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Vet. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 40 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSs) are vascular anomalies that affect liver development and function. Although the hepatic response to CPSs is well-characterized in dogs, there is little description of liver adaptations in cats with CPSs. This pilot study describes hepatic gene expression changes in affected cats, including angiogenesis markers, inflammation, regeneration, and urea metabolism. These genes are typically downregulated in dogs with CPSs, but their expression is increased in the livers of affected cats. These contrasting findings could indicate species-specific adaptive responses to vascular anomalies underlie this hepatic pathology in cats with CPSs. View this paper
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13 pages, 2360 KiB  
Article
Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Using TaqMan-based qPCR in Eastern China
by Yutong Tian, Hailong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Xinya Zhang, Zhilei Guan, Junjie Zhang, Yafeng Qiu, Beibei Li, Ke Liu, Zongjie Li, Donghua Shao, Peng Li, Zhiyong Ma and Jianchao Wei
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030138 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Caprine arthritis encephalitis is an infectious disease caused by the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus that infects goats, sheep, and other small ruminants. An outbreak of CAEV could be extremely harmful to the goat farming industry and could cause severe economic losses. We designed [...] Read more.
Caprine arthritis encephalitis is an infectious disease caused by the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus that infects goats, sheep, and other small ruminants. An outbreak of CAEV could be extremely harmful to the goat farming industry and could cause severe economic losses. We designed specific primers and probes for the gag gene and established a TaqMan real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. This method’s correlation coefficient (R2) was >0.999, and the sensitivity of the assay to the plasmid-carried partial gag gene was approximately 10 copies/µL, 1000 times higher than that of conventional PCR. No specific fluorescence was detected for other sheep viruses. Using this method, we tested 776 asymptomatic sheep blood samples and 4 neurodegenerative sheep brain samples from six farms in eastern China, and the positivity rate was 0.77% (6/780). The gag gene was partially sequenced in the three positive samples and compared with the sequences from other representative strains in GenBank. The results revealed that all three strains belonged to the B1 subtype and were most closely related to the strains from Shanxi and Gansu, previously isolated in China, with their homology ranging from 97.7% to 98.9%. These results suggest that the designed RT-qPCR assay can be used to detect subclinical CAEV in sheep and that the virus is still present in eastern China. Full article
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15 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Plasma γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Concentrations in Lactating Holstein Cows during Thermoneutral and Heat Stress Conditions and Their Relationships with Circulating Glucose, Insulin and Progesterone Levels
by Alicia G. Arneson, Jacob W. Stewart, MaryKate H. Byrd, George A. Perry and Michelle L. Rhoads
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030137 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle exhibit unique metabolic symptoms, many of which are undoubtedly involved in heat-induced subfertility. Because of its known systemic effects, we hypothesized that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) participates in the regulation of insulin and progesterone during heat stress. Multiparous lactating Holstein [...] Read more.
Heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle exhibit unique metabolic symptoms, many of which are undoubtedly involved in heat-induced subfertility. Because of its known systemic effects, we hypothesized that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) participates in the regulation of insulin and progesterone during heat stress. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 6) were studied during four experimental periods: (1) thermoneutral (TN; d 1–5), (2) TN + hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamp (d 6–10), (3) heat stress (HS; d 16–20), and (4) HS + euglycemic clamp (d 21–25). Blood samples were collected once daily via coccygeal venipuncture into heparinized evacuated tubes. Analysis of GABA concentrations from all four treatment periods yielded no differences. In direct comparison to TN concentrations, plasma GABA tended to decrease during the HS period (16.57 ± 2.64 vs. 13.87 ± 2.28 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.06). Both milk production and plasma insulin were moderately correlated with plasma GABA (r = 0.35, p < 0.01; r = −0.32, p < 0.01). Plasma progesterone was correlated with plasma GABA concentrations during TN but not HS periods. These results are the first to indicate that peripheral GABA could be involved in the regulation of factors known to affect production and reproduction during heat stress. More research is needed to determine its precise role(s). Full article
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15 pages, 1246 KiB  
Article
Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in Large Breed Dogs: Survival Characteristics and Prognostic Variables
by Mikael Svensson, Jonas Selling and Mark Dirven
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030136 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common acquired heart disease in dogs and its occurrence in small-and medium-sized dogs has been extensively investigated. MMVD has been described in large breed dogs as well, but substantial knowledge gaps remain. The aim of [...] Read more.
