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Volume 13, Priochem 2023
 
 

Chem. Proc., 2023, ECSOC 2023

The 27th International Electronic Conference on Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Online | 15–30 November 2023

Volume Editor: Julio A. Seijas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Number of Papers: 107
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The Electronic Conferences on Synthetic Organic Chemistry (ECSOC) have been hosting a series of online conferences since 1997, thanks to the original initiative by MDPI and later with the valuable [...] Read more.
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3051 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Strategic Preparation of Coordination Polymer Particles: A Computational Analysis of the Impact of Different Catechol-Based Ligands
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16098 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 216
Abstract
DFT calculations were applied to an iron/catechol derivative system to investigate their effect on the structure of CPPs as a function of (a) metal valence—Fe+2 and Fe+3 in high- and low-spin states; (b) type of chelating groups in the catechol derivatives [...] Read more.
DFT calculations were applied to an iron/catechol derivative system to investigate their effect on the structure of CPPs as a function of (a) metal valence—Fe+2 and Fe+3 in high- and low-spin states; (b) type of chelating groups in the catechol derivatives and their geometries; and (c) the aliphatic chain length between two chelating groups in a model polydentate ligand. The results indicate that catechol-pyridine and bis-catechol ligands, with Fe+3 salts, are promising combinations to synthesize CPPs. In addition, the inclusion of an aliphatic chain with four carbons between the chelating groups could enhance polymerization versus monomer formation. Full article
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704 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Structures Based on Furan-2(3H)-ones and Chromen-4(4H)-ones—Potential Antibacterial Activity
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16062 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 211
Abstract
One of the modern trends in medicinal chemistry is the design of multifunctional drugs with a wide spectrum of actions. The main approaches to the creation of such drugs are the construction of new biologically active substances containing two or more pharmacophore groups [...] Read more.
One of the modern trends in medicinal chemistry is the design of multifunctional drugs with a wide spectrum of actions. The main approaches to the creation of such drugs are the construction of new biologically active substances containing two or more pharmacophore groups in their structure or the introduction of an additional pharmacophore group into the molecule of a known drug. This work describes the synthesis of hybrid structures based on furan-2(3H)-ones and chromen-4(4H)-ones under the conditions of the Knoevenagel reaction. Various reaction conditions were screened. (E)-3-((2-oxo-5-arylfuran-3(2H)-ylidene)methyl)-4H-chromen-4-ones were obtained, and its structure was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy data. Based on NMR spectroscopy data, it was shown that the resulting compounds exist in the form of E-isomers. Full article
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899 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design, Synthesis and Structural Study of a Bisthiosemicarbazone Ligand Precursor of Metallosupramolecular Architectures
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16087 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 159
Abstract
The increase in the investigation of different self-assembled architectures derived from thiosemicarbazone ligands can be attributed to the numerous functional metallosupramolecular architectures with practical applications that can be obtained. The potentially tetradentate organic bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H2L possesses two flexible bidentate [...] Read more.
The increase in the investigation of different self-assembled architectures derived from thiosemicarbazone ligands can be attributed to the numerous functional metallosupramolecular architectures with practical applications that can be obtained. The potentially tetradentate organic bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H2L possesses two flexible bidentate [NS] domains separated by a short and rigid spacer, which could stabilize several metal ions and thus different metallosupramolecular architectures. H2L was prepared by the reaction between two equivalents of N-ethylhydrazinecarbothioamide and one equivalent of 1,1′,1″-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)tris(ethan-1-one) and was fully studied using several techniques, including X-ray diffraction. Full article
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3858 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Carbon Dots from Porphyridium cruentum Microalgae by High-Efficient Hydrothermal Approaches: Biocompatibility and Antioxidant Capabilities
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16074 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Fluorescent carbon dots (µAlgae-CDs) were successfully prepared from renewable Porphyridium cruentum biomass using a hydrothermal carbonization approach and ethylenediamine (ED) as a nitrogen additive. Structural and photophysical properties of the as-synthesized nanomaterials were evaluated using FTIR, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The [...] Read more.
Fluorescent carbon dots (µAlgae-CDs) were successfully prepared from renewable Porphyridium cruentum biomass using a hydrothermal carbonization approach and ethylenediamine (ED) as a nitrogen additive. Structural and photophysical properties of the as-synthesized nanomaterials were evaluated using FTIR, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The new µAlgae-CDs synthesized with a ratio of 0.16 of ED demonstrated good antioxidant properties by ABTS radical cation method and did not exhibit cytotoxicity against non-tumor Vero cells and tumor HeLa cells, showing potential application in bioimaging. Full article
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658 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of New Representatives of Push–Pull Enamines 5-Aryl-3-((dimethylamino)methylene)furan-2(3H)-Ones
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16056 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 180
Abstract
The conditions for the synthesis of dimethylaminomethylene derivatives were selected based on the interaction of arylfuran-2(3H)-ones and dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMA-DMF), proceeding through the methylene active unit of the furanone ring. The influence of the used solvent and the type of activation [...] Read more.
The conditions for the synthesis of dimethylaminomethylene derivatives were selected based on the interaction of arylfuran-2(3H)-ones and dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMA-DMF), proceeding through the methylene active unit of the furanone ring. The influence of the used solvent and the type of activation on the reaction rate and product yields was established. Using NMR spectroscopy and the one-dimensional version of NOESY1D with selective excitation of protons, it was revealed that these systems exist in the form of an E-configuration. Full article
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2254 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Conformational Study of n,n’-(Alkane-1,n-diyl)bis(2-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one)s with Different Spacer Length
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16053 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 180
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the conformational abilities of n,n’-(Alkanediyl)-bis(2-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one)s (1) to gain insight into their biological potential as a platform for the generation of various QACs. Among the conformers of 1, due to the flexibility of the [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the conformational abilities of n,n’-(Alkanediyl)-bis(2-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one)s (1) to gain insight into their biological potential as a platform for the generation of various QACs. Among the conformers of 1, due to the flexibility of the polymethylene fragment, the phenyl rings can take on different mutual arrangements, while there is a clear tendency for the formation of π–π interactions. From the point of view of the reactivity to alkylating agents, a preliminary conclusion can be drawn about the favorable mutual arrangement of imidazolone rings located at a sufficient distance to carry out both mono- and bisalkylation to obtain bis-QAC. Full article
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1518 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of Symmetrical Monocarbonyl Analogs of Curcumin Containing a 2-Bromobenzylidene Moiety and Spectrophotometric Assessment of Their Reactivity with 2-(Dimethylamino)ethanthiol
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16084 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 184
Abstract
The cross-conjugated dienones containing the 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadienyl pharmacophore have diverse biological activities. These sometimes-called monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs) have especially pronounced biological activity when containing an electron-withdrawing group at the ortho-position of the benzene ring. Their biological activity most likely stems from a [...] Read more.
The cross-conjugated dienones containing the 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadienyl pharmacophore have diverse biological activities. These sometimes-called monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs) have especially pronounced biological activity when containing an electron-withdrawing group at the ortho-position of the benzene ring. Their biological activity most likely stems from a selective Michael reaction with thiols. It has been reported in the literature that certain MACs (in particular, EF24) react as electrophiles with glutathione and form bis adducts in vitro. Five MACs were prepared ((2E,5E)-2,5-bis(2-bromobenzylidene)cyclopentanone, (2BrCP), (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-bromobenzylidene)cyclohexanone (2BrCX, B2BrBC), (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-bromobenzylidene)- 4-tert-butyl-cyclohexanone (4tB2BrCX), (3E,5E)-3,5-bis(2-bromobenzylidene)-4-piperidone, (2Br4PIP) and (3E,5E)-3,5-bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone, EF24), purified and characterized by spectroscopic means. The relative reactivity of these MACs towards 2-(dimethylamino)ethanethiol was assessed via a previously developed UV-Vis spectroscopic method and compared to EF24, which reacts readily in solution with thiols such as glutathione and cysteamine. All of the bis(2-bromobenzylidene) MACs react slower with 2-(dimethylamino)ethanethiol in 80:20 (v/v) acetonitrile/water compared to EF24. The relative reactivity of the analogs with 2-(dimethylamino)ethanethiol followed the order EF24 > 2Br4PIP > 2BrCX > 2BrCP > 4tB2BrCX. Full article
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3 pages, 533 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Reaction of 1,6-Diamino-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3,5-Dicarbonitriles with Certain Electrophilic Agents
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16081 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The reaction of 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles, which are easily available through the reaction of cyanoacetohydrazide with arylmethylene malononitriles, with ninhydrin leads to the formation of novel dihydroindeno[1,2-e]pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines. Another active carbonyl compound, glyoxal, reacts with 1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles under mild conditions to give functionalized 6-oxo-6H-pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazine-7,9-dicarbonitriles. Full article
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1157 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Analysis of Structure, Synthesis, and Properties of Polyaniline and Polypyrrole: Insights into Conductive Polymer Variability
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16058 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles were synthesized using a stabilizer—poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The obtained nanostructures of conducting polymers were characterized using advanced analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). These comprehensive analyses provided [...] Read more.
Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles were synthesized using a stabilizer—poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The obtained nanostructures of conducting polymers were characterized using advanced analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). These comprehensive analyses provided valuable insights into the morphology, size distribution, and spectral characteristics of the nanostructures, contributing to a deeper understanding of their potential applications in materials science and nanotechnology. Full article
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1751 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Crystal Structure of 2-(Ethoxymethylene)malononitrile and DFT Evaluation of the C-H···N≡C Close Contacts Energy
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16052 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 173
Abstract
2-(Ethoxymethylene)malononitrile (1) is a very convenient building block for the construction of various heterocycles and it is assumed to be an intermediate in different three-component reactions. Here, we present the results of XRD of (1) demonstrating the linkage of the co-oriented [...] Read more.
2-(Ethoxymethylene)malononitrile (1) is a very convenient building block for the construction of various heterocycles and it is assumed to be an intermediate in different three-component reactions. Here, we present the results of XRD of (1) demonstrating the linkage of the co-oriented molecules in crystal via C-H···N≡C non-covalent interactions. To evaluate the energy of such interactions, we conducted DFT simulations. The molecules of (1) are linked into infinite chains via C-H···N≡C close contacts with a distance of 2.494 Å. When performing theoretical measurements of the energy of H···N non-covalent interactions by DFT, it was determined by the M06-2X functional, equal to −1.20 kcal/mol, meaning weak attraction. Full article
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1782 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of Gold Nanorods for Multifaceted Applications
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16057 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Different length gold nanorods (AuNRs) were synthesized using different methods. The obtained AuNRs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. These techniques allowed for a detailed study of the structural and optical properties of the [...] Read more.
Different length gold nanorods (AuNRs) were synthesized using different methods. The obtained AuNRs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. These techniques allowed for a detailed study of the structural and optical properties of the AuNRs and provided valuable insights into the synthesis. The characterization results were crucial to guide the synthesis and to further understand the potential applications of AuNRs. Full article
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394 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quality Control in Cosmetics: A Five-Year Screening Survey on the Content of Phthalates in Colognes
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16118 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Phthalate esters are used in colognes and other cosmetics and related products to maintain fragrance. Additionally, phthalates can dissolve and stabilize certain aroma ingredients and essential oils. The results of a five-year study (2016–2020) conducted in a quality control laboratory on the presence [...] Read more.
Phthalate esters are used in colognes and other cosmetics and related products to maintain fragrance. Additionally, phthalates can dissolve and stabilize certain aroma ingredients and essential oils. The results of a five-year study (2016–2020) conducted in a quality control laboratory on the presence of phthalate esters in various cosmetic products are presented. A total of 1147 samples from four cologne categories: eau de toilette, eau de cologne, fragrance, and perfume were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the quantification of the nine different phthalate esters (BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DNPP, DBP, DIPP, DMEP, DMP, and PIPP) in each category. The results revealed the absence of phthalates at concentrations above the threshold limit (1 µg mL−1) in 95% of the samples analyzed. However, different levels of phthalates were detected in 57 samples, mainly DEHP and DBP. Our findings also demonstrate distinct phthalate profiles according to cologne type, with relevant variations among the four cologne categories analyzed. Full article
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1277 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Density Functional Theory Study on Ring-Chain Isomerism of Semicarbazones
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16085 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 161
Abstract
The conversion of semicarbazones to 1,2,4-triazolidin-3-ones and vice versa (ring-chain isomerism) was studied using the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of this reaction were calculated and discussed. Full article
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1057 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Regioselective Synthesis of Spiro-Oxindoles via a Ruthenium-Catalyzed Metathesis Reaction
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16131 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Spiro-oxindoles are important heterocyclic motifs found in various alkaloids, many of which exhibit pharmacological properties. Due to the remarkable biological activity of spiro-oxindoles, significant effort has been made towards the synthesis of substituted spiro-oxindoles. In this paper, preliminary results regarding the synthesis of [...] Read more.
