9 pages, 1007 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effect of Modified Kepok Banana (Musa acuminata × balbisiana) Starch Substitution on the Fat, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch Content of Product Cookies
by Nain Azizah and Aan Sofyan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063007 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Kepok banana can be used as a functional food ingredient. Efforts were made to improve the functional properties of Kepok banana starch by modifying it by autoclaving cooling. Modified banana starch can be combined with other flours in food products. The study objective [...] Read more.
Kepok banana can be used as a functional food ingredient. Efforts were made to improve the functional properties of Kepok banana starch by modifying it by autoclaving cooling. Modified banana starch can be combined with other flours in food products. The study objective was to determine the effect of modified Kepok banana starch substitution on the fat, dietary fiber, and resistant starch content of cooky products. The experimental design involved four treatments, which varied the percentage of modified banana starch substitution as follows: 0% (P0), 25% (P1), 50% (P2), and 75% (P3). Substitution with modified Kepok banana starch increased the fat, dietary fiber, and resistant starch content. Full article
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6 pages, 4406 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Heating Temperature on Indoor Photovoltaics
by Dessy Ade Pratiwi, Andi Ibrahim Soumi and Wafiq Kurniawan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063008 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to investigate the performance of photovoltaic modules when used in different heating temperatures. The heating temperature variants used were room T, TA = 50 °C, TB = 60 °C, and TC = 70 °C. The lamp capacity [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the performance of photovoltaic modules when used in different heating temperatures. The heating temperature variants used were room T, TA = 50 °C, TB = 60 °C, and TC = 70 °C. The lamp capacity used was 5 watts with a bulb-type lamp. In addition, the circuit used was a series circuit. This research done on the effect of different temperatures of the heater placed under the photovoltaics showed that when there was an increase in the photovoltaic temperature, the voltage, current, power, and efficiency decreased. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the temperature used for photovoltaics. Full article
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8 pages, 623 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Analysis of Batik Solo Trans Corridor-6 Services
by Nurul Hidayati, Ilham Damarjati, Gotot S. Mulyono and Alfia Magfirona
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063009 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The development of public transport in Surakarta City can be seen from the existence of Batik Solo Trans Corridor-6. This route passes through several types of land uses so that the passengers are very diverse. This article is focused on analyzing the user [...] Read more.
The development of public transport in Surakarta City can be seen from the existence of Batik Solo Trans Corridor-6. This route passes through several types of land uses so that the passengers are very diverse. This article is focused on analyzing the user characteristics and their assessment of the service performance and operations. The data required consist of: bus arrival/departure time, number of passengers getting on/off, distance between stops, number of passengers, and occupancy rate. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires offline on the bus to obtain respondents. The performance analysis refers to the Minister of Transportation Regulation, and the World Bank. The analysis results show that the majority of respondents were female, aged 15–25 years, and students. Other results show that most BST users change modes once, using private vehicles and walking, and come from the Timuran to the Al Islam High School Bus Stop. Operational parameters that meet the standards are headway, travel speed, and stopping time, while those that do not meet the standards are the load factor and travel time. However, the respondent satisfaction level obtained was 76.78%. This value states that the service is still in the good category according to what is felt when using the service. Full article
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9 pages, 3566 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of the Effect of Cutting Motion Speed in CNC Laser Cutting on Roughness and Accuracy
by Rizki Ghani Ghozali and Muttaqin Rahmat Pangaribawa
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063010 - 27 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 405
Abstract
The cutting speed of laser cutting is predicted to affect the roughness of its object. However, its roughness characteristics still need to be determined to consider whether it is tolerant. The aspects of cutting products are studied intensely. Specific cutting styles with different [...] Read more.