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common acquired heart disease in dogs and its occurrence in small-and medium-sized dogs has been extensively investigated. MMVD has been described in large breed dogs as well, but substantial knowledge gaps remain. The aim of this study was to provide characteristics, survival times, and prognostic variables in large breed dogs with MMVD. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with MMVD, between 2012 and 2021, were retrospectively reviewed and 202 dogs were analyzed. Median survival time (MST) for all-cause mortality was 800 days for stage B1 dogs, 274 days for stage B2 dogs, and 184 days for stage C dogs. The MST for cardiac-related death for B1 dogs could not be calculated (because survival was greater than 50% at the last timepoint) and for stage B2 and C dogs the MST were 484 and 252 days, respectively. These findings suggest that the frequency of cardiac-related death is low in large breed dogs with stage B1 MMVD. In addition, increased left atrial and ventricular size, evidence of systolic dysfunction, a thrilling murmur, and increased early trans-mitral peak velocity are predictors of cardiac-related death. Data also suggest that the risk of a negative outcome increases profoundly when large breed dogs advance from ACVIM stage B1 into stage B2 or C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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16 pages, 10319 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Effects of 5-Azacytidine on Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Replication in Porcine Kidney Cells
by Yiyi Shan, Qi Xiao, Kongwang He, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao and Zhengchang Wu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030135 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 932
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main pathogen causing post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which mainly targets the body’s immune system and poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. 5-Azacytidine is a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, which can participate [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main pathogen causing post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which mainly targets the body’s immune system and poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. 5-Azacytidine is a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, which can participate in many important physiological and pathological processes, including virus-related processes, by inhibiting gene expression. However, the impact of 5-Aza on PCV2 replication in cells is not yet clear. We explored the impact of 5-Aza on PCV2 infection utilizing PK15 cells as a cellular model. Our objective was to gain insights that could potentially offer novel therapeutic strategies for PCV2. Our results showed that 5-Aza significantly enhanced the infectivity of PCV2 in PK15 cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that PCV2 infection activated various immune-related signaling pathways. 5-Aza may activate the MAPK signaling pathway to exacerbate PCV2 infection and upregulate the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Advanced Research in Porcine Viruses)
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12 pages, 3414 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonographic Renal Subcapsular Thickening in Cats with Primary and Metastatic Carcinoma
by Ayano Masuyama, Atsushi Toshima, Asami Nakajima and Masahiro Murakami
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030134 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Ultrasonographic subcapsular thickening caused by renal neoplasia other than lymphoma has been previously reported in cats; however, detailed information is lacking. This study aims to describe ultrasonographic findings in renal subcapsular thickening and renal parenchyma in cats diagnosed or presumed with primary and [...] Read more.
