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Fluids, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Transport and mixing in the gastric duct occur via peristaltic flow. In vivo data are hard to collect and require strict ethical approval. In contrast, both in vitro and in silico studies allow detailed investigation and can be constructed to answer specific questions. The aim of this study was to design a new elastic thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) intestine model and to compare the flow patterns observed experimentally with those predicted by a fluid–structure interaction (FSI) simulation. Here, we present complementary studies that allow feedback to improve both techniques and provide mutual validation. The experimental work provides direct measurement of mixing, and the simulation allows the experimental setup to be studied to determine the impacts of various parameters. View this paper
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16 pages, 5240 KiB  
Article
BE-BDF2 Time Integration Scheme Equipped with Richardson Extrapolation for Unsteady Compressible Flows
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110304 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
In this work we investigate the effectiveness of the Backward Euler-Backward Differentiation Formula (BE-BDF2) in solving unsteady compressible inviscid and viscous flows. Furthermore, to improve its accuracy and its order of convergence, we have equipped this time integration method with the Richardson Extrapolation [...] Read more.
In this work we investigate the effectiveness of the Backward Euler-Backward Differentiation Formula (BE-BDF2) in solving unsteady compressible inviscid and viscous flows. Furthermore, to improve its accuracy and its order of convergence, we have equipped this time integration method with the Richardson Extrapolation (RE) technique. The BE-BDF2 scheme is a second-order accurate, A-stable, L-stable and self-starting scheme. It has two stages: the first one is the simple Backward Euler (BE) and the second one is a second-order Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF2) that uses an intermediate and a past solution. The RE is a very simple and powerful technique that can be used to increase the order of accuracy of any approximation process by eliminating the lowest order error term(s) from its asymptotic error expansion. The spatial approximation of the governing Navier–Stokes equations is performed with a high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method. The presented numerical results for canonical test cases, i.e., the isentropic convecting vortex and the unsteady vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder, aim to assess the performance of the BE-BDF2 scheme, in its standard version and equipped with RE, by comparing it with the ones obtained by using more classical methods, like the BDF2, the second-order accurate Crank–Nicolson (CN2) and the explicit third-order accurate Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta scheme (SSP-RK3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Paper for Mathematical and Computational Fluid Mechanics)
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25 pages, 2745 KiB  
Review
Modeling of Indirect Evaporative Cooling Systems: A Review
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110303 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Air-to-air indirect evaporative cooling (IEC) systems are particular heat exchangers that use the latent heat of evaporation of water to cool down an air stream, without increasing its specific humidity, thus guaranteeing adequate thermohygrometric conditions in the refrigerated environment with low energy consumption. [...] Read more.
Air-to-air indirect evaporative cooling (IEC) systems are particular heat exchangers that use the latent heat of evaporation of water to cool down an air stream, without increasing its specific humidity, thus guaranteeing adequate thermohygrometric conditions in the refrigerated environment with low energy consumption. Dew-point indirect evaporative cooling (DIEC) systems are based on the IEC technology, but they recirculate a part of the air taken from the room to be refrigerated, in order to possibly achieve a lower air temperature. IEC and DIEC systems are becoming increasingly common these years, as they can ensure a good efficiency, minimizing the environmental impact of the air-conditioning system. Consequently, it has been necessary to develop models, both analytical and numerical, to quickly and accurately design this type of system and to predict their performance. This paper presents a review of the analytical and numerical models developed specifically for IEC and DIEC systems, highlighting their method, main innovations and advantages, and possible limitations. From this analysis, it emerged that analytical models have been developed since the late 1990s and only few of them are suitable for DIEC heat exchangers, while numerical models for both IEC and DIEC systems are gaining popularity in recent years. Almost all the analyzed models have been validated by comparison with numerical and/or experimental data, showing a maximum discrepancy within 10% in the majority of the cases. However, the validations were performed for a few specific cases, so in real applications it might be difficult to associate the model boundary conditions and the heat exchangers operating conditions, such as nozzles orientations, plates materials, water flow rates, and configurations. Another common limitation concerns the modeling of some properties, as wettability factor and air density, which might affect the accuracy of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Challenges and Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer)
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10 pages, 3814 KiB  
Article
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study to Compare Two Types of Arterial Cannulae for Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110302 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Thanks to recent technological and IT advances, there have been rapid developments in biomedical and health research applications of computational fluid dynamics. This is a methodology of computer-based simulation that uses numerical solutions of the governing equations to simulate real fluid flows. The [...] Read more.