Spiro-oxindoles are important heterocyclic motifs found in various alkaloids, many of which exhibit pharmacological properties. Due to the remarkable biological activity of spiro-oxindoles, significant effort has been made towards the synthesis of substituted spiro-oxindoles. In this paper, preliminary results regarding the synthesis of 3,3′-spiro pentacyclo-oxindole derivatives via the ring-closing metathesis of 3,3-diallyl oxindoles are reported. The ring-closing metathesis reaction proceeded smoothly with Grubb’s catalyst-I (2 mol%) in toluene at room temperature. The desired products, 3,3′-spiro pentacyclo-oxindoles, were obtained in good to excellent yields under standard reaction conditions. Full article
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1316 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Polyaniline Derivatives for Chemical Sensors of Ammonia Vapor
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16116 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 161
Abstract
This study considers the possibility of using thin films of new soluble modified polyaniline derivatives in the creation of chemical sensors. The study involves an examination of how the current passing through resistive structures, which are constructed using thin films of polyanilines, is [...] Read more.
This study considers the possibility of using thin films of new soluble modified polyaniline derivatives in the creation of chemical sensors. The study involves an examination of how the current passing through resistive structures, which are constructed using thin films of polyanilines, is influenced by varying concentrations of ammonia vapors present in the surrounding air. Full article
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549 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Interaction of Phenolic Schiff Bases Bearing Sulfhydryl Moieties with 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical: Structure–Activity Relationship Study
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16113 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Current research on synthetic and naturally occurring phenolic compounds is centered around their prominent antioxidant properties. Since reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species cause considerable damage to cellular components upon their overproduction, associated with the pathogenesis of degenerative, cardiovascular and oncological diseases, [...] Read more.
Current research on synthetic and naturally occurring phenolic compounds is centered around their prominent antioxidant properties. Since reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species cause considerable damage to cellular components upon their overproduction, associated with the pathogenesis of degenerative, cardiovascular and oncological diseases, antioxidants may reduce the risk of developing such conditions. Because hydroxyl, amino and sulfhydryl groups present in their structure, antioxidants may function as hydrogen atom and electron donors, as well as metal-reducing and metal-chelating agents. We synthesized phenolic Schiff bases from 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; ortho-, meta- and para-mercaptoanilines; and 2,2′- and 4,4′-disulfanediyldianilines. Their antioxidant properties were studied in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Full article
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1485 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Optimised Method to Synthesise N5O2 Aminophenols
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16145 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Aminophenol compounds are usually employed in coordination chemistry due to their versatility to form metal complexes. Heptadentate N5O2 aminophenol ligands can lead to the formation of lanthanoid complexes with pentagonal bypiramidal (pbp) geometry, which are very interesting in the field [...] Read more.
Aminophenol compounds are usually employed in coordination chemistry due to their versatility to form metal complexes. Heptadentate N5O2 aminophenol ligands can lead to the formation of lanthanoid complexes with pentagonal bypiramidal (pbp) geometry, which are very interesting in the field of molecular magnetism. In this communication, we report an optimised method for obtaining two similar N5O2 aminophenols named 2-((((6-(((5-hydroxy-2-R-benzyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)methyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4-R-phenol (R = methyl or methoxy), which significantly improves the few examples of synthesis of this type of compound reported in the literature. Full article
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1231 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
One-Pot Synthesis of Phosphoramidates from dibenzo[1,3,2]dioxaphosphepine-6-oxide
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16174 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Flame retardants play a crucial role in mitigating the hazards associated with fires by impeding their ignition and spread. However, conventional halogen-based flame retardants have encountered environmental and health concerns due to their persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. In light of these concerns, [...] Read more.
Flame retardants play a crucial role in mitigating the hazards associated with fires by impeding their ignition and spread. However, conventional halogen-based flame retardants have encountered environmental and health concerns due to their persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. In light of these concerns, the present study aimed to develop innovative compounds with potential applications as a flame retardant system that mitigates the drawbacks associated with halogen-based compounds. Several phosphoramidates were synthesized in a single step under mild conditions from the H-phosphonate dibenzo[1,3,2]dioxaphosphepine-6-oxide (BPPO), following a method based on the oxidation of the reactant in the presence of a suitable aliphatic or aromatic amine. The compounds were isolated with high purity, and the formulations were confirmed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Full article
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2489 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Alternative Synthesis of Phosphonate Derivatives of 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16176 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 185
Abstract
The phosphonates 6-methoxy-6H-dibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinine-6-oxide and 6-(allyloxy)-6H-dibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinine 6-oxide were synthesised in a single step under mild conditions from the H-phosphinate 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO), following a method based on the oxidation of the reactant with I2 in the presence of the reactant alcohol as solvent [...] Read more.
The phosphonates 6-methoxy-6H-dibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinine-6-oxide and 6-(allyloxy)-6H-dibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinine 6-oxide were synthesised in a single step under mild conditions from the H-phosphinate 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO), following a method based on the oxidation of the reactant with I2 in the presence of the reactant alcohol as solvent and triethylamine as base. The compounds, of potential interest in the field of non-halogenated flame retardants, were isolated with high purity and the formulations were confirmed via multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Full article
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1104 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Stability and Reactivity of Tocopherols: Theoretical Study
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16043 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 170
Abstract
In the search for the tocopherols structure-reactivity relationship, our calculations showed that the GAP, which is the difference between the energy values of the frontier orbitals, decreases during the passage gas/aqueous medium for the isoforms α, β and γ. But it increases for [...] Read more.
In the search for the tocopherols structure-reactivity relationship, our calculations showed that the GAP, which is the difference between the energy values of the frontier orbitals, decreases during the passage gas/aqueous medium for the isoforms α, β and γ. But it increases for isoform δ. This means that the latter is less reactive and less soft than the others in aqueous medium. On the other hand, the chemical descriptors calculations revealed that the transfer of electrons takes place in the direction α < β < γ < δ in the gas state and aqueous medium. Full article
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1771 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
One-Pot Synthesis of New 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3H-[1,2]dithiolo[3,4-b]pyridines Starting from N,N’-Diphenyldithiomalondiamide
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16134 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Active methylene compounds such as thioamides are widely used in the organic chemistry for the construction of a variety of heterocyclic systems, such as thieno[2,3-b]pyridines, 1,2,4-dithiazoles, isothiazoles, 1,2,3-thiadiazoles, etc. N,N′-Diphenyldithiomalondiamide (dithiomalondianilide) as a compound with methylene active group is also [...] Read more.
Active methylene compounds such as thioamides are widely used in the organic chemistry for the construction of a variety of heterocyclic systems, such as thieno[2,3-b]pyridines, 1,2,4-dithiazoles, isothiazoles, 1,2,3-thiadiazoles, etc. N,N′-Diphenyldithiomalondiamide (dithiomalondianilide) as a compound with methylene active group is also of interest as a starting reagent for the synthesis of new N,S-containing heterocycles with potential pharmacological application. However, the reactions of dithiomalondianilide are poorly studied. In the present study, we report the synthesis of new 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro[1,2]dithiolo[3,4-b]dithiolopyridine-5-carboxamides through the reaction of dithiomalondianilide with 3-aryl-2-cyanoacrylamides. The products were characterized using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray analysis. Full article
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696 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
4H-[1,3,5,2]Oxadiazaphospholo[3,4-a][1,5]benzodiazepin-1-amine-1-oxides: Synthesis and Computational Studies
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16162 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 181
Abstract
The modification of heterocyclic systems remains one of the most promising areas in heterocyclic chemistry. Benzodiazepines (BZDs), representing a diverse class of heterocyclic molecules, have piqued interest due to their use as anticonvulsant/anti-inflammatory/analgesic/sedative/anti-depressive/hypnotic medications, as well as anti-inflammatory/anti-HIV drugs. Phosphorus heterocycle molecules fused [...] Read more.
The modification of heterocyclic systems remains one of the most promising areas in heterocyclic chemistry. Benzodiazepines (BZDs), representing a diverse class of heterocyclic molecules, have piqued interest due to their use as anticonvulsant/anti-inflammatory/analgesic/sedative/anti-depressive/hypnotic medications, as well as anti-inflammatory/anti-HIV drugs. Phosphorus heterocycle molecules fused with rings of different sizes and bearing various heteroatoms have also been attracting much interest. Phosphoramidate class compounds with an amino group linked directly to the phosphorus atom have gained considerable attention due to their wide range of biological activity and agricultural application. To date, however, only non-condensed monocyclic 1,3,5,2-oxodiazaphosphol-2-oxides have been described.Herein, we report the synthesis of previously undescribed 4H-[1,3,5,2]oxadiazophospho[3,4-a][1,5]benzodiazepine-1-amino-1-oxides, comprising benzodiazepine and a fused five-member oxodiazophospholo cycle with four heteroatoms in the “a” position, which was made possible by phosphorylation of 1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin oximes with an equimolar amount of dimethylaminophosphoric acid dichloride. The chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectral analysis. A series of simulations were conducted by employing the semi-empirical, tight-binding computational technique GFN2-xTB to reveal the likely pathways leading to their formation. The synthesised compounds obeyed Lipinski’s rule, implying a good bioavailability, and assessment of their projected drug-like abilities revealed that they may have a strong anti-neoplastic activity and, to a lesser extent, may act as both substrates and inducers of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) super-family enzymes. Full article
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967 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of a Dysprosium(III) Complex with a Hexadentate Amine Ligand
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16143 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 138
Abstract
The use of polydentate macrocyclic Lewis bases is a way to contribute to determine the coordination number of metal complexes. In this sense, hexadentate N6 donors can help to achieve lanthanoid complexes with coordination number 8. But the geometry of these complexes [...] Read more.
The use of polydentate macrocyclic Lewis bases is a way to contribute to determine the coordination number of metal complexes. In this sense, hexadentate N6 donors can help to achieve lanthanoid complexes with coordination number 8. But the geometry of these complexes depends on the flexibility of the bases. Accordingly, in this communication we present the synthesis and crystallographic characterization of the dysprosium complex [DyLN6Cl2]Cl·2H2O, where LN6 is a flexible hexaaza donor. Full article
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486 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of a Hybrid Molecule Based on Biologically Active 5Z,9Z-Eicosadienoic Acid and Vanillin
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16170 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 140
Abstract
A hybrid compound based on (5Z,9Z)-eicosa-5,9-dienoic acid and vanillin was synthesized in high yield (94%) using a new intermolecular cross-cyclomagnesiation reaction of aliphatic and O-containing 1,2-dienes catalyzed by Cp2TiCl2. Full article
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1858 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Efficient Solvent Extraction of Phenol Using Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16151 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Ionic Liquids (ILs) have gained significant attention in both industry and academia due to their unique properties and diverse applications. With countless possible combinations of cations (e.g., Ammonium, Sulfonium, Phosphonium) and anions (Organic or Inorganic), the variety of ILs is immense. Among them, [...] Read more.
Ionic Liquids (ILs) have gained significant attention in both industry and academia due to their unique properties and diverse applications. With countless possible combinations of cations (e.g., Ammonium, Sulfonium, Phosphonium) and anions (Organic or Inorganic), the variety of ILs is immense. Among them, Imidazolium salts form the largest IL family, making them a focal point in this study. Phenolic compounds, essential in the chemical industry, become hazardous to both human and aquatic life when released into the environment. Traditional separation methods for phenolics unfortunately involve environmentally problematic processes. This research focuses on synthesizing and characterizing Imidazolium-functionalized ILs ([EtO2C2mim]Br, [EtO2C2mim]BF4, [EtO2C2mim]PF6) and studying their phenol extraction abilities. The results revealed [EtO2C2mim]Br as the most effective, extracting 99% of phenol and offering a promising alternative for the efficient extraction of phenols from real coal liquefaction oil. Full article
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2388 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Optimization of Fluid Properties of 3D-Printed Modified Chitosan Biopolymer Composite Membranes
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16136 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 195
Abstract
The study investigates the synthesis and optimization of modified chitosan-silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide (CS/AgNP/GO) composite ink’s chemical and physical properties using inkjet 3D printing technology with the incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a plasticizer. The variation in the concentration of PVA co-solvent affected [...] Read more.