Ultrasonographic subcapsular thickening caused by renal neoplasia other than lymphoma has been previously reported in cats; however, detailed information is lacking. This study aims to describe ultrasonographic findings in renal subcapsular thickening and renal parenchyma in cats diagnosed or presumed with primary and metastatic carcinoma in the kidney. Ultrasound reports were retrospectively searched from 3 veterinary hospitals and 6 cats with 9 affected kidneys were included. Renal lesions were confirmed either cytologically or histopathologically as primary renal carcinoma with metastasis in the contralateral kidney (in 1 case), or metastatic pulmonary carcinoma (in 3 cases). Two patients were cytologically diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma with concurrent renal subcapsular thickening. Eight kidneys affected by metastatic carcinomas showed relatively thin, focal, and homogeneously hypoechoic subcapsular thickening while a single kidney affected by primary renal carcinoma showed markedly thick, circumferential, and heterogeneously mixed iso- to hypoechoic lesion. The renal parenchyma, especially when just beneath the subcapsular lesion, exhibited at least one abnormality in all affected kidneys, most characterized by hyperechoic renal cortex with concurrent hypoechoic striations. This is the first report describing metastatic carcinoma causing renal ultrasonographic subcapsular thickening in cats. Our results suggest that renal carcinoma should be included in differential diagnoses when ultrasonographic subcapsular thickening is present in cats. Full article
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17 pages, 538 KiB  
Review
Phytotherapeutic Approaches in Canine Pediatrics
by Fausto Quintavalla
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030133 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Phytotherapy is a clinical modality that incorporates botanical remedies as part of the therapeutic approach. It is a very ancient branch of medicine that is currently undergoing a renaissance, evident in the numerous preparations available on the market. The majority of these formulations [...] Read more.
Phytotherapy is a clinical modality that incorporates botanical remedies as part of the therapeutic approach. It is a very ancient branch of medicine that is currently undergoing a renaissance, evident in the numerous preparations available on the market. The majority of these formulations are for preventive and curative use in adult animals. Experimental experiences in the pediatric age group are particularly scarce within the existing literature. Since these products are readily accessible, dog owners often turn to them due to their ease of availability, a preference for self-medication, and the perception that herbs are safer, gentler, and less expensive than conventional medications, often leading them to bypass seeking the advice of experienced professionals. The purpose of this review is to illustrate, on the basis of the currently available bibliography, phytotherapeutic approaches in canine pediatrics, paying particular attention to the adverse effects resulting from the use of certain plants, even when used in conjunction with some synthetic drugs. Consequently, it becomes evident that further clinical and more relevant studies, specifically focusing on puppies, are needed to increase knowledge about the effects of herbal remedies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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15 pages, 2481 KiB  
Article
The Adaptation Time to the Extender as a Crucial Step for an Accurate Evaluation of Ram Sperm Quality during the Liquid Storage
by Marta Neila-Montero, Mercedes Alvarez, Marta F. Riesco, Cristina Soriano-Úbeda, Rafael Montes-Garrido, Cristina Palacin-Martinez, Paulino de Paz, Luis Anel and Luis Anel-Lopez
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030132 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Accurate assessment of ram sperm quality is crucial to optimizing assisted reproductive technologies in sheep. However, semen preservation can induce sperm due to osmotic, biochemical, and thermal stress. Stabilizing sperm with a suitable cooling rate and adaptation period to the extender could mitigate [...] Read more.
Accurate assessment of ram sperm quality is crucial to optimizing assisted reproductive technologies in sheep. However, semen preservation can induce sperm due to osmotic, biochemical, and thermal stress. Stabilizing sperm with a suitable cooling rate and adaptation period to the extender could mitigate these effects for a more reliable evaluation. This study aimed to determine: (1) the best time to assess ram sperm quality, and (2) the factor responsible for the altered state of ram sperm during the first hours of liquid storage. In Experiment 1, ejaculated sperm were diluted and assessed for sperm motility and functionality at four preservation times: 0, 3, 6, and 24 h as sperm damage control. Both sperm motility and functionality improved after 6 h. Experiment 2 investigated the factor responsible for sperm quality change by testing the interactions of seminal plasma and extender with sperm from epididymides independently and in combination. The evaluation of sperm was performed as in Experiment 1. Sperm in groups containing the extender showed altered motility at 0 and 24 h, and lower functionality at 0 h. Thus, we could assume that extender addition initially alters ram sperm, causing sublethal damage that is reversible after 3 to 6 h of semen preservation. In conclusion, ram sperm require an adaptation time of 3 to 6 h to the extender before an accurate quality assessment can be conducted. This has practical implications for reproduction centers, enabling better workflow organization and optimal expression of ram sperm attributes when cervical artificial insemination is routinely performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sperm Biotechnology in Animals Reproduction)
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19 pages, 352 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Analysis of Orexins in the Physio-Pathological Processes of the Male Genital Tract: New Challenges? A Review
by Anna Costagliola, Luigi Montano, Emilia Langella, Renato Lombardi, Caterina Squillacioti, Nicola Mirabella and Giovanna Liguori
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030131 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) and their specific receptors, receptor 1 (OX1R) and 2 (OX2R) for orexins, are hypothalamic peptides involved in orchestrating several functions in the central nervous system and peripheral organs, including sleep, excitement, nutrition, reward, circadian rhythm, anxiety, cognition, [...] Read more.