Thanks to recent technological and IT advances, there have been rapid developments in biomedical and health research applications of computational fluid dynamics. This is a methodology of computer-based simulation that uses numerical solutions of the governing equations to simulate real fluid flows. The aim of this study is to investigate, using a patient-specific computational fluid dynamics analysis, the hemodynamic behavior of two arterial cannulae, with two different geometries, used in clinical practice during cardiopulmonary bypass. A realistic 3D model of the aorta is extracted from a subject’s CT images using segmentation and reverse engineering techniques. The two cannulae, with similar geometry except for the distal end (straight or curved tip), are modeled and inserted at the specific position in the ascending aorta. The assumption of equal boundary conditions is adopted for the two simulations in order to analyze only the effects of a cannula’s geometry on hemodynamic behavior. Simulation results showed a greater percentage of the total output directed towards the supra-aortic vessels with the curved tip cannula (66% vs. 54%), demonstrating that the different cannula tips geometry produces specific advantages during cardiopulmonary bypass. Indeed, the straight one seems to generate a steadier flow pattern with good recirculation in the ascending aorta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hemodynamics and Related Biological Flows)
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16 pages, 5776 KiB  
Article
Influence of Weber Number on Crown Morphology during an Oblique Droplet Impact on a Thin Wall Film
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110301 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Spray impacts can be found in several technical applications and consist of many single droplets, which impact under different trajectories on wetted walls. This study investigates the asymmetric crown morphology resulting from an oblique impact (α= 60°) of a single droplet [...] Read more.
Spray impacts can be found in several technical applications and consist of many single droplets, which impact under different trajectories on wetted walls. This study investigates the asymmetric crown morphology resulting from an oblique impact (α= 60°) of a single droplet on a horizontal and quiescent wall film of the same liquid. A droplet generator with an accelerated needle releases the droplets (D= 1.5 mm) in a controlled trajectory on a thin film (hf/D= 0.2). The impact process is recorded from two perspectives with two synchronized high-speed cameras. Varying the Weber number within the splashing regime reveals distinct crown morphologies, which are described in detail. For We< 500, a single central finger develops at the front of the crown, with subsequent detachments of secondary droplets. At higher We (>500), a collision of the crown with the wall film shortly after impact introduces disturbances into the rim, leading to two fingers in the middle of the front crown. A further increase in We (>600) intensifies the crown–film interaction, resulting in an early ejection of tiny droplets and a complete breakup of the front rim. The influence of We on the crown morphology during an oblique impact is also compared to the normal impact (90°). This study paves the way for a classification of impact regimes and a comprehensive picture of the oblique impact process, which deserve more investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contact Line Dynamics and Droplet Spreading)
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15 pages, 4247 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Dropwise Condensation of Steam over Hybrid Surfaces via New Non-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110300 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Dropwise condensation (DWC) of steam over hybrid hydrophobic–hydrophilic surfaces is numerically investigated via a phenomenological, Lagrangian model. The full non-dimensionalization of the heat transfer model, needed to determine the droplet growth, allows for generalization of computational results. Hybrid surfaces characterized by recursive geometries [...] Read more.
Dropwise condensation (DWC) of steam over hybrid hydrophobic–hydrophilic surfaces is numerically investigated via a phenomenological, Lagrangian model. The full non-dimensionalization of the heat transfer model, needed to determine the droplet growth, allows for generalization of computational results. Hybrid surfaces characterized by recursive geometries are implemented via the introduction of proper boundary conditions. The numerical size distribution of both the large and the small droplet populations, crucial for development of simplified, statistically sound models, is compared with empirical and theoretical correlations. Then, the validation with experimental data involving DWC over an hybrid surface is successfully conducted and the heat flux is enhanced under different operating conditions via hybrid geometry optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contact Line Dynamics and Droplet Spreading)
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17 pages, 5738 KiB  
Article
Effect of Local Floor Heating System on Occupants’ Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110299 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
In this article, the influence of splitting a local underfloor air distribution system (UFAD) on indoor thermal comfort for three occupants was studied numerically. A validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed in this investigation. The proposed heating system was evaluated and [...] Read more.