The study investigates the synthesis and optimization of modified chitosan-silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide (CS/AgNP/GO) composite ink’s chemical and physical properties using inkjet 3D printing technology with the incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a plasticizer. The variation in the concentration of PVA co-solvent affected drop ejection from the nozzle orifice. An increase in the PVA mole fraction minimized the entanglement within the CS molecular structure, improved flow rate, and subsequently formed spherical ink droplets on the substrate at 1140.0 Kg/m3 (density), 0.00748 Pas (viscosity), and 55.6 mN/m (surface tension), indicating that the solvent was responsible for lowering the rheological properties of the composite membranes. The optimized drop velocity was achieved at 1.8 m/s, which also yielded adequate drop formation void of ligament. Therefore, it is very essential to adhere to the printer’s ink specifications in order to formulate appropriate generic modified CS ink with an acceptable minimum fluid drop velocity to ensure quality inkjet-printed biopolymer composite membranes for different industrial applications. Full article
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738 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Photochemical and Photobiological Activity of Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe and Mn Unsubstituted Phthalocyanines
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16171 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Phthalocyanines are a group of porphyrin synthetic molecules. These compounds show outstanding photodynamic properties. This is due to their high ability to photogenerate free radicals, such as 1O2 and O.−2. However, the presence of different metals in the [...] Read more.
Phthalocyanines are a group of porphyrin synthetic molecules. These compounds show outstanding photodynamic properties. This is due to their high ability to photogenerate free radicals, such as 1O2 and O.−2. However, the presence of different metals in the central core of phthalocyanines are able to modulate these characteristics. This study demonstrated that the photochemical activity of Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe and Mn unsubstituted phthalocyanines differs, depending on the size and electronic configuration of the central metal. In addition, phthalocyanines showed different levels of photodamage against plasmid pBR322. Outcoming computational calculations will aim to clarify the photodynamic mechanisms of phthalocyanines. Full article
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586 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Microwave Activation: Solventless Catalysed Synthesis of Cross Conjugated Dienones of Tropinone
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16155 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Cross-conjugated dienones are very important biologically active products. The condensation of N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one (tropinone) with aromatic aldehydes takes place in the presence of acidic (K10 clay, silica) or basic catalysts (alumina, KF-alumina). The best yields of (2E,4E)-2,4-bis-arylmethylene-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ones were obtained with the K10 [...] Read more.
Cross-conjugated dienones are very important biologically active products. The condensation of N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one (tropinone) with aromatic aldehydes takes place in the presence of acidic (K10 clay, silica) or basic catalysts (alumina, KF-alumina). The best yields of (2E,4E)-2,4-bis-arylmethylene-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ones were obtained with the K10 clay under microwave irradiation without solvent. New dienones derived from tropinone will be tested in various biological assays. Full article
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260 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Silico Pharmacological Prediction of Substituted Aminonitriles
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16178 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Aminonitriles are heterocyclic compounds commonly used as intermediates in the synthesis of various compounds, but which have versatility in physiological processes, with peculiar characteristics and high biological value that still need to be investigated with greater avidity. Given this perspective, the present study [...] Read more.
Aminonitriles are heterocyclic compounds commonly used as intermediates in the synthesis of various compounds, but which have versatility in physiological processes, with peculiar characteristics and high biological value that still need to be investigated with greater avidity. Given this perspective, the present study aimed to determine the probability of substituted aminonitriles interacting with classes of pharmacological targets in the human body. For this, eight aminonitriles (HAN-1 to HAN-8) were synthesized and used in the in silico prediction of the compounds, using the Molinspiration software, where the potentiality of the substances to act as a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand, an ion channel modulator, a kinase inhibitor, a nuclear receptor ligand, a protease inhibitor and an enzyme inhibitor was evaluated. Thus, it was observed that the molecules showed moderate bioactivity in 100% of cases as a GPCR ligand (−0.27 to −0.5), 87.5% as an enzyme inhibitor (−0.33 to −0.49), 75% as a kinase inhibitor (−0.39 to −0.5), 62.5% as an ion channel modulator (−0.3 to −0.47) and as a protease inhibitor (−0.45 to −0.49), and 37.5% as nuclear receptor ligand (−0.43 to −0.46). The computational analysis carried out in this study indicated that the HAN-4 and HAN-6 molecules were the only molecules that reached a considerable activity score for all classes of proposed pharmacological targets, thus being the most promising as possible therapeutic tools, with further advances in studies on the performance of pre-clinical and clinical tests to verify their real bioactivity still being necessary. Full article
1486 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Transesterification of a Natural Epoxythymol Is Favored under Alkaline Conditions, Preserving the Enantiomeric Purity
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16140 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Transesterification is a synthetic chemistry strategy promoted in acid or alkaline conditions, yielding a structural diversity of organic compounds. Epoxythymols comprise a class of chiral natural compounds with biological relevance, and the literature describes their chiral purity loss during acid transesterification reactions. This [...] Read more.
Transesterification is a synthetic chemistry strategy promoted in acid or alkaline conditions, yielding a structural diversity of organic compounds. Epoxythymols comprise a class of chiral natural compounds with biological relevance, and the literature describes their chiral purity loss during acid transesterification reactions. This work reports the basic transesterification of the natural derivative (8S)-10-benzoylxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol under alkaline conditions. Herein, the formation of (8S)-10-benzoylxy-6-isobutyryloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate is gained, avoiding the loss of optical purity. 1H NMR-BINOL experiments revealed the enantiomeric purity of the product reaction. These results highlight that the implemented strategy promotes transesterification, preserving optical purity. Full article
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909 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A New Synthesis of Polyheterocyclic Compounds Containing Nitrogen and Boron Atoms
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16103 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Tetraazatricyclanes containing two boron atoms in the molecular framework were synthesized for the first time via the heterocyclization reaction of tetraamines with tetrakis(dimethylamino)diborane. Tetrakis(dimethylamino)diborane is a new starting reagent in the synthesis of polyheterocyclic compounds that may be of interest as cytotoxic agents. [...] Read more.
Tetraazatricyclanes containing two boron atoms in the molecular framework were synthesized for the first time via the heterocyclization reaction of tetraamines with tetrakis(dimethylamino)diborane. Tetrakis(dimethylamino)diborane is a new starting reagent in the synthesis of polyheterocyclic compounds that may be of interest as cytotoxic agents. Full article
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1017 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Clay Catalysis: Solventless Condensation of Benzofuran-3(2H)-One with α,β-Dicarbonyl Compounds under Microwave Irradiation: Synthesis of New Acyl-Aurones
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16154 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Aurones are natural bioactive dyes found in plants, and many of them are biologically active. We reported herein that α,β-dicarbonyl compounds condense with 3-coumarones without a solvent under microwave irradiation with clay as a catalyst. Novel acylaurones were obtained in good yields; the [...] Read more.
Aurones are natural bioactive dyes found in plants, and many of them are biologically active. We reported herein that α,β-dicarbonyl compounds condense with 3-coumarones without a solvent under microwave irradiation with clay as a catalyst. Novel acylaurones were obtained in good yields; the more stable E-isomer was formed stereoselectively. Full article
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920 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spectroscopic Investigation, Component Analysis, and DFT Calculations of Tautomeric Forms of Substituted Dihydro-6H-chromeno[4,3-d]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-one
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16106 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Chromenopirazolopyrimidinone (CPP) was synthesized using microwave radiation in the absence of solvent by a multicomponent reaction of 4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one with 5-amine-1H-pyrazole and benzaldehyde. CPP exists as a mixture of tautomeric forms, the structure of which was examined by means of spectroscopic methods and quantum [...] Read more.
Chromenopirazolopyrimidinone (CPP) was synthesized using microwave radiation in the absence of solvent by a multicomponent reaction of 4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one with 5-amine-1H-pyrazole and benzaldehyde. CPP exists as a mixture of tautomeric forms, the structure of which was examined by means of spectroscopic methods and quantum chemistry. As was shown by the MILCA algorithm, UV-Vis spectra obtained in different solvents of various polarities contain bands of all tautomeric forms. Decomposition of the absorption spectra of CPP in various solvents on the individual components of the absorption showed the presence of two tautomers. The molar ratios of tautomeric forms depend on the polarity of the solvent used. Full article
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360 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prospects of Using Epidermal Secretion of Scaleless Fish Species as a Source of Peptide Complexes with Antioxidant Activity
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16161 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Every year, peptide-based preparations are becoming more and more in demand in medicine. Therefore, the identification and study of new biomaterials that are sources of regulatory peptides are an urgent tasks. This study considers the epidermal secretion of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) [...] Read more.
Every year, peptide-based preparations are becoming more and more in demand in medicine. Therefore, the identification and study of new biomaterials that are sources of regulatory peptides are an urgent tasks. This study considers the epidermal secretion of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a readily available raw material for the preparation of peptide complexes. In the history of peptide drug synthesis, this substance was first investigated as a source for obtaining regulatory peptides with antioxidant activity. We applied a new approach to the process of the isolation of biologically active peptide fractions, thereby reducing the time and increasing the yield of the target product. Full article
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258 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Larvicidal Potency of Some Selected Nigerian Plants against Aedes aegypti 
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16156 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Many public health-related problems, such as dengue diseases, are caused by the vector Aedes aegypti. This paper’s objective is to develop larvicidal activities against the larvae of Ae. aegypti. Standard methods were utilized for the collection, extraction, and phytochemical screening of [...] Read more.
Many public health-related problems, such as dengue diseases, are caused by the vector Aedes aegypti. This paper’s objective is to develop larvicidal activities against the larvae of Ae. aegypti. Standard methods were utilized for the collection, extraction, and phytochemical screening of the plant parts and extracts. Different extract concentrations were tested against the larvae of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. The different toxicities observed were due to changes in the compounds present in each of the plant extracts. Seven phytochemical constituents were detected for plant extracts. Nigerian medicinal plants could be used to curb the spread of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Full article
3159 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
DFT and Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy in the Study of Five-Membered Saturated Metallocarbocycles of Main III Group Metals
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16048 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Five-membered saturated metallacarbocycles represent a large family of organometallic compounds, which are frequently postulated as reactive intermediates in catalysis or as precursors for the synthesis of a wide range of functionally substituted compounds, however, their NMR spectral data are incomplete and not systematized. [...] Read more.
Five-membered saturated metallacarbocycles represent a large family of organometallic compounds, which are frequently postulated as reactive intermediates in catalysis or as precursors for the synthesis of a wide range of functionally substituted compounds, however, their NMR spectral data are incomplete and not systematized. Metallacarbocycles for Main III Group metals, which are spectroscopically characterized, are described in this article. Among these, of particular interest are 1-ethyl-3-substituted alumolanes, 3-spiro-substituted polycyclic alumolanes and nonbornen annelated alumolanes, which are supposedly formed by alkene cycloalumination with AlEt3 catalyzed by Cp2ZrCl2. Conformational analysis upon inversion of a five-membered ring for mono and polycyclic alumolanes is presented. Full article
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1401 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Diversification of Chiral Spirooxindoles via Organocatalytic Cascade Reactions
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16100 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 189
Abstract
The synthesis of chiral spirooxindoles through different amino catalytic activation modes is described herein. Several alkenylisatins were obtained from the Knoevenagel reaction of isatin and activated methylene derivatives containing electron withdrawing groups such as ethyl cyanoacetate. A spirooxindole derivative was obtained from the [...] Read more.
The synthesis of chiral spirooxindoles through different amino catalytic activation modes is described herein. Several alkenylisatins were obtained from the Knoevenagel reaction of isatin and activated methylene derivatives containing electron withdrawing groups such as ethyl cyanoacetate. A spirooxindole derivative was obtained from the oxa-Michael-Michael reaction between one of the synthesized alkenylisatins and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde. Currently, new methodologies that allow access to spirooxindole scaffolds are being explored, mainly though Diels-Alder reactions between 2-methylenindolin-2-ones and aldehydes via the trienamine activation mode. The following cascade reactions will be explored in the future to obtain the proposed polycyclic spirooxindole derivatives. Full article
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901 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of the Influence of a Solvent on the Crystal Structure of an Ethyl-Substituted Bisthiosemicarbazone Ligand
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16105 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 147
Abstract
A potentially dianionic symmetric bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H2LEt has been prepared by a condensation reaction between two equivalents of 4-N-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide and one equivalent of 4,4′-methylenebis(acetophenone). The crystal structures obtained from solvents with different donor abilities were studied. The recrystallization of [...] Read more.