The cutting speed of laser cutting is predicted to affect the roughness of its object. However, its roughness characteristics still need to be determined to consider whether it is tolerant. The aspects of cutting products are studied intensely. Specific cutting styles with different plates like Eser thick versus velocity of the cut varied, affecting the fineness of surface cutting. However, a monitor showing frequency and period explained the more significant roughness. Those are predicted to be straightforward for checking samples. Using CMM and the Surface Roughness Tester, the cutting parameter and its process can be recommended for future applications. The brief used Eser plate cutting using CNC laser cutting with thicknesses of 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm with cutting speeds of 1 m/min, 1.4 m/min, and 2 m/min. The best cutting speed was 2 m/min for a plate thickness of 3 mm, with an accuracy level of 98% and 98.51%, while the lowest Ra value was 6.51 µm. The plate thickness was 4 mm, the accuracy level was 98.05% and 98.77%, and the lowest Ra value was 4.183 µm. The plate thickness was 5 mm with an accuracy level of 97.7% and 97.99% and Ra of 8.995 µm. In the laser process, the thicker an object is, the lower its accuracy. In addition, the frequency of roughness sensitivity detection impacts more than its period during a standard operation. Full article
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6 pages, 2705 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Heat Treating Effect on WC-Co Tool Tip Scraps Reinforcement in Hadfield Austenitic Manganese Steel
by Wiwik Purwadi, Ari Siswanto and Gita Novian Hermana
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063011 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
A study of the utilization of WC-Co tool tip scraps as reinforcement in MMC with a Hadfield austenitic manganese steel matrix was conducted using an in situ metal casting technique. This study concerns the effect of the heat-treatment process on the cast sample [...] Read more.
A study of the utilization of WC-Co tool tip scraps as reinforcement in MMC with a Hadfield austenitic manganese steel matrix was conducted using an in situ metal casting technique. This study concerns the effect of the heat-treatment process on the cast sample of MMC. The results show that the heating temperature affects the grain size of the austenite around the interface between Hadfield austenitic manganese steel and WC-Co tool tip scraps. Heating at high temperatures leads to an increase in the austenite grain size. Microstructure analysis also shows that the heat-treatment process does not affect the bond between WC-Co tool tip scraps and Hadfield austenitic manganese steel. However, mechanical property testing reveals that higher heat-treatment temperatures result in a decrease in the hardness of the MMC. Full article
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10 pages, 239 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Challenges and Opportunities for Applying Meta-Heuristic Methods in Vehicle Routing Problems: A Review
by Wayan Firdaus Mahmudy, Agus Wahyu Widodo and Alfabiet Husien Haikal
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063012 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is related to determining the route of several vehicles to distribute goods to customers efficiently and minimize transportation costs or optimize other objective functions. VRP variations will continue to emerge as manufacturing industry production distribution problems become increasingly [...] Read more.
The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is related to determining the route of several vehicles to distribute goods to customers efficiently and minimize transportation costs or optimize other objective functions. VRP variations will continue to emerge as manufacturing industry production distribution problems become increasingly complex. Meta-heuristic methods have emerged as a powerful solution to overcome the complexity of VRP. This article provides a comprehensive review of the use of meta-heuristic methods in solving VRP and the challenges faced. A review of popular meta-heuristic methods is presented, including Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony Optimization. The advantages of each method in solving the VRP and its role in solving complex distribution problems are discussed in detail. Challenges that may be encountered in using meta-heuristics for VRPs are analyzed, along with strategies to overcome these challenges. This article also recommends further research that includes adaptation to more complex VRP variants, incorporation of meta-heuristic methods, parameter optimization, and practical implementation in real-world scenarios. Overall, this review explains the important role of meta-heuristic methods as intelligent solutions to increasingly complex distribution and logistics challenges. Full article
8 pages, 2771 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Consumption for Three-Wheeled Electric Vehicle with Variations in Weight and Speed
by Alex Taufiqurrohman Zain, Dwi Djoko Suranto, Cahyaning Nur Karimah, Faruq Avero Azhar and Dicky Adi Tyagita
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063013 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Electric vehicles have promising prospects for development. Our research method began with the stages of designing and calculating of a three-wheeled electric vehicle prototype. The prototype design was realized through fabrication of frame and body components. Furthermore, testing by providing weight variations was [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have promising prospects for development. Our research method began with the stages of designing and calculating of a three-wheeled electric vehicle prototype. The prototype design was realized through fabrication of frame and body components. Furthermore, testing by providing weight variations was carried out in this research. This paper will determine the performance of the electric vehicle and the battery used. With the lightest weight (45 kg) at a slow speed (12 km/h), the lowest voltage drop was obtained, 6.36 V, while with the heaviest load (105 kg) at a higher speed (17 km/h), the highest decrease in voltage value was obtained, 8.96 V. Meanwhile, the measured electric current was still fluctuating. It was found that when deceleration occurs, the flowing current decreases, whereas when acceleration occurs, there is an increase in the value of the electric current. Full article
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8 pages, 14595 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Volume Fraction of Epoxy Matrix Coconut Shell Composite on Tensile and Impact Loads
by Agus Hariyanto, Agus Dwi Anggono, Dessy Ade Pratiwi, Anas Bariquddin Amali, Sekar Melaty, Zanuar Kusuma Adi, Ngafwan, Supriyono and Ummi Kultsum
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063014 - 28 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 230
Abstract
This research aims to determine the effect of the volume fraction of coconut shell composite, with an epoxy matrix at 10% coconut shell water content, on the composite’s tensile strength, impact, density, and fracture results with the macrostructure. The materials used to make [...] Read more.