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) and their specific receptors, receptor 1 (OX1R) and 2 (OX2R) for orexins, are hypothalamic peptides involved in orchestrating several functions in the central nervous system and peripheral organs, including sleep, excitement, nutrition, reward, circadian rhythm, anxiety, cognition, and reproduction. The aim of this narrative review is, in particular, to speculate the role of orexins in the male genital tract of animal species and human beings. The experimental evidence collected in recent years assumed that in the testes of the animal species here described, orexins are directly involved in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis regulation. In the epididymis, these peptides are locally synthesized, thus suggesting their role governing the fertilizing capability of the immature male gamete. In addition to playing a physiological role, orexins are involved in numerous inflammatory and/or neoplastic pathologies too. The expression of the orexinergic system in prostate cancer suggests that they might play a potential therapeutic function. Overall, the future directions of this literature review allow us to hypothesize a role of the orexinergic complex not only as a marker for the diagnosis of certain tumors affecting the male genital tract but also for the treatment of hypo/infertility condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine and Metabolic Regulation in Male Animal Reproduction)
15 pages, 1240 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Transboundary Swine Disease Management in Asian Islands: Foot and Mouth Disease, Classical Swine Fever, and African Swine Fever in Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines
by Chia-Hui Hsu, Chia-Yi Chang, Satoshi Otake, Thomas W. Molitor and Andres Perez
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030130 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Swine transboundary diseases pose significant challenges in East and Southeast Asia, affecting Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines. This review delves into strategies employed by these islands over the past two decades to prevent or manage foot and mouth disease (FMD), classical swine fever [...] Read more.
Swine transboundary diseases pose significant challenges in East and Southeast Asia, affecting Taiwan, Japan, and the Philippines. This review delves into strategies employed by these islands over the past two decades to prevent or manage foot and mouth disease (FMD), classical swine fever (CSF), and African swine fever (ASF) in domestic pigs and wild boars. Despite socio-economic differences, these islands share geographical and climatic commonalities, influencing their thriving swine industries. Focusing on FMD eradication, this study unveils Taiwan’s success through mass vaccination, Japan’s post-eradication surveillance, and the Philippines’ zoning strategy. Insights into CSF in Japan emphasize the importance of wild boar control, whereas the ASF section highlights the multifaceted approach implemented through the Philippine National ASF Prevention and Control Program. This review underscores lessons learned from gained experiences, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of swine disease management in the region. Full article
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13 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Study Assessing a Transfer Learning Approach to Intestinal Image Analysis to Help Determine Treatment Response in Canine Protein-Losing Enteropathy
by Aarti Kathrani, Isla Trewin, Kenneth Ancheta, Androniki Psifidi, Sophie Le Calvez and Jonathan Williams
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030129 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) caused by inflammatory enteritis, intestinal lymphangiectasia, or both, have a guarded prognosis, with death occurring as a result of the disease in approximately 50% of cases. Although dietary therapy alone is significantly associated with a positive outcome, there [...] Read more.
Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) caused by inflammatory enteritis, intestinal lymphangiectasia, or both, have a guarded prognosis, with death occurring as a result of the disease in approximately 50% of cases. Although dietary therapy alone is significantly associated with a positive outcome, there is limited ability to differentiate between food-responsive (FR) PLE and immunosuppressant-responsive (IR) PLE at diagnosis in dogs. Our objective was to determine if a transfer learning computational approach to image classification on duodenal biopsy specimens collected at diagnosis was able to differentiate FR-PLE from IR-PLE. This was a retrospective study using paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed duodenal biopsy specimens collected during upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy as part of the diagnostic investigations from 17 client-owned dogs with PLE due to inflammatory enteritis at a referral teaching hospital that were subsequently classified based on treatment response into FR-PLE (n = 7) or IR-PLE (n = 10) after 4 months of follow-up. A machine-based algorithm was used on lower magnification and higher resolution images of endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens. Using the pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network model with a 70/30 training/test ratio for images, the model was able to differentiate endoscopic duodenal biopsy images from dogs with FR-PLE and IR-PLE with an accuracy of 83.78%. Our study represents an important first step toward the use of machine learning in improving the decision-making process for clinicians with regard to the initial treatment of canine PLE. Full article
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15 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Surgical Outcomes of Laminectomy, Durotomy and a Non-Synthetic Dura Substitute Application in Ten Dogs with a Spinal Subarachnoid Diverticulum
by Michał Mól, Ricardo Fernandes, Simon Wheeler and Massimo Mariscoli
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030128 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1957
Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to report the surgical treatment and outcomes of laminectomies followed by durotomy and the application of a non-synthetic collagen matrix dura substitute (DurepairTM) in ten dogs with a spinal subarachnoid diverticulum (SAD). The medical records of these [...] Read more.
This retrospective study aimed to report the surgical treatment and outcomes of laminectomies followed by durotomy and the application of a non-synthetic collagen matrix dura substitute (DurepairTM) in ten dogs with a spinal subarachnoid diverticulum (SAD). The medical records of these ten client-owned dogs with SAD diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed. All patients had chronic and progressive deficits. At presentation, common neurological signs were proprioceptive ataxia, ambulatory spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis, and faecal incontinence. Dorsal thoracolumbar laminectomy was performed in eight dogs; one dog underwent cervical dorsolateral laminectomy, and one patient had thoracic hemilaminectomy. Laminectomies were followed by durotomy, allowing the dissection of the pia-arachnoid adhesions. A rectangular patch of a non-synthetic dura substitute was applied as an onlay graft over the durotomy site before routine closure. Proprioceptive ataxia, paraparesis, and tetraparesis improved in all patients. Faecal incontinence in one patient resolved postoperatively. Laminectomy, durotomy, and the application of a non-synthetic dura substitute was a safe procedure facilitating postoperative improvement over a long-term follow-up period (from 9 to 40 months). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurology and Neurosurgery in Small Animals)
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12 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Trypanosoma equiperdum Recombinant Proteins for the Serological Diagnosis of Dourine
by Mirella Luciani, Gisella Armillotta, Tiziana Di Febo, Ivanka Krasteva, Simonetta Ulisse, Chiara Di Pancrazio, Caterina Laguardia, Fabrizia Perletta, Anna Serroni, Marta Maggetti, Lilia Testa, Flavio Sacchini, Mariangela Iorio, Diamante Rodomonti, Manuela Tittarelli and Maria Teresa Mercante
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030127 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 969
Abstract
The significance of Trypanosoma equiperdum as the causative agent of dourine cannot be understated, especially given its high mortality rate among equids. International movement of equids should be subject to thorough health checks and screenings to ensure that animals are not infected with [...] Read more.