A potentially dianionic symmetric bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H2LEt has been prepared by a condensation reaction between two equivalents of 4-N-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide and one equivalent of 4,4′-methylenebis(acetophenone). The crystal structures obtained from solvents with different donor abilities were studied. The recrystallization of H2LEt from methanol and dimethylsulfoxide enables the isolation of single crystals suitable for the X-ray diffraction studies of [H2LEt] 1 and [H2LEt]·CH3SOCH32, respectively. This study shows that the solvent does not affect the macrostructure but influences the microstructure of the ethyl-substituted bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H2LEt. Full article
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1678 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design, Synthesis and Characterization of a Bicompartmental bisthiosemicarbazone Ligand
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16093 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 177
Abstract
In this work, we present the design and synthesis of the bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H3LMe by means of an iminic condensation reaction between 2-hydroxyisophthalaldehyde and 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazide. This ligand is bicompartmental, pentadentate [N2S2O] and potentially trianionic. The [...] Read more.
In this work, we present the design and synthesis of the bisthiosemicarbazone ligand H3LMe by means of an iminic condensation reaction between 2-hydroxyisophthalaldehyde and 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazide. This ligand is bicompartmental, pentadentate [N2S2O] and potentially trianionic. The presence of a spacer constituted by a phenol group facilitates the coordination of transition metal ions, giving rise to a great variety of structures. To confirm the purity of the ligand, different characterization techniques were employed, including elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The acquisition of suitable crystals of H3LMe allowed us to analyze its structure through X-ray diffraction studies. Full article
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3086 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the Mesophilic Enzyme Vibrio Cholerae Endonuclease I: Salt Effect Study
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16165 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Some of the most extensively studied marine or estuarine bacteria belong to the genus Vibrio, with Vibrio cholerae being the most notorious species as it is the cause of cholera in humans. V. cholerae is found in tropical and temperate areas and [...] Read more.
Some of the most extensively studied marine or estuarine bacteria belong to the genus Vibrio, with Vibrio cholerae being the most notorious species as it is the cause of cholera in humans. V. cholerae is found in tropical and temperate areas and can be classified as a mesophilic bacterium with its growth optimum at around 37 °C. One of the important factors in the activity and stability of each enzyme is its physiological environment. A previous study on the secreted mesophilic enzyme Endonuclease I from the Vibrio cholerae genus (VcEndA) showed that its activity was strongly dependent not only on temperature but also on NaCl concentration. Here, we report a structural study on the mesophilic enzyme (VcEndA) using molecular dynamics simulations at different salt concentrations (NaCl). The analysis of molecular dynamic simulation trajectories reveals that the enzyme is not tolerant and not sensitive to salt since the profile of the rmsf as a function of different concentrations does not show a large difference in the mobility of the enzyme for high values of the NaCl concentration (450 and 650 mM). However, the most flexible regions of the enzyme are recorded under the concentration of 175 mM, which coincides well with the previous experimental work. Full article
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234 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Breast Cancer Screening Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Enhancing Biochemical Insights and Diagnostic Accuracy
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16121 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Breast cancer, the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide, demands effective screening for early identification and improved treatment outcomes. Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have resulted in dramatic developments in a variety of fields, including healthcare. In this review paper, we look [...] Read more.
Breast cancer, the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide, demands effective screening for early identification and improved treatment outcomes. Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have resulted in dramatic developments in a variety of fields, including healthcare. In this review paper, we look at how AI approaches can be used in breast cancer screening to improve diagnostic accuracy and provide deeper molecular insights. We dig into the complex terrain of breast cancer treatment, which has transformed as a result of the discovery of prognostic and predictive biomarkers, allowing for personalised therapeutic methods based on molecular subgroups. We emphasise the importance of AI-driven approaches in optimising screening procedures and providing quick and exact findings. The potential of AI to revolutionise breast cancer screening is highlighted, including its applications in diagnostic imaging, lesion identification, and standardised imaging data interpretation. The analysis highlights AI’s critical role in tackling issues associated with the integration of new technologies, providing solutions for worldwide standardisation in cancer detection. Full article
2585 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Synthesis of Various 2-Imino-2H-chromene-3-carbonitrile Derivatives
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16125 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 197
Abstract
One-pot and stepwise reactions of salicylic aldehydes (salicylic, 5-bromsalicylic) and different equivalents of malononitrile and their mutual transformations were investigated. Various derivatives of 2-imino-2H-chromene-3-carbonitrile were isolated. This work reports the synthesis of novel 2-(4-amino-9-R-1-cyano-5-imino-3,5-dihydro-2H-chromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-2-ylidene)malononitriles. The influence of reaction parameters, such as ultrasound activation [...] Read more.
One-pot and stepwise reactions of salicylic aldehydes (salicylic, 5-bromsalicylic) and different equivalents of malononitrile and their mutual transformations were investigated. Various derivatives of 2-imino-2H-chromene-3-carbonitrile were isolated. This work reports the synthesis of novel 2-(4-amino-9-R-1-cyano-5-imino-3,5-dihydro-2H-chromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-2-ylidene)malononitriles. The influence of reaction parameters, such as ultrasound activation conditions, solvent type, and the presence or absence of a catalyst, was studied in this work. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established using spectroscopic data (IR, NMR). Full article
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863 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Conjugates of Mitochondrial-Directed Cationic Compound F16 with Ursane-Structure Triterpenic Acids Containing a Polyhydroxylated A-ring
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16177 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 201
Abstract
We chemically linked corosolic and asiatic acids and a synthetic polyoxygenated analogue of ursolic acid via an alkyl linker to the cationic mitochondrial targeting compound F16 (4-(1H-indole-3-ylvinyl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide). The conjugates were tested for cytotoxic activity against two human lung adenocarcinoma cell [...] Read more.
We chemically linked corosolic and asiatic acids and a synthetic polyoxygenated analogue of ursolic acid via an alkyl linker to the cationic mitochondrial targeting compound F16 (4-(1H-indole-3-ylvinyl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide). The conjugates were tested for cytotoxic activity against two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, H1299 and A549, and non-cancerous mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The results showed that conjugation of polyoxygenated triterpene acids with the terminal cationic fragment F16 in the C-28 side chain enhanced cytotoxicity (30–35 fold) compared to the original natural ursolic acid. However, the presence of hydroxyl or acetyl functions in the A-ring of F16 conjugates of corosolic or asiatic acids resulted in a significant decrease in cytotoxicity compared to their structural analogue, the F16 derivative of ursolic acid. Full article
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1432 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Uranyl Acetate, a Lewis Acid Catalyst for Acetoxylation of Monoterpenic and Steroidal Alcohols
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16064 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 153
Abstract
The use of heterogeneous catalytic systems in the production of esters of secondary alcohols (monoterpenic and steroidal) allows us to obtain satisfactory yields of these derivatives widely used in the industry. The use of the heterogeneous system uranyl acetate/chloroform-acetonitrile, under laboratory conditions, allows [...] Read more.
The use of heterogeneous catalytic systems in the production of esters of secondary alcohols (monoterpenic and steroidal) allows us to obtain satisfactory yields of these derivatives widely used in the industry. The use of the heterogeneous system uranyl acetate/chloroform-acetonitrile, under laboratory conditions, allows us to reach yields higher than 90%, optimizing the purification steps and without the use of extreme conditions (inert atmosphere, high temperatures or corrosive agents). All compounds were characterized by the use of spectroscopic techniques. Full article
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817 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of N-(Alkoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamides on Intestinal Microbial Communities
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16142 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 162
Abstract
The phylum Proteobacteria, more precisely, the family Enterobacteriaceae, has been shown to be a major cause of inflammation in the human microbiome. Their standard level in the human intestine is usually kept below 1% in a healthy person, and their overgrowth above [...] Read more.
The phylum Proteobacteria, more precisely, the family Enterobacteriaceae, has been shown to be a major cause of inflammation in the human microbiome. Their standard level in the human intestine is usually kept below 1% in a healthy person, and their overgrowth above this number leads to intestinal inflammation, which can cause the development of inflammatory bowel diseases, most often, Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a series of eighteen recently synthesized N-(alkoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carboxamides were determined against two representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae family–Escherichia coli CCM 3954 and Salmonella typhimurium LT 2-18. Although the tested compounds are cyclic analogues of salicylanilides known to have strong antimicrobial properties, the found MICs ranged between 50 µM and 1000 µM. However, it can be concluded that S. typhimurium was generally more sensitive to the tested antimicrobial agents than E. coli. N-[2-(But-2-yloxy)phenyl]-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide was the most active agent among the investigated compounds with an MIC of 100 µM against E. coli and an MIC of 50 µM against S. typhimurium. Full article
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1231 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Aldehyde Phenylamino-Pyrimidine as Key Precursor for the Synthesis of Imatinib Analogs and In Silico Studies of Their Intermediates
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16108 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The synthesis of aldehyde-PAP as a key precursor through a triple reaction sequence: diazotization-addition/CuAAC/oxidation by using 4-methyl-N3-[4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]benzene-1,3-diamine as the starting material is described. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was conducted to assess the potential of these compounds as possible ABL [...] Read more.
The synthesis of aldehyde-PAP as a key precursor through a triple reaction sequence: diazotization-addition/CuAAC/oxidation by using 4-methyl-N3-[4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]benzene-1,3-diamine as the starting material is described. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was conducted to assess the potential of these compounds as possible ABL kinase inhibitors. Finally, leveraging our in silico investigations, we introduce a small virtual library of compound Imatinib analogs, which will aid in identifying the optimal candidates for further in vitro experimentation. Full article
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2974 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Insights on the Interaction between Kefiran and Whey Proteins Using Computational Analyses
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16128 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Kefiran is an exopolysaccharide produced by milk fermentation that is widely used in the food industry, mainly to improve the rheological properties of foods, as well as for the formation of biofilms. Most of these properties are related to its interaction with milk [...] Read more.
Kefiran is an exopolysaccharide produced by milk fermentation that is widely used in the food industry, mainly to improve the rheological properties of foods, as well as for the formation of biofilms. Most of these properties are related to its interaction with milk proteins. It has been reported that kefiran has a molecular weight of up to 107 Da and that it is formed by glucose and galactose molecules in equimolar quantities; however, its folding form is not completely understood. In this work it was elucidated that a model of the 20 kDa kefiran folds in a helical shape. In addition, it was determined that whey proteins can form complexes with kefiran. Full article
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1840 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazines and Their Effect on BACE1
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16111 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disease of unknown etiology that is associated with various risk factors. Various pharmacological approaches targeting distinct mechanisms have been investigated; however, they have not yet achieved disease-modifying effects. A series of nine trisubstituted 1,3,5-triazine-based derivatives was [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disease of unknown etiology that is associated with various risk factors. Various pharmacological approaches targeting distinct mechanisms have been investigated; however, they have not yet achieved disease-modifying effects. A series of nine trisubstituted 1,3,5-triazine-based derivatives was investigated as potential inhibitors of the β-secretase enzyme (beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, BACE1), one of the key enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. Although the triazine-based derivatives are reported to be potent BACE1 inhibitors, the compounds discussed in this contribution, at a concentration of 10 µM, demonstrated completely insignificant activity. It is worth noting that methyl (4-{4-[(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)amino]-6-[(4-sulfamoylbenzyl)amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl}piperazin-1-yl)- acetate and 4-({4-chloro-6-[(3-hydroxypropyl)amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl}amino)benzenesulfonamide showed an approximately 9% and 2% inhibition of BACE1 activity, respectively. Full article
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928 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Phenothiazine Conjugate with Mitochondria-Directed Cationic Compound F16: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Action against Human Breast Carcinoma
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16120 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The development of new drugs or drug candidates based on the phenothiazine system (10H-dibenzo-[b,e]-1,4-thiazine) is a promising approach in view of the diverse biological activity of this tricyclic system, which is present in traditional drugs (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine, and trifluopromazine) with antipsychotropic, antihistamine [...] Read more.