This research aims to determine the effect of the volume fraction of coconut shell composite, with an epoxy matrix at 10% coconut shell water content, on the composite’s tensile strength, impact, density, and fracture results with the macrostructure. The materials used to make this composite are coconut shell particles, with a diameter of 1mm at a water content of 10%, and epoxy matrix and hardener, in a ratio of 1:1. Variations in volume fraction are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The composite was manufactured using a press mold. Composite testing was in accordance with ASTM standards for tensile testing, using ASTM D 638-02 and impact testing using ASTM D 256-00. Macro photo results that determine the type of fracture that occurred were taken of the fracture resulting from tensile and impact tests. The test results showed that the highest tensile strength was at a volume fraction of 40% of 21.59 MPa, and the lowest was at 10% of 7.15 MPa. The highest impact value was shown in a composite with a volume fraction of 50% of 0.074 J/mm2, and the lowest had a volume fraction of 10% of 0.010 J/mm2. The highest density was a composite with a volume fraction of 50% of 1.067 gr/cm3, and the lowest had a volume fraction of 10% of 1.014 gr/cm3. In observing the fracture after tensile and impact testing, it can be seen that the fracture was brittle, and the direction of crack propagation is perpendicular to the direction of the tensile stress that is acting to produce a relatively flat fracture surface. Full article
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6 pages, 1702 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Heat Dissipation in Microchannel Heat Sinks: A Comprehensive Study on Al2O3 Nanoparticle Concentration and Flow Rate Dependencies
by Ngisomudin, Agus Dwi Anggono, Marwan Effendy and Ngafwan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063015 - 28 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 299
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influence of Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration and flow rate on the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat sink. A testing apparatus was constructed to examine a microchannel heat sink coupled with an Al2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influence of Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration and flow rate on the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat sink. A testing apparatus was constructed to examine a microchannel heat sink coupled with an Al2O3 nanoparticle fluid. Temperature sensors were strategically placed at the microchannel heat sink’s entrance (T-in) and exit (T-out). Furthermore, a heating element (T-heater) was utilized to monitor the temperature of the nanoparticle fluid. This experimental setup allowed for precise temperature measurements in the system. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles were thoroughly dispersed in water for 15 min using a magnetic stirrer, resulting in a uniform mixture with concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 1%. The experiments involved altering the flow rates within the range of 0.2 to 1.4 L per minute, enabling the monitoring of temperature changes (T). The heat transfer coefficient positively correlated with escalating concentrations of Al2O3 particles. Incorporating nanoparticles up to a concentration of 1% significantly enhanced the heat transfer coefficient by 17.29%. Additionally, a direct relationship was observed between the heat transfer coefficient and the increase in the flow rate of the Al2O3/water nanofluid. Specifically, when the flow rate was increased from 0.2 to 1.4 lpm, a significant enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient of 29.95% was achieved. Full article
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8 pages, 340 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effect of Kepok Banana Starch Substitution (Musa paradisiaca L.) Modifications on the Texture and Color of Mocaf Flour Caramel Sponge
by Nadia Aqiela Laili and Aan Sofyan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063016 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
This research aimed to determine the effect of modified kepok banana starch substitution on the texture (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess) and caramel sponge color with four different modified starch substitution percentages. This research is experimental research with RAL (Completely Randomized Design). The [...] Read more.