In this article, the influence of splitting a local underfloor air distribution system (UFAD) on indoor thermal comfort for three occupants was studied numerically. A validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed in this investigation. The proposed heating system was evaluated and analyzed for different values of air temperature and supply velocity. Providing suitable thermal comfort and saving energy are considered the main evaluation indexes for this study. Three cases, cases 2, 3, and 4, of the proposed local UFAD system were compared with a traditional heating system case, case 1. The supplying air velocity and air temperature in the reference case were 0.5 m/s and 29 °C, while in cases 2, 3, and 4, they were 0.4 m/s and 29 °C, 28 °C, and 27 °C, respectively. The results show that acceptable indoor human thermal comfort and energy demand reduction were achieved by using the splitting UFAD concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change and Convective Heat Transfer)
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19 pages, 8979 KiB  
Article
Simulating Flow in an Intestinal Peristaltic System: Combining In Vitro and In Silico Approaches
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110298 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Transport and mixing in the gastric duct occur via peristaltic flow. In vivo data are hard to collect and require strict ethical approval. In contrast, both in vitro and in silico studies allow detailed investigation and can be constructed to answer specific questions. [...] Read more.
Transport and mixing in the gastric duct occur via peristaltic flow. In vivo data are hard to collect and require strict ethical approval. In contrast, both in vitro and in silico studies allow detailed investigation and can be constructed to answer specific questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design a new elastic thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) intestine model and to compare the flow patterns observed experimentally with those predicted by a Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation. Here, we present complementary studies that allow feedback to improve both techniques and provide mutual validation. The experimental work provides direct measurement of mixing, and the simulation allows the experimental setup to be studied to determine the impacts of various parameters. We conclude by highlighting the utility of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Directions in Fluid Structure Interaction)
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20 pages, 3385 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Relaxation Processes in Hypersonic Flows with One-Temperature Non-Equilibrium Model
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110297 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Steady-state one-dimensional flows of five-component air behind a normal shock wave are considered with a one-temperature model. A mathematical model is formulated to describe the relaxation of a five-component air mixture with a one-temperature non-equilibrium approximation. A numerical study of non-equilibrium flows of [...] Read more.
Steady-state one-dimensional flows of five-component air behind a normal shock wave are considered with a one-temperature model. A mathematical model is formulated to describe the relaxation of a five-component air mixture with a one-temperature non-equilibrium approximation. A numerical study of non-equilibrium flows of a reacting five-component air mixture behind shock waves at different heights and velocities of free flow is performed. The contribution of different types of reactions to the overall relaxation of the mixture is discussed, and the distributions of macro-parameters of the flow behind the shock wave front are calculated. The lengths of the relaxation zones behind the shock wave front are compared at different initial conditions. Calculations are performed for the standard model of atmosphere. Full article
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10 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Detonation in van der Waals Gas
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110296 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Solving problems of detonation control is associated with obtaining detailed information about the gas dynamics accompanying the detonation process. This paper focuses on the dynamics of real gas flow through a plane detonation wave. The influence of real gas parameters on the Chapman–Jouguet [...] Read more.
Solving problems of detonation control is associated with obtaining detailed information about the gas dynamics accompanying the detonation process. This paper focuses on the dynamics of real gas flow through a plane detonation wave. The influence of real gas parameters on the Chapman–Jouguet detonation process has been studied. The process is described using the Rankine–Hugoniot system of equations. To model the thermodynamic properties of a real gas, the van der Waals equation of state is used. Equations are obtained to determine the ratio of speeds and pressures during the passage of a wave. The influence of van der Waals parameters on changes in the parameters of the detonation process was elucidated. An increase in parameter A slows down the increase in pressure in the detonation wave, and an increase in parameter B enhances it. Differences in the speed of combustion products for ideal and real gases are shown. For an ideal gas, combustion products flow from the detonation front at a critical (sonic) speed. For a van der Waals gas, the speed of combustion products may be greater than the critical one. Moreover, both factors, additional pressure (A) and additional volume (B), lead to acceleration of combustion products. Effects of heat release on the process parameters were elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Challenges and Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer)
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24 pages, 4808 KiB  
Review
Fluid–Structure Interaction Aortic Valve Surgery Simulation: A Review
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110295 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
The complicated interaction between a fluid flow and a deformable structure is referred to as fluid–structure interaction (FSI). FSI plays a crucial role in the functioning of the aortic valve. Blood exerts stresses on the leaflets as it passes through the opening or [...] Read more.