The development of new drugs or drug candidates based on the phenothiazine system (10H-dibenzo-[b,e]-1,4-thiazine) is a promising approach in view of the diverse biological activity of this tricyclic system, which is present in traditional drugs (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, trifluoperazine, and trifluopromazine) with antipsychotropic, antihistamine and antimuscarinic activities. In practical medicine, these drugs are used as antagonists of dopamine and other neurotransmitter receptors for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Ongoing studies on the synthesis and biological screening of various phenothiazine derivatives in recent years have revealed other important biological effects of these compounds, among which their antitumor effects are of great interest. This work reports the synthesis of a novel N-substituted phenothiazine analog bearing a mitochondria-directed cationic group (E)-4-(1H-indol-3-ylvinyl)-pyridinium (F16) linked to the nitrogen atom of the phenothiazine core by a butane bridge. The lipophilic cationic F16 fragment was used as a means to enhance transmembrane transport and selective delivery of the hybrid molecule into the mitochondria of cancer cells. In tests on the BT474 breast cancer cell line, the phenothiazine-F16 hybrid demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic effect of the compound was noticeable at a concentration of 5 μM and further increased dose-dependently, leading to complete tumor cell death at a concentration of 50 μM (IC50 3.3 μM). The F16-derivative of phenotzine showed marked mitochondrial targeting. In experiments on isolated rat liver mitochondria, the tested agent, already at a concentration of 5 μM, significantly decreased the membrane potential of succinate-energized organelles. Increasing the concentration of the phenothiazine hybrid to 20 μM resulted in complete dissipation of the potential. The obtained result of antitumor activity against BT-474 cell culture and significant effect on the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential allows us to consider phenothiazine-F16 hybrid as a new promising antitumor drug. Full article
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1258 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Evaluation of Thiomethyl-Substituted (4Z)-4-[(Pyrazol-4-yl)methylene]pyrazolone as an Optical Chemosensor
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16123 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Developing colorimetric devices for detecting chemical species is essential in many fields; nevertheless, developing effective chemosensors for many heavy and transition metal ions remains an important issue. As a result, in recent years, the use of colorimetric sensors for the selective and sensitive [...] Read more.
Developing colorimetric devices for detecting chemical species is essential in many fields; nevertheless, developing effective chemosensors for many heavy and transition metal ions remains an important issue. As a result, in recent years, the use of colorimetric sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of metal ions has grown in popularity. Pyrazolones and their derivatives are heterocyclic compounds that have attracted interest due to their biological and pharmacological features. As a result, they have been used in various areas, including agriculture, medicine, organic synthesis, and analytical chemistry. However, the potential for chemosensing has yet to receive much attention. In this study, thiomethyl-substituted (4Z)-4-[(pyrazol-4-yl)methylene]pyrazolone was synthesized, and its ability to act as an optical chemosensor for several metals was evaluated. According to preliminary results, this molecule could be an optical chemosensor to detect Fe3+, Sn2+, and Al3+. Full article
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831 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Molecular Modelling and In Vitro Research of New Substances for the Targeted Stimulation of AQP3 in Skin
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16088 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Skin dryness and xerosis are the most common clinical manifestations of different dermatological diseases. At the same time, it was established that the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is related to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and vitiligo. Thus, our study [...] Read more.
Skin dryness and xerosis are the most common clinical manifestations of different dermatological diseases. At the same time, it was established that the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is related to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and vitiligo. Thus, our study was focused on the search for new molecules and the investigation of their biological activity to accelerate the expression of AQP3 in the skin’s epidermis. Aloin from an Aloe barbadensis leaf extract and trimethylglycine were chosen as new potential candidates using DiffDock computational modelling. These natural molecules demonstrated a good affinity towards the active site of AQP3 with an estimated docking score of −6.2 kcal/mol to −7.7 kcal/mol. Phyto4Health modelling predicted the anti-psoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressant activities that are useful in the treatment of atopic skin diseases. Furthermore, it was shown that the combination of the Aloe barbadensis leaf extract and trimethylglycine in a mass ratio of 1:1 revealed a clear synergetic effect to increase the AQP3 amount up to two times. Thus, the combination of the Aloe barbadensis extract standardized for aloin and trimethylglycine has a promising potential in drug development and the treatment of dryness. Full article
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1456 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Robust Regression-Based Modeling to Predict Antiplasmodial Activity of Thiazolyl–Pyrimidine Hybrid Derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16167 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Thiazolyl–pyrimidine hybrid plays significant roles in the biological activities and SAR of thiazolylpyrimidines (Tzpd), thiazolopyrimidines, and thienopyrimidines due to the combination of the thiazole and pyrimidine pharmacophores. The study developed regression-based models for the prediction of antiplasmodial activity of 43 Tzpd hybrid obtained [...] Read more.
Thiazolyl–pyrimidine hybrid plays significant roles in the biological activities and SAR of thiazolylpyrimidines (Tzpd), thiazolopyrimidines, and thienopyrimidines due to the combination of the thiazole and pyrimidine pharmacophores. The study developed regression-based models for the prediction of antiplasmodial activity of 43 Tzpd hybrid obtained from the ChEMBL database. The molecular descriptors (145 features) were scaled down to 6 using the recursive feature elimination. The X- and Y-matrix were split into 34 train and 9 test sets using a split ratio of 0.20. Regression models were built using scikit-learn algorithms: multiple linear regression (MLR), k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), Support Vector Regressor (SVR), and Random Forest Regressor (RFR) to predict the pIC50 of the test set. The models were evaluated using R2, mean squared error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), p-values, F-statistic, and variance inflation factor (VIF). Of the 145 features calculated for the 43 Tzpd, 6 molecular features, FCASA-, MNDO_LUMO, E_str, vsurf_HB1, vsurf_G, and vsurf_DD12 (p < 0.05; VIF < 5), were found to significantly influence the antiplasmodial activity. Fivefold cross-validation performance scores of MLR, kNN, SVR, and RFR showed that the performance metrics of MLR (MSE = 0.1453; R2 = 0.680; MAE = 0.290; RMSE = 0.381; pIC50(predicted) = 8.06 − 0.45vsurf_G + 0.37FCASA- − 0.42MNDO_LUMO − 0.20E_str + 0.30vsurf_HB1 − 0.38vsurf_DD12) outperformed other models. The study developed predictive models and provided insights into the chemical features necessary for the optimization of thiazolyl–pyrimidine to enhance antiplasmodial activity. Full article
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8572 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
GC-MS Analysis of Defensive Secretions of a Cuban Endemic Millipede of the Genus Rhinocricus—Chemical Prospecting of Neotropical Biodiversity
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16077 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 180
Abstract
The poly-component composition of repugnatorial secretions isolated from Rhinocricus duvernoyi Kasrh 1981 eco-geographical populations, inhabiting in the eastern zone of Cuban archipelago, was analyzed using GC-MS. Were identified several benzoquinonoids and related derivatives, revealing the existence of a singular compositional heterogeneity at a [...] Read more.
The poly-component composition of repugnatorial secretions isolated from Rhinocricus duvernoyi Kasrh 1981 eco-geographical populations, inhabiting in the eastern zone of Cuban archipelago, was analyzed using GC-MS. Were identified several benzoquinonoids and related derivatives, revealing the existence of a singular compositional heterogeneity at a geographical scale. The preliminary molecular-geographic mapping of the Cuban archipelago detailed the presence of 3 chemotypes in the east region. The work reports a structural-chromatographic molecular database containing the components of defensive secretions. Full article
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7 pages, 3851 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
99mTc-Selenium-NPs as SPECT Tracers: Radio Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16172 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 406
Abstract
As the usage of nano-sized complexes in biomedical applications has grown significantly over the past ten years, nanoparticles are now playing a significant role in the enhancement and revolution of medical applications. It may be due primarily to the novel and exceptional electrical, [...] Read more.
As the usage of nano-sized complexes in biomedical applications has grown significantly over the past ten years, nanoparticles are now playing a significant role in the enhancement and revolution of medical applications. It may be due primarily to the novel and exceptional electrical, optical, photo-responsive, and catalytic capabilities displayed by particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nm. The radiolabelled nanoparticles refer to the process of incorporating radioactive isotopes into nanoparticles. This technique enables the nanoparticles to be tracked, imaged and monitored using various imaging techniques, such as Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET). They play a crucial role in understanding the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and targeted delivery of nanoparticles to biological systems. In this study, selenium-based nanoparticles (Se-NPs) were explored for imaging potential as these are usable due to their size, surface, and kinetics, as well as their ability to be functionalised. The 99mTechnicium (99mTc) radionuclide was used to radiolabel the bio-inspired highly dispersed over grown endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum selenium NP using conventional radiochemistry protocol. The radiolabelling yield was found to be 94.5 ± 3% and analysed by various analytical tools. The synthesized 99mTc-Se-NPs were assessed through In-vitro stability, and their In-vivo biodistribution was performed. The accumulation of post six-hour data was primarily seen in the liver (around 3.4% ID/g) and lungs (about 2.2% ID/g). These Se-NPs can be used as an imaging agent for lung and liver disorders because these NPs quickly pass through the kidneys are expelled via urine and show a long retention time in the body. These properties of 99mTc-Se-NPs can be used for non-invasive imaging via SPECT. Full article
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4815 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Silico Approaches for the Study of New Anti-Parkinson’s Agents
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16067 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative chronic disorder in older people, caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain, which leads to dopamine depletion. Among its symptoms are resting tremor, rigidity, and dementia. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative chronic disorder in older people, caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain, which leads to dopamine depletion. Among its symptoms are resting tremor, rigidity, and dementia. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is a key enzyme in PD. The inhibition of it increases the level of dopamine in the brain by preventing its degradation, especially in the early stages of the disease. In the present work, we combined molecular docking with an ADME analysis of a new class of ten derivatives of indanone in order to reduce the metabolic depletion of dopamine through inhibiting the MAO-B. A molecular docking study was performed to clarify the bonding modes and affinities between the active site residues of MAO-B with the new class derivatives of indanone, followed by the ADME prediction to check the drug-likeness properties of the best ligands obtained using the method above. Molecular docking results show that the ligands L3 and L5 presented a high negative score energy (−8.809 kcal/mol, −9.276 kcal/mol), respectively, with good RMSD values (1.419 Å, 1.560 Å), respectively. Moreover, the ADME prediction gave promising results that those ligands have an oral bioavailability and a high level of gastrointestinal absorption, which means they can be good inhibitors against Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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2008 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
New Azo Carboxylic Dyes Derived from Eugenol: Synthesis and Preliminary Application to Polyamide
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16044 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 189
Abstract
A series of azo dyes containing eugenol, the major phenolic compound in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil, was synthesized by coupling reactions of diazonium salts of different amines based on 3-aminobenzoic acid with eugenol. The new eugenol-based azo dyes were fully [...] Read more.
A series of azo dyes containing eugenol, the major phenolic compound in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil, was synthesized by coupling reactions of diazonium salts of different amines based on 3-aminobenzoic acid with eugenol. The new eugenol-based azo dyes were fully characterized by the usual analytical techniques and used in preliminary reactive dyeing tests on polyamide fabric to determine the colour fastness and staining under domestic washing conditions. The results obtained revealed the potential of these dyes for applications in the textile area. Full article
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2261 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Chemical Modification of Poly(epichlorohydrin) by Grafting Menthol
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16148 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Functional polymers, a significant class of compounds with diverse applications, are synthesized by incorporating functional groups into polymer matrices. Poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) is a pivotal polymer due to its reactive chloromethyl group, which readily enables its transformation into various functional polymers. Our study is [...] Read more.
Functional polymers, a significant class of compounds with diverse applications, are synthesized by incorporating functional groups into polymer matrices. Poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) is a pivotal polymer due to its reactive chloromethyl group, which readily enables its transformation into various functional polymers. Our study is focused on theoretically unraveling the mechanism behind modifying PECH through menthol grafting. We optimized and characterized various stationary states using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. These calculations were conducted in both the gas phase and a solution environment (THF). To anticipate the specific sites within our polymer that would be subject to grafting, we calculated various reactivity indices at the same computational level. Full article
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1241 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synephrine Analogues as Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16152 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 184
Abstract
This work carried out the synthesis of several new synephrine analogues by universal method. Some of the synthesized compounds showed cytotoxicity on myeloid leukaemia cells K562 and lymphoma cell line Granta-519. Molecular docking using the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) model (PDB identifier 1P93) was [...] Read more.