This research aimed to determine the effect of modified kepok banana starch substitution on the texture (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess) and caramel sponge color with four different modified starch substitution percentages. This research is experimental research with RAL (Completely Randomized Design). The research results show that the values of hardness for caramel sponge cake were 27.48 N, 26.89 N, 26.86 N, and 16.66 N. The values of adhesiveness were 0.38 Nmm, 0.14 Nmm, 0.63 Nmm, and 1.21 Nmm. The cohesiveness values for the caramel cake were 0.34, 0.43, 0.40, 0.31. The values of gumminess were 9.85 N, 11.90 N, 11.02 N, 5.20 N. The L values for caramel cake were 26.61, 25.92, 32.00, and 32.31. The a values for caramel cake were 7.22, 8.83, 8.34, and 6.73, whereas the b values were 15.17, 13.64, 14.84, and 11.56. This research demonstrates that there is an effect of modified kepok banana starch substitution on the texture profile of hardness and on the L value of caramel cake color. Full article
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10 pages, 2978 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effect of Composite Flour Composition (Sorghum, Mocaf, and Wheat) on the Elongation, Tensile Strength, and Acceptance of Noodles
by Dina Alviani Prihayati and Eni Purwani
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063017 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
This research was conducted to determine the effect of composite flour composition on the elongation, tensile strength, and acceptability of wet noodles. Experimental research was conducted with three different ratios of sorghum flour:mocaf:wheat, namely, A (40:30:30), B (30:35:35), and C (20:40:40). Elongation and [...] Read more.
This research was conducted to determine the effect of composite flour composition on the elongation, tensile strength, and acceptability of wet noodles. Experimental research was conducted with three different ratios of sorghum flour:mocaf:wheat, namely, A (40:30:30), B (30:35:35), and C (20:40:40). Elongation and tensile strength were tested using a Universal Testing Machine. Acceptability was tested by a hedonic test using data from 35 slightly trained panelists. Elongation and tensile strength data were analyzed by a one-way ANOVA test. Acceptability was analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test. The average noodle elongation in the A, B, and C treatments was 7.26%, 10.74%, and 12.96%. The average noodle tensile strength in the A, B, and C treatments was 0.0350 MPa, 0.0375 MPa, and 0.0378 MPa. The average hedonic test results for the A, B, and C treatments based on overall preference were 3.14, 3.49, and 3.86. The composite flour composition ratio significantly affected elongation and acceptability of color, taste, texture, and overall preference, but did it not significantly affect tensile strength and aroma acceptability. Full article
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11 pages, 4075 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mapping Activity-Based Segregation of Names in Dublin Using Google Point of Interest Data
by Punit Gupta, Hamidreza Rabiei-Dastjerdi and Gavin McArdle
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063018 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 359
Abstract
The current generation of cities with vast cultures and heritage is influenced by various factors like immigrants from different countries, religious heritage, tourism, and many more factors. Segregation in geographical regions is one of the ways to find patterns in cities influenced by [...] Read more.
The current generation of cities with vast cultures and heritage is influenced by various factors like immigrants from different countries, religious heritage, tourism, and many more factors. Segregation in geographical regions is one of the ways to find patterns in cities influenced by gender, religion, age, income, and many more. In this study, an HDBSCAN-based activity segregation model using Google POI (Point of Interest) is proposed to study the multi-density patterns of reviewers, with possible Indian names, and activities in the Dublin metropolitan area. In this work, the POI dataset is used to study the activity segregation of Indian names in Dublin. This research uses the username to identify the possible gender and nationality of the reviewer using the NamSor app (a machine learning model for prediction of gender and nationality) with an accuracy of 92%. The result shows the proposed HDBSCAN models identify 16 unique segregations which is just nine clusters using the traditional DBSCAN classification model. Full article
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9 pages, 729 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Method for Determining Fracture Energy of a Polypropylene Coarse Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Beam Using Digital Image Correlation
by Sittati Musalamah, Heru Purnomo and Nuraziz Handika
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063019 - 5 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 339
Abstract
This study aimed to propose a method for determining the fracture behavior of sand-coated polypropylene coarse aggregate lightweight concrete (PP-LWAC). To understand the fracture response, an experimental investigation is carried out on 36 beam specimens and PP-LWAC is prepared using sand-coated PP aggregate [...] Read more.