The complicated interaction between a fluid flow and a deformable structure is referred to as fluid–structure interaction (FSI). FSI plays a crucial role in the functioning of the aortic valve. Blood exerts stresses on the leaflets as it passes through the opening or shutting valve, causing them to distort and vibrate. The pressure, velocity, and turbulence of the fluid flow have an impact on these deformations and vibrations. Designing artificial valves, diagnosing and predicting valve failure, and improving surgical and interventional treatments all require the understanding and modeling of FSI in aortic valve dynamics. The most popular techniques for simulating and analyzing FSI in aortic valves are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA). By studying the relationship between fluid flow and valve deformations, researchers and doctors can gain knowledge about the functioning of valves and possible pathological diseases. Overall, FSI is a complicated phenomenon that has a great impact on how well the aortic valve works. Aortic valve diseases and disorders can be better identified, treated, and managed by comprehending and mimicking this relationship. This article provides a literature review that compiles valve reconstruction methods from 1952 to the present, as well as FSI modeling techniques that can help advance valve reconstruction. The Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases were used in the literature search and were structured into several categories. By utilizing FSI modeling, surgeons, researchers, and engineers can predict the behavior of the aortic valve before, during, and after surgery. This predictive capability can contribute to improved surgical planning, as it provides valuable insights into hemodynamic parameters such as blood flow patterns, pressure distributions, and stress analysis. Additionally, FSI modeling can aid in the evaluation of different treatment options and surgical techniques, allowing for the assessment of potential complications and the optimization of surgical outcomes. It can also provide valuable information on the long-term durability and functionality of prosthetic valves. In summary, fluid–structure interaction modeling is an effective tool for predicting the outcomes of aortic valve surgery. It can provide valuable insights into hemodynamic parameters and aid in surgical planning, treatment evaluation, and the optimization of surgical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Fluid Dynamics)
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15 pages, 13867 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Flow Characteristics of Window-Combination-Type Ventilation System Using CFD
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110294 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
In this study, we analyze the performance of ventilation modules to improve air quality in educational facilities. Using (CFD), we examine the flow design variables of a window-mounted ventilation module. Using computational analysis, we analyze various flow design characteristics of window-mounted ventilation modules [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyze the performance of ventilation modules to improve air quality in educational facilities. Using (CFD), we examine the flow design variables of a window-mounted ventilation module. Using computational analysis, we analyze various flow design characteristics of window-mounted ventilation modules and review optimal conditions. First, we measure the carbon dioxide concentration in the classroom and use CFD to analyze the internal air characteristics according to the ventilation module’s inflow speed, inflow angle, and indoor temperature conditions. According to classroom air quality management standards, the concentration of carbon dioxide must be managed below 1000 ppm. When the ventilation module’s inflow velocity was 2.0 m/s, a carbon dioxide concentration of less than 1000 ppm was measured in the classroom. Additionally, an air filter was selected to prevent the inflow of external fine dust through the ventilation module. The suitability of HEPA H14 was reviewed to design the weight concentration of fine dust flowing from the ventilation module to be less than 50 μg/m3. Through research, flow design conditions for a window-mounted ventilation module were presented to reduce carbon dioxide concentration inside the classroom. The analysis of the ventilation system flow characteristics proposed in this study derived primary data for improving the classroom ventilation system. Full article
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18 pages, 7764 KiB  
Article
Numerical Approach Based on Solving 3D Navier–Stokes Equations for Simulation of the Marine Propeller Flow Problems
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110293 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The report presents the approach implemented in the Russian LOGOS software package for the numerical simulation of the marine propeller flow problems using unstructured computational meshes automatically generated by the mesh generator. This approach includes a computational model based on the Navier–Stokes equation [...] Read more.