The significance of Trypanosoma equiperdum as the causative agent of dourine cannot be understated, especially given its high mortality rate among equids. International movement of equids should be subject to thorough health checks and screenings to ensure that animals are not infected with Trypanosoma equiperdum. This involves the implementation of quarantine protocols, testing procedures, and the issuance of health certificates to certify the health status of the animals. Three proteins, the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (A0A1G4I8N3), the GrpE protein homolog (A0A1G4I464) and the transport protein particle (TRAPP) component, putative (A0A1G4I740) (UniProt accession numbers SCU68469.1, SCU66661.1 and SCU67727.1), were identified as unique to T. equiperdum by bioinformatics analysis. The proteins were expressed as recombinant proteins and tested using an indirect ELISA and immunoblotting test with a panel of horse positive and negative sera for dourine. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the i-ELISAs were 86.7%, 53.8% and 59.0% for A0A1G4I8N3; 53.3%, 58.7% and 57.9% for A0A1G4I464; and 73.3%, 65.0% and 66.3% for A0A1G4I740, respectively, while the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of immunoblotting were 86.7%, 92.5% and 91.6% for A0A1G4I8N3; 46.7%, 81.3% and 75.8% for A0A1G4I464; and 80.0%, 63.8% and 66.3% for A0A1G4I740. Among the three proteins evaluated in the present work, A0A1G4I8N3 provided the best results when tested by immunoblotting; diagnostic application of this protein should be further investigated using a greater number of positive and negative sera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitology Diseases in Large Animals)
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13 pages, 16793 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound and Elastosonographic Features of the Patellar Ligament in Dogs Affected by Cranial Cruciate Ligament Disease
by Luca Pennasilico, Antonella Volta, Sara Sassaroli, Caterina Di Bella, Valentina Riccio, Nicola Pilati, Adolfo Maria Tambella, Fabrizio Dini and Angela Palumbo Piccionello
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030126 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the morpho-functional change in the patellar ligament in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease. We hypothesized that it may show increased thickening and stiffness with increasing days from onset to diagnosis instead of trauma. Understanding this aspect has [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the morpho-functional change in the patellar ligament in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease. We hypothesized that it may show increased thickening and stiffness with increasing days from onset to diagnosis instead of trauma. Understanding this aspect has implications for the choice of timing for treating patients suffering from cranial cruciate ligament disease, as well as the contextualization of patellar ligament desmitis pictures after surgical treatment with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or tibial tuberosity advancement. Thirty-three dogs affected by unilateral cranial cruciate disease were examined and divided into three groups based on the time elapsed from the onset of lameness to diagnosis: Group 1 (1–15 days), Group 2 (16–60 days), and Group 3 (over 60 days). Conventional B-mode ultrasonographic and elastosonographic examinations of the patellar ligament were performed without sedation for each dog. Upon ultrasonographic examination, all dogs showed modification in the echostructure of the patellar ligament. In addition, the patellar ligament tended to become harder with increasing days after disease, although there were no significant differences between groups. Our results show that as the time increases between the onset of cranial cruciate ligament disease and diagnosis and treatment, the patellar ligament progressively thickens and loses its elasticity. Full article
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12 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Intraoperative Isoflurane End-Tidal Concentration during Infusion of Fentanyl, Tramadol, or Fentanyl–Tramadol Combination in Cats
by Claudia Interlandi, Fabio Bruno, Marco Tabbì, Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Elisabetta Giudice, Patrizia Licata, Daniele Macrì, Viola Zappone and Giovanna Lucrezia Costa
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030125 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1878