This study aimed to propose a method for determining the fracture behavior of sand-coated polypropylene coarse aggregate lightweight concrete (PP-LWAC). To understand the fracture response, an experimental investigation is carried out on 36 beam specimens and PP-LWAC is prepared using sand-coated PP aggregate based on previous study. The mix proportion is designed to match with three different specified compressive strengths. The Work of Fracture Method (WFM) and Size Effect Method (SEM) is used to define the fracture parameters, proposing the relationship between the fracture parameters and the compressive strength. Additionally, the crack mechanism is studied using the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method. Full article
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9 pages, 4195 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A CNC Turning Process Simulation for a Polygonal Shaft Using CAM ESPRIT Software
by Yanyan Achmad Hoesen, Maulana Furqon, Novrinaldi, Umi Hanifah and Nur Arifudin Rofik
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063020 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Machining process simulation is a method to increase machining quality and efficiency. The right cutting tool geometry and parameters are chosen during the machining simulation process to create a variety of precision component shapes. A machining simulation for the production of polygonal shafts [...] Read more.
Machining process simulation is a method to increase machining quality and efficiency. The right cutting tool geometry and parameters are chosen during the machining simulation process to create a variety of precision component shapes. A machining simulation for the production of polygonal shafts is presented in this paper. The quality of the parabolic shaft during manufacture will be directly impacted by the machining process, which is simulated using the proper tools and appropriate machining parameters. CAM ESPRIT TNG (x64) software is used in the simulation to simulate the turning and milling process. The machining process can be made more efficient because the simulation process demonstrates that every step of the process operates as intended. Full article
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9 pages, 4989 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimization of Waterblock Cooling Water Flow Rate in a Thermoelectric Generator Charcoal Furnace
by Hendi Lilih Wijayanto, Angga Tegar Setiawan, Amiruddin, Yusdianto and Nugroho Tri Atmoko
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063021 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 325
Abstract
In this research, a thermoelectric generator is used to absorb waste heat on the walls of a wood charcoal burning stove to produce electrical energy. The research was carried out using 4 Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) attached to the outer wall of the furnace. [...] Read more.
In this research, a thermoelectric generator is used to absorb waste heat on the walls of a wood charcoal burning stove to produce electrical energy. The research was carried out using 4 Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) attached to the outer wall of the furnace. The walls of the charcoal stove’s combustion chamber are designed with aluminum plates. A water block cooling system with water flow is used to overcome the increase in heat at the cold side of TEG. The DC water pump power used to circulate the water block is 215 L/h, 275 L/h, 320 L/h, 350 L/h, 375 L/h, and 400 L/h. This research aims to find the most optimal water flow rate at a water block. Temperature measurements are carried out on the recent and bloodless facets of the TEG, and the temperature of the inlet and outlet water of the water block. Changes in TEG voltage, current, and output power are recorded with a multimeter connected to the acquisition data. Analysis of energy balance and heat transfer was carried out in the furnace’s combustion chamber. The experimental results show that the cooling water flow rate of 275 L/h can produce the highest electrical power, around 11.17 W. The use of TEGs as a medium for generating electrical energy from wasted heat through the furnace’s walls can meet some of a household’s electrical energy needs. Full article
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9 pages, 1571 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Utilization of PP Plastic Waste for Fuel Oil Production through Pyrolysis Process with Rice Husk Briquette Burning Gasification
by Wijianto and Wahyu Hayatullah
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063022 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The main energy used today is fossil energy which is decreasing and cannot be replaced. Meanwhile, the Indonesian people themselves are facing a problem as well as a great opportunity, namely, plastic waste and the potential of use rice husks, respectively. This study [...] Read more.