The report presents the approach implemented in the Russian LOGOS software package for the numerical simulation of the marine propeller flow problems using unstructured computational meshes automatically generated by the mesh generator. This approach includes a computational model based on the Navier–Stokes equation system and written with respect to the physical process: the turbulent nature of flow with transient points is accounted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes method and the k–ω SST model of turbulence by Menter along with the γ–Reθ (Gamma Re Theta) laminar-turbulent transition model; the Volume of Fluid method supplemented with the Schnerr–Sauer cavitation model is used to simulate the cavitation processes; a rotating propeller is simulated by a moving computational mesh and the GGI method to provide conformity of the solutions on adjacent boundaries of arbitrarily-shaped unstructured meshes of the two domains. The specific features of the numerical algorithms in use are described. The method validation results are given; they were obtained because of the problems of finding the performance curves of model-scale propellers in open water, namely the problems of finding the performance of propellers KP505 and IB without consideration of cavitation and the performance of propellers VP1304 and C5 under cavitation conditions. The paper demonstrates that the numerical simulation method presented allows for obtaining sufficiently accurate results to predict the main hydrodynamic characteristics for most modes of operation of the propellers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Fluid Machinery)
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15 pages, 1325 KiB  
Article
Radial Basis Function Surrogates for Uncertainty Quantification and Aerodynamic Shape Optimization under Uncertainties
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110292 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
This paper investigates the adequacy of radial basis function (RBF)-based models as surrogates in uncertainty quantification (UQ) and CFD shape optimization; for the latter, problems with and without uncertainties are considered. In UQ, these are used to support the Monte Carlo, as well [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the adequacy of radial basis function (RBF)-based models as surrogates in uncertainty quantification (UQ) and CFD shape optimization; for the latter, problems with and without uncertainties are considered. In UQ, these are used to support the Monte Carlo, as well as, the non-intrusive, Gauss Quadrature and regression-based polynomial chaos expansion methods. They are applied to the flow around an isolated airfoil and a wing to quantify uncertainties associated with the constants of the γR˜eθt transition model and the surface roughness (in the 3D case); it is demonstrated that the use of the RBF-based surrogates leads to an up to 50% reduction in computational cost, compared with the same UQ method that uses CFD computations. In shape optimization under uncertainties, solved by stochastic search methods, RBF-based surrogates are used to compute statistical moments of the objective function. In applications with geometric uncertainties which are modeled through the Karhunen–Loève technique, the use on an RBF-based surrogate reduces the turnaround time of an evolutionary algorithm by orders of magnitude. In this type of applications, RBF networks are also used to perform mesh displacement for the perturbed geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radial Basis Functions and their Applications in Fluids)
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12 pages, 3444 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Bubble Cleaner as a Sustainable Solution
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110291 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
We aim to develop a floor-cleaning design by exploiting oscillating bubbles combined with ambient pressure waves to clean various surfaces. Previous studies of this method in lab settings have proven its efficacy, but practical applications, especially concerning real-world conditions like dirt surfaces, remain [...] Read more.
We aim to develop a floor-cleaning design by exploiting oscillating bubbles combined with ambient pressure waves to clean various surfaces. Previous studies of this method in lab settings have proven its efficacy, but practical applications, especially concerning real-world conditions like dirt surfaces, remain largely unprobed. Our findings indicate that, excluding a configuration with a heavy mass bottom transducer, all tested configurations achieved approximately 60–70% cleaning performance. A slight improvement in cleaning performance was observed with the introduction of microbubbles, although it was within the error margin. Particularly noteworthy is the substantial reduction in water consumption in configurations with a water pocket, decreasing from 280 mL to a mere 3 mL, marking a significant step toward more environmentally sustainable cleaning practices, such as reduced water usage. This research provides implications for real-world cleaning applications, promising an eco-friendly and efficient cleaning alternative that reduces water usage and handles a variety of materials without causing damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics)
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28 pages, 5176 KiB  
Article
A Computational Study of the Influence of Drag Models and Heat Transfer Correlations on the Simulations of Reactive Polydisperse Flows in Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110290 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
In this work, the influence of gas–solid drag and heat transfer coefficient models on the prediction capacity of the Euler–Euler approach to simulate reactive bubbling fluidized bed flows is studied. Three different cases are considered, a non-reactive bidisperse bubbling fluidized bed flow (Case [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of gas–solid drag and heat transfer coefficient models on the prediction capacity of the Euler–Euler approach to simulate reactive bubbling fluidized bed flows is studied. Three different cases are considered, a non-reactive bidisperse bubbling fluidized bed flow (Case 1), and two reactive polydisperse flows in bubbling fluidized beds, one for biomass gasification (Case 2), and the other for biomass pyrolysis (Case 3). The Gidaspow, Syamlal–O’Brien, and BVK gas–solid drag models and the Gunn, Ranz–Marshall, and Li–Mason gas–solid heat transfer correlations are investigated. A Eulerian multiphase approach in a two-dimensional Cartesian domain is employed for the simulations. Computational results for the three cases are compared with experimental data from the literature. The results obtained here contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of such closure models on the prediction ability of the Euler–Euler approach to simulate reactive flows. The results indicate that, for the simulation of reactive flows in bubbling fluidized bed reactors, the kinetic modeling of the reactions has a global effect, which superposes with the influence of the drag and heat transfer coefficient models. Nevertheless, local parameters can be noticeably affected by the choice of the interface closure models. Finally, this work also identifies the models that lead to the best results for the cases analyzed here, and thus proposes the use of such selected models for gasification and pyrolysis processes occurring in bubbling fluidized bed reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Flow and Granular Mechanics)
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26 pages, 30841 KiB  
Article
Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Flatbed Trailers for Passenger Vehicles Using Novel Appendable Devices
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110289 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
This article presents a study on the aerodynamic drag of a generic dual-axle flatbed trailer and explores ways to reduce the drag using appendable drag-reducing devices. The primary sources of drag originated from the van and trailer’s rear, along with the trailer’s wheels. [...] Read more.