This work carried out the synthesis of several new synephrine analogues by universal method. Some of the synthesized compounds showed cytotoxicity on myeloid leukaemia cells K562 and lymphoma cell line Granta-519. Molecular docking using the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) model (PDB identifier 1P93) was performed to understand the possible underlying mechanism of compound action. The simulation showed the similarity of synephrine analogues’ binding to the binding of dexamethasone in the GR ligand-binding domain. The synthesized analogues exhibited cytotoxicity profiles similar to those of dexamethasone. Full article
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342 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of Aromatic Macrodiolides and Study of Their Antitumor Activity In Vitro
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16102 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Based on (5Z,9Z)-tetradeca-5,9-diene-1,14-dioic acid, previously undescribed polyether aromatic macrodiolides were synthesized in good yields (53–67%). The cytotoxicity of the resulting macrocyclic compounds in vitro against tumor Jurkat cells, K562 cells, conditionally normal Hek293 cell lines and normal fibroblasts was [...] Read more.
Based on (5Z,9Z)-tetradeca-5,9-diene-1,14-dioic acid, previously undescribed polyether aromatic macrodiolides were synthesized in good yields (53–67%). The cytotoxicity of the resulting macrocyclic compounds in vitro against tumor Jurkat cells, K562 cells, conditionally normal Hek293 cell lines and normal fibroblasts was the assessment carried out. The ability of the most active macrodiolide to induce apoptosis toward Jurkat cells and influence the cell cycle was studied. Full article
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1300 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Theoretical Study of the Addition Reaction of Arylazides to 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16160 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Our research focuses on the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition involving arylazides. The reaction demonstrates high efficiency when conducted in the presence of morpholine, resulting in 100% regioselectivity towards a single isomer. A theoretical study of this reaction can be conducted to [...] Read more.
Our research focuses on the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition involving arylazides. The reaction demonstrates high efficiency when conducted in the presence of morpholine, resulting in 100% regioselectivity towards a single isomer. A theoretical study of this reaction can be conducted to gain insights into its mechanism and provide valuable information for its optimization. This study involves the use of computational methods, such as density functional theory (DFT), to calculate the structures, energies, and properties of the reactants, intermediates, transition states, and products involved in the reaction. The calculations were performed using the Gaussian09 program with the B3LYP(GD3BJ)/6-31G(d,p) method. Full article
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1723 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Oxidative Aromatization of Some 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives Using Pyritic Ash in Eco-Sustainable Conditions
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16066 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines (Hantzsch 1,4-DHP), have been utilized as starting material in organic synthesis. In addition, several 1,4-DHP based drugs (Nifedipine, Niguldipine, Amlodepine besylate) have been recognized for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. During the redox processes, 1,4-DHP systems are oxidatively transformed into the [...] Read more.
Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines (Hantzsch 1,4-DHP), have been utilized as starting material in organic synthesis. In addition, several 1,4-DHP based drugs (Nifedipine, Niguldipine, Amlodepine besylate) have been recognized for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. During the redox processes, 1,4-DHP systems are oxidatively transformed into the corresponding pyridine derivatives. Furthermore, the oxidation of Hantzsch 1,4-DHP constitutes the more accessible method to obtain pyridine derivatives with a great spectrum of important properties. Pyritic ashes, a waste material from the metallurgical industry, has shown catalytic activity in redox processes, and its use can facilitate the obtaining of derivatives from dihydropyridines under sustainable conditions. Full article
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1485 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of New Copper (II) Complex with Sulfonamide
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16157 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 168
Abstract
A fast and efficient synthesis was carried out to obtain a new derivative of an organometallic complex. This synthesis involved the complexation of a sulfonamide derived from phenylpiperazine with copper (II). The synthesis of this complex was achieved using an innovative and environmentally [...] Read more.
A fast and efficient synthesis was carried out to obtain a new derivative of an organometallic complex. This synthesis involved the complexation of a sulfonamide derived from phenylpiperazine with copper (II). The synthesis of this complex was achieved using an innovative and environmentally friendly method that used microwave irradiation as the energy source. The resulting complex was obtained as a green powder with a yield of 82%. The identification of the final compound was performed through infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and cyclic voltammetry. The obtained complex exhibited noteworthy activity against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the highest percentage of inhibition of BSA denaturation (0.2%) was recorded in the fraction at a concentration of 5000 ppm, which was 67.32%. Full article
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888 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preparation of a Fluorescent Peptide Substrate to Target Tumor-Associated Macrophages
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16101 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 190
Abstract
One of the significant challenges in targeting M2 macrophages is the need for specific and high-affinity targeting ligands that can distinguish them from phenotype M1 macrophages. In order to investigate the selectivity of the polypeptide M2pep (YEQDPWGVKWWY) towards M2 macrophages using fluorescence-based techniques, [...] Read more.
One of the significant challenges in targeting M2 macrophages is the need for specific and high-affinity targeting ligands that can distinguish them from phenotype M1 macrophages. In order to investigate the selectivity of the polypeptide M2pep (YEQDPWGVKWWY) towards M2 macrophages using fluorescence-based techniques, we report here the synthesis and characterization of the M2pep substrate labeled with a fluorophore. This peptide comprising a 12-amino acid sequence with a spacer consisting of three additional glycines (GGG) was synthesized and coupled to Rhodamine B at its N-terminal via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis. The structure of the labeled peptide was confirmed by NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Full article
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1895 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Chromo-Fluorogenic Detection of Cyanide Ion with a Cyanine Probe
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16109 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide in biological systems and its widespread presence in the environment, great efforts have been focused on developing sensitive and selective methods for cyanide detection. In this regard, sulfo-cyanine dye 1 was evaluated as a colorimetric and [...] Read more.
Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide in biological systems and its widespread presence in the environment, great efforts have been focused on developing sensitive and selective methods for cyanide detection. In this regard, sulfo-cyanine dye 1 was evaluated as a colorimetric and fluorimetric probe for various anions. Chemosensing studies revealed that this compound exhibited remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for CN in acetonitrile solution, with a marked colour change from cyan to colourless and fluorescence emission switched off. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 0.45 μM, and the binding mode was studied using NMR techniques. Full article
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897 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design, Synthesis, and Biological Assessment of Novel Vanillin-Isoxazole Derivatives as Positive Allosteric Modulators of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16097 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 181
Abstract
The homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a cation-permeable pentameric ligand-gated channel present in the nervous system and non-neuronal cells. α7 nAChRs are highly expressed in brain regions critical for cognition and memory, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Therefore, [...] Read more.
The homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a cation-permeable pentameric ligand-gated channel present in the nervous system and non-neuronal cells. α7 nAChRs are highly expressed in brain regions critical for cognition and memory, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Therefore, enhancing its function with positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) is a promising therapeutic approach for treating cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative disorders. Continuing with our previous work in the search for novel PAMs of α7 nAChR, this study presents the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel isoxazole-vanillin derivatives exhibiting α7-PAM activity. Isoxazole derivatives with functional α7-PAM activity were identified by determining the effects of the synthetic compounds at different concentrations on the properties of the single channels elicited by ACh (100 μM). We found that only vanillin-derived isoxazoles (containing the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy fragment) exhibited α7-enhancing activity in comparison to isoxazoles derived from dihydroxy- or dimethoxybenzaldehydes. The use of different substituted phenylacetylenes allowed us to create a small library of compounds with α7-PAM activity. Full article
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1009 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of the Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Hydrosol Extract and Its Principal Component (Carlina Oxide) in Aerial Parts of Atractylis gummifera from Western Algeria
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16135 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 177
Abstract
This work aimed to determine the chemical composition of hydrosol extract from Atractylis gummifera and to assess the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this extract, as well as analyze the carlina oxide isolated from it. This study also examined the in [...] Read more.
This work aimed to determine the chemical composition of hydrosol extract from Atractylis gummifera and to assess the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this extract, as well as analyze the carlina oxide isolated from it. This study also examined the in vitro synergistic effect of carlina oxide with BHT and diclofenac to reduce their minimum effective doses and minimize their potential side effects. The primary component of the hydrosol extract from A. gummifera was identified as the acetylenic compound carlina oxide (79.1%), which was isolated and confirmed through spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR. The results of the biological assays demonstrated that both the hydrosol extract and carlina oxide exhibited noteworthy antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, combining carlina oxide with positive controls yielded the enhancement of these activities, resulting in a significant reduction in the inhibitory concentrations and doses of the synthetic antioxidants and anti-inflammatories. Full article
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490 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hexa-Substituted Hybrid C60 Derivatives with Norbornadiene Fragments: Synthesis and Structure
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16104 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 155
Abstract
New hybrid fullerene C60 derivatives with five norbornadiene fragments, at a distance from the fullerene core of several methylene groups, were synthesized for the first time. Subsequent photoirradiation of these derivatives leads to only partial (up to 20%) opening of double bonds [...] Read more.
New hybrid fullerene C60 derivatives with five norbornadiene fragments, at a distance from the fullerene core of several methylene groups, were synthesized for the first time. Subsequent photoirradiation of these derivatives leads to only partial (up to 20%) opening of double bonds in norbornadiene fragments to form quadricyclane substituents. It is assumed that the resulting fullerene C60 derivatives can serve as a basis to create high-energy materials. Full article
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2138 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of C60 Fullerene Hexakis Adducts Based on Strained Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Their Application in Organic Electronics
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16147 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 127
Abstract
Using the Bingel–Hirsch reaction, new hexakis methanofullerenes containing strained polycyclic hydrocarbons were synthesized. Organic field-effect transistors were manufactured based on the obtained compounds. Full article
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611 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Antibacterial Action, Antioxidant Activity and Anticoagulant Effect of Pectin Extracted from Peels of Algerian Citrus Sinensis
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16069 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 197
Abstract
In this study, we characterised the pectin extracted from peels of Algerian Citrus sinensis and evaluated its antibacterial action, antioxidant activity and anticoagulant effect. Pectin was extracted under acidic conditions using hydrochloric acid for PCT-1 and citric acid for PCT-2 and determining their [...] Read more.
In this study, we characterised the pectin extracted from peels of Algerian Citrus sinensis and evaluated its antibacterial action, antioxidant activity and anticoagulant effect. Pectin was extracted under acidic conditions using hydrochloric acid for PCT-1 and citric acid for PCT-2 and determining their physicochemical properties using Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), yield, the degree of methylation, water content and ash content. In addition, the FTIR results showed desired banding characteristics, and their thermal properties evaluated using DSC showed that the thermal degradation was around 240 °C. XRD results show that PCT-1 and PCT-2 are amorphous and have similar characteristics to commercial pectin. On the other hand, the antibacterial action showed that PCT-1 and PCT-2 have no effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli bacteria, unlike Staphylococcus epidermidis, where it showed considerable antibacterial action. The antioxidant activity of PCT-1 and PCT-2 was observed using the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method; the absorbance values recorded for PCT-1 and PCT-2 confirmed their antioxidant potential explained by the presence of several free hydroxyl groups in the PCT-1 and PCT-2 structure. On the other hand, our findings indicate that PCT-1 and PCT-2 do not have a marked anticoagulant effect but have acceptable potential and can be used as anticoagulants for the treatment of thrombotic diseases with fewer side effects compared to the widely used heparin. These results suggest that pectin from the peels of Algerian Citrus sinensis has potential properties as a biomaterial for several biomedical applications. Full article
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328 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of New Unsaturated Polyether Macrodiolides Based on (7Z,11Z)-Octadeca-7,11-Diene-1,18-Dioic Acid
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16047 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Stereoselective synthesis of (7Z,11Z)-octadeca-7,11-diene-1,18-dioic acid was carried out using a homo-cyclomagnesiation reaction of 2-(nona-7,8-dien-1-yloxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran. After Steglisch esterification of the synthesized acid and polyester acetylenes in the presence of DCC and DMAP, the corresponding diesters were synthesized in [...] Read more.
Stereoselective synthesis of (7Z,11Z)-octadeca-7,11-diene-1,18-dioic acid was carried out using a homo-cyclomagnesiation reaction of 2-(nona-7,8-dien-1-yloxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran. After Steglisch esterification of the synthesized acid and polyester acetylenes in the presence of DCC and DMAP, the corresponding diesters were synthesized in good yields (67–75%). Based on symmetric diesters with terminal triple bonds, polyether macrodiolides containing conjugated triple bonds and pharmacophoric cis,cis-1,5-diene fragments in their structure were synthesized for the first time. Full article
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3076 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Photophysical Properties and Biological Efficacy of BODIPY Derivatives as Photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16094 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 221
Abstract
The selectivity of photosensitizers for light activation is a key advantage in photodynamic therapy (PDT), allowing for precise targeting while sparing healthy cells. Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)derivatives have emerged as promising PDT candidates due to their tunable photophysical properties and versatile synthesis. Herein, we explore [...] Read more.