The main energy used today is fossil energy which is decreasing and cannot be replaced. Meanwhile, the Indonesian people themselves are facing a problem as well as a great opportunity, namely, plastic waste and the potential of use rice husks, respectively. This study aimed to determine the most effective flame and most effective temperature for combustion in rice husk gasification, and to determine the temperature in the distillation reactor, and then to determine the mass of oil produced from the pyrolysis process and determine the quality of PP (polypropylene) plastic pyrolysis oil. The method used was direct experiment. The test was carried out using two furnaces and was carried out in parallel six times. The results showed that the gasification of rice husk briquettes could be a source of combustion in the pyrolysis process. The time used in the pyrolysis process was 260 min while the average flame duration in the furnace over six test was 43.33 min. The average flame temperature over the six periods of combustion was 733.89 °C. Additionally, the average temperature at the bottom of the reactor was 593.564 °C, and the average temperature in the reactor chamber was 143.319 °C. This process was categorized as low-temperature pyrolysis. The mass produced from 3000 g of shredded PP (polypropylene) plastic waste produces 1.29 L of fuel oil. It is of note that the quality of plastic pyrolysis oil is not greatly different from kerosene, with a thermal efficiency of 38.60%. Full article
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7 pages, 2015 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Assessment of a Photovoltaic Cell Coupled with a Thermoelectric Generator
by Tri Widodo Besar Riyadi, Andi Ibrahim Soumi, Haryanto and Andi Hendrawan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063023 - 6 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 300
Abstract
Solar energy resources have been widely harvested through the use of photovoltaic cells. Nevertheless, its effectiveness is still tricky because the Sun’s heat is rarely considered. This study examined the performance of a photovoltaic-coupled thermoelectric generator. Temperature and light sensors were put in [...] Read more.
Solar energy resources have been widely harvested through the use of photovoltaic cells. Nevertheless, its effectiveness is still tricky because the Sun’s heat is rarely considered. This study examined the performance of a photovoltaic-coupled thermoelectric generator. Temperature and light sensors were put in the photovoltaic system and linked to a data-collecting system. The result demonstrates that adding a thermoelectric generator lowers the photovoltaic temperature, increasing the combined solar and thermoelectric generator’s power and efficiency. The endeavor aims to create a more efficient solar system by improving its design. Full article
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6 pages, 215 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Modified Banana Kepok (Musa paradisiaca L.) Starch Substitution on Resistant Starch, Protein, and Water Content in Steamed Brownies
by Rinanda Nur Arifah and Aan Sofyan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063024 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
A completely randomized design was used with four treatments including the control. The percentage of modified kepok banana starch substitution of the four treatments was 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively of the total weight of wheat flour. Data of the resistant starch [...] Read more.
A completely randomized design was used with four treatments including the control. The percentage of modified kepok banana starch substitution of the four treatments was 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively of the total weight of wheat flour. Data of the resistant starch test were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA statistical test followed by the Duncan test. Results: The highest resistant starch content was 6.27% at the 75% treatment, while the lowest resistant starch content was 3.98% at 0% treatment with a value of p = 0.000. The highest protein content was 9.16% at the 0% treatment, while the lowest protein content was 7.08% at 75% treatment with a value of p = 0.000. The highest water content was 30.11% at the 25% treatment, while the lowest water content was 26.91% at 75% treatment with a value of p = 0.112. Conclusions: There was an effect of the kepok banana starch substitution treatment on the resistant starch and protein content of steamed brownies, but there was no effect of the kepok banana starch substitution treatment on the water content of steamed brownies. Full article
12 pages, 2321 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Titanium Oxide (TiO2) on Natural Dyes for the Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
by Isioma M. Ezeh, Omamoke O. E. Enaroseha, Godwin K. Agbajor and Fidelis I. Achuba
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063025 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Titanium oxide (TiO2) is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high reflective index, traits surpassed by only a few other materials; it has gained adequate ground in the fabrication of solar cells due to its [...] Read more.