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the end-tidal concentration of isoflurane required, clinical parameters, intraoperative antinociceptive effect, and postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, receiving fentanyl, tramadol, or fentanyl/tramadol. Sixty-six cats in three groups, were premedicated with dexmedetomidine and infused with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the end-tidal concentration of isoflurane required, clinical parameters, intraoperative antinociceptive effect, and postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, receiving fentanyl, tramadol, or fentanyl/tramadol. Sixty-six cats in three groups, were premedicated with dexmedetomidine and infused with one of the following treatments: fentanyl, tramadol, or fentanyl/tramadol combination. Anesthesia was induced with alfaxolone and maintained with isoflurane, titrated to keep heart rate, respiratory rate and systolic arterial pressure within target values recorded at endotracheal intubation. An intraoperative cumulative scale was performed. Postoperatively, a short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale Feline was used at 2, 12, and 24 h. The groups were similar for age, weight, dose of dexmedetomidine, and alfaxalone administered. A greater reduction in the end-tidal isoflurane fraction was observed with the combined fentanyl/tramadol infusion than with either fentanyl or tramadol alone. No differences in the end-tidal isoflurane fraction were found between fentanyl or tramadol alone. Hemodynamic stability associated with minimal cardiopulmonary changes, low response to noxious intraoperative stimulation, and low postoperative pain scores were also observed with the fentanyl/tramadol combination. The fentanyl/tramadol combination provided a reduction in the end-tidal isoflurane fraction compared with fentanyl or tramadol alone. Full article
11 pages, 2601 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Detomidine or Romifidine in Combination with Morphine for Standing Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Horses
by Cecilia Vullo, Enrico Gugliandolo, Vito Biondi, Marco Biffarella, Giuseppe Catone and Adolfo Maria Tambella
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030124 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 981
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate sedation protocol for a standing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination in horses, comparing continuous rate infusions (CRIs) of detomidine and romifidine combined with a single bolus of morphine. Sixteen horses referred for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate sedation protocol for a standing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination in horses, comparing continuous rate infusions (CRIs) of detomidine and romifidine combined with a single bolus of morphine. Sixteen horses referred for standing low-field open-magnet MRI were randomly assigned to one of two sedation protocols. The horses were premedicated with 0.03 mg/kg of intramuscular acepromazine, and those animals belonging to Group D received an intravenous (IV) loading dose of detomidine (0.01 mg/kg) 30 min later, while those of Group R received romifidine (0.04 mg/kg). If the horses were inadequately sedated, an additional dose of IV detomidine (0.005 mg/kg) or romifidine (0.02 mg/kg) was administered, according to the animal’s group. During the MRI, a single IV bolus of morphine (0.05 mg/kg) was administered, and according to which group it belonged to, the animal started the administration of detomidine (0.01 mg/kg/h) or romifidine (0.02 mg/kg/h). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), depth of sedation, and degree of ataxia were evaluated every 10 min during MRI. Two horses belonging to Group D and four horses from Group R needed additional sedation before entering the MRI unit because they were unsatisfactorily sedated. No side effects were observed following morphine bolus administration. During the MRI procedure, five horses in Group R received an additional IV romifidine bolus (0.01 mg/kg) because the depth of sedation score was 1 and the ataxia score was 0. Any substantial differences were recorded between the two treatments in terms of HR, RR, and RT. In conclusion, at the doses used, a detomidine–morphine combination following a CRI of detomidine appears more suitable than a romifidine–morphine combination following a CRI of romifidine for maintaining an adequate depth of sedation and adequate immobility in horses undergoing standing MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Anesthesia, Obstetrics and Surgery)
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12 pages, 6183 KiB  
Article
Molecular Detection of Candidatus Anaplasma camelii in Naturally Infected Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates, 2019–2023
by Hassan Zackaria Ali Ishag, Shameem Habeeba, El Tigani Ahmed El Tigani-Asil, Mohd Farouk Yuosf, Zulaikha Mohamed Abdel Hameed Al Hammadi, Abraham Nii Okai Commey, Hashel Talal Aboud Amer Bin Hraiz, Asma Abdi Mohamed Shah and Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030123 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The recent emergence of anaplasmosis in camels has raised global interest in the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the pathogen causing it and the role of camels as reservoir hosts. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), molecular studies and genetic characterization of camel-associated [...] Read more.