The selectivity of photosensitizers for light activation is a key advantage in photodynamic therapy (PDT), allowing for precise targeting while sparing healthy cells. Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)derivatives have emerged as promising PDT candidates due to their tunable photophysical properties and versatile synthesis. Herein, we explore the photophysical characterization and the in vitro photodynamic activity of BODIPY analogues meso-substituted with an anthracene moiety and functionalized with iodine atoms or formyl group at the 2,6-position. The formylated anthracene–BODIPY derivative exhibited the highest phototoxicity in 4T1 breast cancer cells, making it a potential candidate for a PDT photosensitizer. Full article
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623 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Complexing Ability of a New Type of Molecular Clips Based on Diaza-18-crown-6 or Diamino-Dibenzo-18-crown-6 with Pendant p-tert-butylcalix[4]arenes
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16129 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 152
Abstract
A convenient method for obtaining a new type of molecular clips based on diazacrown or diamino-dibenzocrown ethers with two calixarene molecules attached to a central fragment using an amide bond was developed. Clip 1, based on diaza-18-crown-6, demonstrates exceptional selectivity toward barium [...] Read more.
A convenient method for obtaining a new type of molecular clips based on diazacrown or diamino-dibenzocrown ethers with two calixarene molecules attached to a central fragment using an amide bond was developed. Clip 1, based on diaza-18-crown-6, demonstrates exceptional selectivity toward barium in the alkaline earth metal series and forms 2:1 (L:M) complexes with copper and iron cations. With sodium and magnesium cations, clip 2, based on diamido-dibenzo-18-crown-6, forms 1:2 (L:M) complexes. The same compound interacts with cations of copper, iron, and cadmium to form 1:1 complexes with low stability constant values. Full article
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393 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extraction and Complexing Abilities of a Series of p-Tert-butylcalix[4]arenes Substituted by N-carbonylmonoaza-12-crown-4
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-1611 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 126
Abstract
The extraction and complexing properties of a series of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene derivatives containing N-methoxycarbonylmonoaza-12-crown-4 as the substituents were evaluated using liquid–liquid extraction and spectrophotometric titration methods. It has been demonstrated that monosubstituted calixarene is an effective and highly selective extractant toward sodium cations. Both [...] Read more.
The extraction and complexing properties of a series of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene derivatives containing N-methoxycarbonylmonoaza-12-crown-4 as the substituents were evaluated using liquid–liquid extraction and spectrophotometric titration methods. It has been demonstrated that monosubstituted calixarene is an effective and highly selective extractant toward sodium cations. Both tri- and tetrasubstituted calixarenes form mononuclear complexes with sodium cations and complexes of 1:1 and 1:2 compositions (L–M) with barium and strontium cations. The ability of calix[4]arene with four crown ether substituents to form binuclear complexes with cations of transition metals—copper, nickel, cobalt and cadmium—has also been demonstrated. Full article
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1431 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thiohydrazides in the Synthesis of Functionalized Extranuclear Heterosteroids
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16179 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Heterocyclic derivatives of hormones have attracted great interest as a privileged scaffold for drug discovery due to their outstanding biological activity. A number of them are potent anticancer agents which are used in the chemotherapy of breast and prostate cancers. Here, the data [...] Read more.
Heterocyclic derivatives of hormones have attracted great interest as a privileged scaffold for drug discovery due to their outstanding biological activity. A number of them are potent anticancer agents which are used in the chemotherapy of breast and prostate cancers. Here, the data obtained by the authors in the field of studying functionalized thiohydrazides as simple “versatile agents” for the installation of heterocyclic moiety to the steroid core are summarized. Namely, a flexible synthetic approach to unknown pyrazolines, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, thiadiazine, and pyridazine derivatives of steroids with selective control of heterocyclization patterns are discussed. Steroidal 1,3,4-thiadiazoles were obtained via the oxidative heterocyclization of oxamic acid thiohydrazides with 16-hydroxymethylidene-∆1,3,5(10)-estratrieno-17-one. An extension of this reaction to steroidal α,β-unsaturated ketones resulted in androst-5-ene-[17,16d]-pyrazolines. Spiro-androstene-17,6′[1′,3′,4′]thiadiazines were exclusively synthesized employing 16β,17β-epoxypregnenolone. Using 21-bromopregna-5,16-dien-20-one as a substrate, 17-[1′,3′,4′]thiadiazine-substituted androstenes were prepared. 18-Nor-5α-androsta-2,13-diene[3,2-d]pyridazines, androsta-2-ene[3,2-d]pyridazines and ∆1,3,5(10)-estratrieno[16,17-d]pyridazines were synthesized via two steps involving the Vilsmeier–Haack reaction of enolizable steroidal ketones, giving chlorovinyl aldehydes, followed by the imination of the former with oxamic acid thiohydrazides. The antiproliferative activity of the synthesized compounds against breast and prostate cancer cell lines, along with lead compounds’ in-depth characterization, are included. The lead compounds were found to have potent selectivity and, in some cases, a significant effect on the signaling pathways in parental and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-resistant cells. Full article
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389 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Vitro Biodegradability of Phosphorylated Hyaluronic Acid by Testicular Hyaluronidase
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16107 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 174
Abstract
One of the most important characteristics for the development of biomaterials based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and its chemically modified derivatives is resistance to hyaluronidases (HA-ase), which are responsible for the degradation of HA macromolecules. In this work, samples of phosphorylated (HA-P) low- [...] Read more.
One of the most important characteristics for the development of biomaterials based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and its chemically modified derivatives is resistance to hyaluronidases (HA-ase), which are responsible for the degradation of HA macromolecules. In this work, samples of phosphorylated (HA-P) low- and high-molecular-weight HA (43 kDa and 0.5–0.7 MDa) were obtained by conventional stirring of HA/P2O5 mixtures at different molar ratios (1:0.2, 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2) and exposed to bovine testicular HA-ase (60 or 600 ME/mL, [HA] = 4 mg/mL of citrate buffer, pH 6.3, 16–18 h). It was found that the biodegradability of the HA-P samples obtained at the ratio of 1:0.2, 1: 0.5, and 1:1 was at the level of native HA or higher. Only samples obtained at a HA/P2O5 ratio of 1:2 showed resistance to HA-ase; their biodegradability was 13–54% lower compared to that of native HA. Full article
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1082 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Innovative Approaches in Acyl Sonogashira Coupling: Impact of Supported CuNPs and Cu-PdNPs Nanocatalysts
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16090 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 200
Abstract
In this work, we present our findings on the acyl Sonogashira coupling catalyzed by copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) or bimetallic copper–palladium (4:1 molar ratio) nanoparticles (Cu-PdNPs) immobilized in various inorganic materials. Both catalysts allowed the synthesis of ynones in good to excellent yields. Cu-PdNPs [...] Read more.
In this work, we present our findings on the acyl Sonogashira coupling catalyzed by copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) or bimetallic copper–palladium (4:1 molar ratio) nanoparticles (Cu-PdNPs) immobilized in various inorganic materials. Both catalysts allowed the synthesis of ynones in good to excellent yields. Cu-PdNPs supported on Celite exhibit high activity, allowing reactions to proceed at room temperature, whereas the monometallic CuNPs catalysts required reactions to be carried out at 80 °C. In addition, Cu-PdNPs/Celite can be also used in Sonogashira coupling reactions with iodoarenes. Both types of catalysts can be reused without any pre-treatment after separation from the reaction medium and subsequent washing. Full article
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934 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BuChE) Inhibition Using Molecular Modelling Methods
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16075 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the majority of people worldwide. To date, there is no cure for the disease, so new therapeutic targets need to be identified and studied. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) are promising therapeutic targets for [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the majority of people worldwide. To date, there is no cure for the disease, so new therapeutic targets need to be identified and studied. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) are promising therapeutic targets for AD treatment. In order to identify new inhibitors, a newly synthesized series containing thirty seven 2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamidederivatives were tested to study the inhibition of enzymes associated with this disease. Our work focuses on the use of molecular modeling methods based on molecular docking, QSAR and ADME property prediction. Our molecular docking results discussion is based on a number of parameters. Analysis of these obtained results showed that the ligands L18, L17 and L6 have a high inhibitory effect in the case of the enzyme AChE, while the ligands L6′, L30′ and L4′ have a high inhibitory effect in the case of the enzyme BuChE. In addition, the ADME-T properties calculation proved that these ligands respect the Lipinski, Veber and Egan rules, allowing us to select them as being probably the best inhibitors of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Then, a QSAR model was developed to explain and predict the inhibitory activity of a series of compounds using different descriptors. This model has been validated by two methods: internal and external. Full article
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1338 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extraction and Composition of Lipids from Pomegranate Seed Oil from West Algeria
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16115 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 160
Abstract
The beneficial health effects of pomegranate have consistently garnered scientific interest. This study delves into the health-promoting qualities of pomegranate seed oil from northwest Algeria, renowned for its nutraceutical benefits. Through Soxhlet extractions, oil yields between 11% and 17% were achieved, dependent on [...] Read more.
The beneficial health effects of pomegranate have consistently garnered scientific interest. This study delves into the health-promoting qualities of pomegranate seed oil from northwest Algeria, renowned for its nutraceutical benefits. Through Soxhlet extractions, oil yields between 11% and 17% were achieved, dependent on the chosen solvent. The oil's quality was rigorously assessed using indicators like iodine, acid, and saponification indices. Gas chromatography identified the predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (comprising 95% of the total), with a notable presence of punicic acid at 83.20%. This exceptionally high punicic acid content establishes Beni-Snouss pomegranate seed oil as a global punicic acid treasure trove, underscoring its significance as a valuable nutraceutical resource. Full article
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758 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Semi-Synthesis of Imidazo-5α-Hydroxyvouacapane from Caesalpinia pulcherrima via a Groebke–Blackburn–Bienaymé Reaction
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16127 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 157
Abstract
A semi-synthetic strategy and a new operationally simple-to-obtain heterocyclic system, imidazo-5α-hydroxyvouacapane, was developed in two-step reactions. The first reaction step is a Vilsmeier–Haack formylation at the furan ring of the 5α-hydroxyvouacapane isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima stems to obtain the 5α-hydroxyvouacapane-aldehyde in 33% yield. The [...] Read more.
A semi-synthetic strategy and a new operationally simple-to-obtain heterocyclic system, imidazo-5α-hydroxyvouacapane, was developed in two-step reactions. The first reaction step is a Vilsmeier–Haack formylation at the furan ring of the 5α-hydroxyvouacapane isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima stems to obtain the 5α-hydroxyvouacapane-aldehyde in 33% yield. The second reaction step is a Groebke–Blackburn–Bienaymé reaction to synthesize the imidazo-5α-hydroxyvouacapane by using 2-aminopyridine and tert-butyl isocyanide in 75% yield. This work contributes significantly to research on semi-synthesis through multicomponent reactions, an area with limited coverage in the literature. Full article
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2790 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect and Spectroscopic Analysis of Solutions in Trychloratsetylpyrogallol Synthesis
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16180 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 199
Abstract
The process of interaction of organic substances mainly occurs in solvent environments. Therefore, the effect of solvents on the o-chloroacetylation process was studied. For this, the reaction process of triatomic phenol-pyrogallol with chloroethyl chloride in various solvents was studied. In order to study [...] Read more.
The process of interaction of organic substances mainly occurs in solvent environments. Therefore, the effect of solvents on the o-chloroacetylation process was studied. For this, the reaction process of triatomic phenol-pyrogallol with chloroethyl chloride in various solvents was studied. In order to study the reaction with pyrogallol chloroacetyloride in various solvents, the compound was subjected to chromatographic, UV, IR, and NMR analyses. Full article
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485 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Phytochemical and Antioxidant Study of the Hexanoic Extract of Rhaponticum acaule
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16141 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 120
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical screening and the antioxidant activity of the hexanoic extract of the root part of Rhaponticum acaule. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract showed that it is composed mainly of terpenoids. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical screening and the antioxidant activity of the hexanoic extract of the root part of Rhaponticum acaule. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract showed that it is composed mainly of terpenoids. The result of the evaluation of the antioxidant activity revealed that the hexanoic extract is endowed with a very powerful antioxidant activity characterized by inhibitory concentrations of 50% of the free radical DPPH (IC50 = 12.5 µg/mL), which is better than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 23.5 µg/mL). In fact, these new results could lead to powerful approaches for the development of new antioxidant compounds. Full article
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1306 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Molecular Docking for the Development of Alternative Therapies against Leishmaniasis
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16050 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Topoisomerases play a pivotal role in regulating the topological structure of DNA during fundamental processes such as transcription, DNA repair, or DNA replication; because of this, topoisomerases are biological targets in pathogenic microorganisms or malignant cells. In this study, we aimed to identify [...] Read more.