Titanium oxide (TiO2) is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high reflective index, traits surpassed by only a few other materials; it has gained adequate ground in the fabrication of solar cells due to its wide band gap of 3.32 eV. Various natural dyes such as laali plant dye, zobo leaf dye and tomato seed dye act as sensitizers. This research intends to explore the effect of this titanium oxide on enhancing sensitivity in light harvesting by using dye-sensitized solar cell fabrication. Indium tin oxide, one of the transparent, conducting optical glasses, was chosen for the photoanode, on which the prepared titanium powder and the extracted dye were coated using the screen printing method. TiO2 was screen printed over the TCO (ITO) or plain glass slide and annealed at 4000 °C for 3 min; then, the dyes were injected drop by drop and analysis was carried out for XRD and UV–optical. From the XRD results obtained for the laali dye, the XRD showed no prominent peaks and when improved by introducing titanium oxide, it showed the peaks as having a rutile nature which enhances light harvesting. The optical properties showed a transmittance edge at 350 nm which gradually increased as the wavelength increased with no visibility on the absorbance graph. For the tomato dye, a visible peak was observed and this increased with the addition of titanium oxide, while transmittance rose at 380 nm and fell at 550 nm, with no absorbance. The zobo dye showed no evidence of visible peaks and little change in the peak visibility with the addition of TiO2 was observed, with the transmittance edge at 350 nm, maximum at 390 nm and constant with TiO2 enhancement, and showing no visible absorbance properties. Laali and zobo are good transmittance materials, unlike the tomato dye which is a good absorbance material. Conclusively, TiO2 is effective in dye-sensitized solar cell fabrication since there were visible changes within the scientific environment which further enhanced light harvesting. Full article
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6 pages, 909 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Modification of Banana Kepok (Musa paradisiaca L.) Starch Substitution on Ash, Water, and Protein Content in Cookie Products
by Putri Eka Agustina Oprasita and Aan Sofyan
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063026 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Starch is composed of two types of carbohydrates, amylose and amylopectin. Improvements in the physical and chemical properties of natural starch can be made by modifying the starch. The modified starch has a healthy effect on the colon. The goal of this research [...] Read more.
Starch is composed of two types of carbohydrates, amylose and amylopectin. Improvements in the physical and chemical properties of natural starch can be made by modifying the starch. The modified starch has a healthy effect on the colon. The goal of this research is determine the effect of modified kepok banana starch substitution on ash, water, and protein content in cookies. The research used a completely randomized design (CRD). Comparison of modified kepok banana starch and wheat flour of 0%:100%, 25%:75%, 50%:50%, and 75%:25%. The highest cookie protein content was 6.26%; ash content was 2.97%; and water content was 8.83%. The conclusion is There is a relationship between the substitution of modified kepok banana starch and the protein content and ash content of the cookies. There was no effect of substitution of modified kepok banana starch on the moisture content of the cookies. Full article
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5 pages, 706 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flocculation of Sulfide Minerals with a Mixture of Potassium Xanthate Butyl and Water-Soluble Polymer
by Dilmurod Makhmarezhabov, Sokhibjon Matkarimov, Dilfuza Yavkochiva and Nasiba Yuldasheva
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063027 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 260
Abstract
The main task facing modern enrichment scientists is to maintain the quality of final concentrates (FCC) at the proper level. One of the main methods is the use of local reagents during flotation enrichment, the cost of which is many times lower than [...] Read more.
The main task facing modern enrichment scientists is to maintain the quality of final concentrates (FCC) at the proper level. One of the main methods is the use of local reagents during flotation enrichment, the cost of which is many times lower than that of imported reagents. Research on the use of polymers as collecting reagents in the flotation process is the main topic of these studies and of this article. Full article
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7 pages, 7251 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Air Pressure on Surface Roughness Values in the Sandblasting Process of ST-37 Steel Plates
by Muhammad As’ad, Bambang Waluyo Febriantoko, Tri Widodo Besar Riyadi and Ryan Fitrian Pahlevi
Eng. Proc. 2024, 63(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024063028 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 297
Abstract
This research explores the influence of air pressure on the surface roughness of ST-37 steel plates in the sandblasting process. Sandblasting is a common method in industry to enhance material surfaces. This study focuses on the effects of varying air pressure on surface [...] Read more.
This research explores the influence of air pressure on the surface roughness of ST-37 steel plates in the sandblasting process. Sandblasting is a common method in industry to enhance material surfaces. This study focuses on the effects of varying air pressure on surface roughness, crucial for achieving the desired quality. ST-37 steel plates, known for their strength and versatility, are used in various applications. The research involves a sandblasting process with different air pressures, analyzing surface roughness and contact area. The results indicate a direct correlation between increased air pressure, surface roughness, and contact area. Full article
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