This article presents a study on the aerodynamic drag of a generic dual-axle flatbed trailer and explores ways to reduce the drag using appendable drag-reducing devices. The primary sources of drag originated from the van and trailer’s rear, along with the trailer’s wheels. The most-effective initial device for reducing drag was a full trailer underside cover, which offered a 7% drag reduction. Additionally, ladder racks, dropsides, and rear gates were studied, and it was found that protruding ladder racks significantly increased drag. Rear gates added large amounts of drag and should be removed and stored when not needed. The study also explored novel mid-section devices that increased the van’s base pressure and reduced drag. An axle test revealed that drag for single-, dual-, and triple-axle trailers was very similar in direct flow, but different in yawed flow. A drawbar length test showed a near-linear relationship between drawbar length and drag, manifesting as a 1.7% change in drag per 250 mm change in drawbar length. Several novel modifications were made to the trailer, including fitting six unique appendable devices, which offered a total 7.3% drag reduction. A novel rear van device known as the multi-stage converging cavity was introduced, which reduced drag by nearly 18%. When all the devices were used together, a total 25% drag reduction was observed for the van–trailer combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of Vehicles, 3rd Edition)
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16 pages, 4475 KiB  
Article
Differential Rotation in Convecting Spherical Shells with Non-Uniform Viscosity and Entropy Diffusivity
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110288 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Contemporary three-dimensional physics-based simulations of the solar convection zone disagree with observations. They feature differential rotation substantially different from the true rotation inferred by solar helioseismology and exhibit a conveyor belt of convective “Busse” columns not found in observations. To help unravel this [...] Read more.
Contemporary three-dimensional physics-based simulations of the solar convection zone disagree with observations. They feature differential rotation substantially different from the true rotation inferred by solar helioseismology and exhibit a conveyor belt of convective “Busse” columns not found in observations. To help unravel this so-called “convection conundrum”, we use a three-dimensional pseudospectral simulation code to investigate how radially non-uniform viscosity and entropy diffusivity affect differential rotation and convective flow patterns in density-stratified rotating spherical fluid shells. We find that radial non-uniformity in fluid properties enhances polar convection, which, in turn, induces non-negligible lateral entropy gradients that lead to large deviations from differential rotation geostrophy due to thermal wind balance. We report simulations wherein this mechanism maintains differential rotation patterns very similar to the true solar profile outside the tangent cylinder, although discrepancies remain at high latitudes. This is significant because differential rotation plays a key role in sustaining solar-like cyclic dipolar dynamos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 1728 KiB  
Article
Applicability of the Cox–Merz Relationship for Mayonnaise Enriched with Natural Extracts
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110287 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
The Cox and Merz rules are empirical correlations between the apparent viscosity of polymers with the effect of shear rate and the complex dynamic viscosity with the effect of frequency. In this study, the rheological properties of mayonnaise-type emulsions enriched with Averrhoa carambola [...] Read more.