Topoisomerases play a pivotal role in regulating the topological structure of DNA during fundamental processes such as transcription, DNA repair, or DNA replication; because of this, topoisomerases are biological targets in pathogenic microorganisms or malignant cells. In this study, we aimed to identify potential inhibitory compounds against topoisomerases type II of Leishmania mexicana via homology model and molecular docking. A comprehensive screening of 400 compounds provided by Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) in the Pandemic Response Box. Here, we identify the 20 best compounds against each topoisomerase type II of L. mexicana to identify new alternatives to treat a neglected tropical disease such as leishmaniasis. Full article
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2716 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Silico Investigation of a New 4-Hydroxyquinolone Analogue as an Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Inhibitor: Molecular Docking and ADMET Prediction
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16139 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 149
Abstract
In the search for new potential drug candidates acting as anticancer agents, we were interested in a small molecule derived from 4-hydroxy-2-quinolone, which is newly synthesized from the condensation of a β-enaminone and diethylmalonate under microwave irradiation. This compound was subjected to an [...] Read more.
In the search for new potential drug candidates acting as anticancer agents, we were interested in a small molecule derived from 4-hydroxy-2-quinolone, which is newly synthesized from the condensation of a β-enaminone and diethylmalonate under microwave irradiation. This compound was subjected to an in silico study in order to investigate its potentiality to act against lung cancer through inhibiting a tyrosine kinase: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK). A docking simulation was performed in the active pocket of the human ALK complexed with a commercialized anticancer agent—Entrectinib (Pdb: 5FTO)—using Schrodinger suite. The studied derivative showed good stability inside the active site with an estimated docking score equal to −8.054 kcal·mol−1. In addition, significant interactions, similar to those formed by the co-crystallized ligand, were present in the studied compound, counting hydrogen bonds with Met1199 and Glu1197 as well as hydrophobic contacts with residues in the cavity of the ALK. Keeping in mind that the pharmacokinetic properties and the toxicity of a drug candidate are very important factors in conceiving a safe admissible therapeutic substance, we carried out an ADMET prediction for the studied molecules using SwissADME, MolSoft, and ProTox-II, which gave promising results. Full article
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1925 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Molecular Docking Studies of Selected Phytoconstituents on Adenosine A2A Receptor (PDB ID: 3UZA) as Potential Anti-Parkinson’s Agents
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16119 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease which involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons, which produce dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that communicates with the area of the brain responsible for movement and coordination. As Parkinson’s [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease which involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons, which produce dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that communicates with the area of the brain responsible for movement and coordination. As Parkinson’s disease progresses, the amount of dopamine production in the brain declines, leaving a person unable to control movement. Typically, natural compounds such as flavanoids have been cited in the literature for having the ability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier and halt the progression of such disorders. In this study, ten phytoconstituents were screened using molecular docking against adenosine A2A to identify potential inhibitors. Target protein of interest, Adenosine A2A receptor (PDB ID: 3UZA) was extracted from PDB database. Test drugs as well as standard drug were extracted in their 3D conformation from the PubChem in .SDF format, and docking was done using FlexX software. The docking scores of the selected photochemical were compared with levodopa as a positive control. Docking studies revealed that Baicaline has best molecular docking result (−21.6 kcal/mol) for Adenosine A2A receptor, with low toxicity as per pro Tox-II online server which indicates that the Baicalein is a potential lead to be drug candidate for Parkinson’s disease. Full article
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4076 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Virtual Screening of Natural Compounds as Potential SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors: A Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Guided Approach
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16049 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 174
Abstract
The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly impacted human lives, overburdened the healthcare system, and weakened global economies. The lack of specific drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is a significant hurdle toward the successful treatment of [...] Read more.
The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly impacted human lives, overburdened the healthcare system, and weakened global economies. The lack of specific drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is a significant hurdle toward the successful treatment of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 Main protease (Mpro) is considered an appealing target because of its role in replication in host cells. Plant-derived natural compounds are being largely tested for their efficacy against COVID-19 targets to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection. To discover hit compounds that can be used alone or in combination with repositioned drugs, we curated a set of 224,205 natural product structures from the ZINC database and virtually screened it against COVID-19 Mpro. Sequential docking protocols involving different levels of exhaustiveness were performed to screen a library of natural compounds. The final 88 compounds were selected and post-processed using the MM-GBSA analysis for the generation of binding free energies. The top four compounds (ZINC000085626103, ZINC000085569275, ZINC000085625768, and ZINC000085488571) showed higher affinity against the COVID-19 Mpro enzyme selected for MD simulation studies. The RMSD, RMSF, and RoG analysis of all four compound–protein complexes indicated absolute stability during a 100 ns MD run. Furthermore, the post-MD simulation binding free energies were calculated for all four compounds and were found to be in the range of −38.29 to −18.07 kcal/mol. The in silico virtual screening results suggested that the selected natural compounds have the potential to be developed as a COVID-19 Mpro inhibitor and can be explored further for experimental research to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of these compounds for the treatment of COVID-19. Full article
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2511 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating a Novel Theoretical Strategy for the Screening DES(s) for Potential Application in EOR Processes Using Quantum Mechanics Calculations
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16040 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Green solvents like DES have gained tremendous attention and have been employed for many applications, as industries are now geared toward adopting green materials technologies to contain the effects of climate change, environmental pollution, and global warming. They have found application and use [...] Read more.
Green solvents like DES have gained tremendous attention and have been employed for many applications, as industries are now geared toward adopting green materials technologies to contain the effects of climate change, environmental pollution, and global warming. They have found application and use in enhanced oil recovery in the petroleum industry as surface active materials, among others. However, there is a need to be able to select, screen, and rank the best performance DESs among a large combination of HBA and HBD capable of forming DESs that can perform for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), viz–viz, additional oil recovery. In this study, choline chloride (CHCL)-based DESs, the most employed DES in EOR, are screened for their ability to reduce interfacial tension, adsorption capacities, and oil enhancement. We innovate a screening criterion using molecular descriptors obtained from the interaction of the DES with species (rock, water, oil, and brine) used in the reservoir. Our findings indicate that the correlation of experimental properties with calculated descriptors can be used to predict the overall EOR performance. Our study contributes to valuable insights into the screening of DESs theoretically to be used for EOR. It also can be employed as a quick check to reduce trial and error during the experimental selection of energetically stable DESs in the laboratory for their potential application for EOR performance in a cost-effective manner. Full article
1442 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Selective Synthesis of Fatty Alcohols over Mild Reaction Conditions via Non-Catalytic Liquid-Phase Fatty Acid Methyl Esters’ Reduction
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16384 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 200
Abstract
The upgrading of fatty alcohols synthesis from natural fatty acid methyl esters’ reduction using alumina-supported NaBH4 without H2 supply was investigated. It was possible to synthesize fatty alcohols efficiently with high yields. By using pure NaBH4 or alumina-supported NaBH4 [...] Read more.
The upgrading of fatty alcohols synthesis from natural fatty acid methyl esters’ reduction using alumina-supported NaBH4 without H2 supply was investigated. It was possible to synthesize fatty alcohols efficiently with high yields. By using pure NaBH4 or alumina-supported NaBH4 and methanol as co-reactants, 100% selectivity towards fatty alcohols was achieved. The purpose of supporting the metal hydride is to increase its stability and ensure the recovery of the product at the end of the reaction. A high final fatty alcohol yield was obtained when alumina-supported NaBH4 was used. The use of more than stoichiometric amounts of methanol and NaBH4 is important to produce alkoxyborohydride anions that act as better reducing species than NaBH4. The reaction conditions effect was investigated and the role of short carbon chain alcohol structure was explained. The effect of fatty acid methyl ester structure was also examined. Saturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl laurate, methyl myristate) with short carbon chains can be easily reduced using NaBH4/Al2O3 and methanol, thus obtaining high conversion and selectable fuel alcohol. Unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester (methyl oleate) with longer carbon shows steric hindrance, which is not suitable for the interaction of esters and reduces the surface area, meaning that the conversion of fatty acid methyl ester is lower. Full article
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3408 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Green Synthesis of Pistia stratiotes Ag/AgCl Nanomaterials and Their Anti-Bacterial Activity
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16054 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Over the last few decades, nanomaterials have been synthesized using one-step green approaches, which are rapid, simple, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and nonhazardous. Silver nanomaterials (PS-Ag/AgCl) were synthesized using Pistia stratiotes aqueous leaf extract. The leaf extract acts as a reducing, stabilizing, and capping agent. [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, nanomaterials have been synthesized using one-step green approaches, which are rapid, simple, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and nonhazardous. Silver nanomaterials (PS-Ag/AgCl) were synthesized using Pistia stratiotes aqueous leaf extract. The leaf extract acts as a reducing, stabilizing, and capping agent. The compounds responsible for the reduction of silver salt and the functional groups present in leaf extract were explored by FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) as well as other characterization techniques. The synthesized nanomaterials had a spherical surface morphology and were 15–50 nm in size, according to HR-TEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy). UV–visible spectroscopy showed an absorbance peak in the range of 420 nm. Surface morphology was explored by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and elemental composition was analyzed by EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The crystallinity and crystal lattice of Ag/AgCl nanomaterials were explored by XRD (X-ray powder diffraction). The silver nanomaterials showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As a result, the nanomaterials (PS-Ag/AgCl) are safe and nontoxic. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of a Bio-Based Methacrylic Polymer Using Camphor Terpene as a Renewable Resource
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16336 - 23 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Sustainable polymers derived from biomass have the potential to reduce environmental impacts while offering significant performance and cost advantages over petrochemical-derived macromolecules. We present here a facile and efficient approach to the synthesis of a biomethacrylic monomer, isobornyl/bornyl methacrylate (IBOMA/BOMA), using the naturally [...] Read more.
Sustainable polymers derived from biomass have the potential to reduce environmental impacts while offering significant performance and cost advantages over petrochemical-derived macromolecules. We present here a facile and efficient approach to the synthesis of a biomethacrylic monomer, isobornyl/bornyl methacrylate (IBOMA/BOMA), using the naturally available camphor terpene in the essential oil of the Algerian plant Artemisia arborescens (Absinthe) as a key intermediate. The essential oil of the aerial part of the Artemisia arborescens plant naturally distributed in northwest Algeria was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Nine components were identified, representing 90.7% of the total content. The main constituent of Artemisia arborescens essential oil is camphor (71.8%). Camphor was purified and modified to produce an 80% renewable-carbon-based methacrylic monomer. This terpene-derived methacrylic monomer was free radically polymerized to create a biosourced methacrylic polymer. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to characterize the structure of camphor terpene, isobornyl/bornyl methacrylate, and poly (isobornyl/bornyl methacrylate) (PIBOMA)/(PBOMA). Full article
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1776 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Density Functional Theory Study of 4-OH Aldehydes
Chem. Proc. 2023, 14(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsoc-27-16076 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 91
Abstract
According to certain theories, aldehydes play a significant role as precursor species in the creation of new atmospheric particles. In the current study, we first optimized the structure of the title compound by using the B3LYP 631-G (d, p) basic set. This compound’s [...] Read more.
According to certain theories, aldehydes play a significant role as precursor species in the creation of new atmospheric particles. In the current study, we first optimized the structure of the title compound by using the B3LYP 631-G (d, p) basic set. This compound’s electrostatic potential, electrophilicity (ω), chemical potential (µ), chemical hardness (η), and maximum quantity of electronic charge transfer (Nmax) have all been carefully examined. The hyperconjugated electron interactions within the molecule that contribute to its stability were investigated using natural bond orbital analysis, in order to research the molecule’s chemically active areas. Additionally, reactivity descriptors were determined. The moment of the electric dipole, initial static hyperpolarizability values, and polarizability have been studied for the title compound. Full article