The Cox and Merz rules are empirical correlations between the apparent viscosity of polymers with the effect of shear rate and the complex dynamic viscosity with the effect of frequency. In this study, the rheological properties of mayonnaise-type emulsions enriched with Averrhoa carambola extracts were investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and steady shear flow. The results showed that the shear-thinning behavior of the samples was non-Newtonian with yield stress and had time-dependent characteristics, as evidenced by curves from non-oscillatory measurements. It was observed that the experimental data on the complex and apparent viscosity of the samples obeyed the Cox–Merz rule. Full article
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19 pages, 5813 KiB  
Article
Investigations into the Effect of Mixing on Steam–Water Two-Phase Subsonic Cross-Flow Stability
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110286 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Theoretical and experimental aspects of the project were conducted to investigate the effect of the mixing of a swirling steam jet into cross-flowing water. It was observed that based on the theoretical adiabatic estimations for the equilibrium temperature of steam–water mixing and by [...] Read more.
Theoretical and experimental aspects of the project were conducted to investigate the effect of the mixing of a swirling steam jet into cross-flowing water. It was observed that based on the theoretical adiabatic estimations for the equilibrium temperature of steam–water mixing and by varying Psteam = 1–3 bar, Pwater = 1 bar and RPM = 60–300 around 97% (experimentally compared to the area it has at initial condition) and 85% (CFD study compared to the area it has at initial condition), an increase in the area under the influence of perfect adiabatic mixing was found. A virtual cover over the steam duct was seen. The area of this virtual cover based on the void fraction of swirling steam had a weak relationship with the total area of the region, inhibiting the perfect mixing for which an analytical relationship had been developed. The effect of mixing on the stability of swirling steam–water cross-flows was overall more than twice that of the effect on the area under the influence of the stability profile protrusions. Thus, an overall rise in inlet pressure contributed to improper mixing, whereas a rise in the RPM contributed to proper mixing inside a fixed window of observations. The effect of spatial scaling of a swirling steam trajectory on mixing in cross-flowing water was also investigated across the vertical plane. Also, the scaling of the vertical trajectories of the swirling steam jets under all operating conditions resulted in merging the regions of perfect mixing to some extent. Thus, the area under the influence of perfect mixing was reduced to around 3–4.7% under all operating conditions with scaling. This type of scaling has enormous potential for the characterization of larger fluid domains in environmental and process engineering studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Flow of Multi-Phase Fluids and Granular Materials)
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23 pages, 6256 KiB  
Article
An Enhanced Python-Based Open-Source Particle Image Velocimetry Software for Use with Central Processing Units
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110285 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a widely used experimental technique for measuring flow. In recent years, open-source PIV software has become more popular as it offers researchers and practitioners enhanced computational capabilities. Software development for graphical processing unit (GPU) architectures requires careful algorithm [...] Read more.
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a widely used experimental technique for measuring flow. In recent years, open-source PIV software has become more popular as it offers researchers and practitioners enhanced computational capabilities. Software development for graphical processing unit (GPU) architectures requires careful algorithm design and data structure selection for optimal performance. PIV software, optimized for central processing units (CPUs), offer an alternative to specialized GPU software. In the present work, an improved algorithm for the OpenPIV–Python software (Version 0.25.1, OpenPIV, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel) is presented and implemented under a traditional CPU framework. The Python language was selected due to its versatility and widespread adoption. The algorithm was also tested on a supercomputing cluster, a workstation, and Google Colaboratory during the development phase. Using a known velocity field, the algorithm precisely captured the time-average flow, momentary velocity fields, and vortices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Visualization: Experiments and Techniques)
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6 pages, 239 KiB  
Communication
Rendering Maxwell Equations into the Compressible Inviscid Fluid Dynamics Form
Fluids 2023, 8(11), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8110284 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Maxwell equations governing electromagnetic effects are being shown to be equivalent to the compressible inviscid Navier–Stokes equations applicable in fluid dynamics and representing conservation of mass and linear momentum. The latter applies subject to a generalized Beltrami condition to be satisfied by the [...] Read more.
Maxwell equations governing electromagnetic effects are being shown to be equivalent to the compressible inviscid Navier–Stokes equations applicable in fluid dynamics and representing conservation of mass and linear momentum. The latter applies subject to a generalized Beltrami condition to be satisfied by the magnetic field. This equivalence indicates that the compressible inviscid Navier–Stokes equations are Lorentz invariant as they derive directly from the Lorentz-invariant Maxwell equations subject to the same Beltrami condition, provided the pressure wave propagates at the speed of light, i.e., vo=co. In addition, the derivation and results provide support for the claim that electromagnetic potentials have physical significance as demonstrated by Aharonov–Bohm effect, and are not only a convenient mathematical formulation. Full article
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