The recent emergence of anaplasmosis in camels has raised global interest in the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the pathogen causing it and the role of camels as reservoir hosts. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), molecular studies and genetic characterization of camel-associated Anaplasma species are limited. This study aimed to characterize molecularly Anaplasmataceae strains circulating in dromedary camels in the UAE. Two hundred eighty-seven whole-blood samples collected from dromedary camels across regions of the Abu Dhabi Emirate were received between 2019 and 2023 at the Abu Dhabi Agriculture and Food Safety Authority (ADAFSA) veterinary laboratories for routine diagnosis of anaplasmosis. The animals were sampled based on field clinical observation by veterinarians and their tentative suspicion of blood parasite infection on the basis of similar clinical symptoms as those caused by blood parasites in ruminants. The samples were screened for Anaplasmataceae by PCR assay targeting the groEL gene. Anaplasmataceae strains were further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the groEL gene. Thirty-five samples (35/287 = 12.2%) tested positive for Anaplasmataceae spp. by PCR assay. Nine positive samples (9/35 = 25.7%) were sequenced using groEL gene primers. GenBank BLAST analysis revealed that all strains were 100% identical to the Candidatus A. camelii reference sequence available in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated that the sequences were close to each other and were located in one cluster with Candidatus A. camelii sequences detected in Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and the UAE. Pairwise alignment showed that the UAE sequences detected in this study were completely identical and shared 100% identity with Candidatus A. camelii from Morocco and Saudi Arabia and 99.5% identity with Candidatus A. camelii from the UAE. This study demonstrates the presence of Candidatus A. camelii in UAE dromedary camels. Further critical investigation of the clinical and economical significance of this pathogen in camels needs to be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitology Diseases in Large Animals)
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13 pages, 3694 KiB  
Article
Establishment and Application Prospect of Reverse Transcriptase Recombinase-Aided Amplification Assay for Subgroup C Avian Metapneumovirus
by Yuhang Bai, Xiuhong Wu, Jiajia Liu, Zhanxin Wang, Mengyue Dong, Tong Li, Zhenkai Dai, Hongxin Li, Qingmei Xie and Xinheng Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030122 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Among broilers, the main pathogen that leads to swollen head syndrome (SHS) is the subgroup C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C). The aMPV-C infection can lead to an upsurge in the rate of soft-shell eggs, resulting in reduced egg production and seriously affecting the economy [...] Read more.
Among broilers, the main pathogen that leads to swollen head syndrome (SHS) is the subgroup C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C). The aMPV-C infection can lead to an upsurge in the rate of soft-shell eggs, resulting in reduced egg production and seriously affecting the economy of the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid method for aMPV-C detection needs to be invented. According to the N gene of aMPV-C, we designed the specific probe and primer and created a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay (RT-RAA) for the detection of aMPV-C. aMPV-C could be detected quickly and specifically by this method at 41 °C for 30 min. The sensitivity assay inferred that the minimum detection threshold of RT-RAA was 3.38 × 101 copies/μL. A specificity assay showed that the RT-RAA method did not cross-react with other subgroups (aMPV-A, aMPV-B, aMPV-D) or other viruses (H9N2, NDV, IBV, IBDV). Forty samples of known clinical background were tested by RT-RAA and RT-qPCR. The two approaches had a 100% correlation rate. In conclusion, this research successfully created an RT-RAA assay for aMPV-C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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11 pages, 1186 KiB  
Article
The Performance of Using the Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) Index to Assess Intraoperative Nociception in Cats
by Leonor Lima, José Diogo Dos-Santos, Lénio Ribeiro, Patrícia Cabral, Bruno Colaço and João Martins
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030121 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Background: The monitoring of nociception/antinociception poses a significant challenge during anesthesia, making the incorporation of new tools like the Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) monitor an added value in feline anesthesia. Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and speed of PTA monitoring when compared to [...] Read more.
Background: The monitoring of nociception/antinociception poses a significant challenge during anesthesia, making the incorporation of new tools like the Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) monitor an added value in feline anesthesia. Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and speed of PTA monitoring when compared to heart rate (HR) in detecting surgical stimuli (SS) during the intraoperative period in 49 female cats undergoing ovariectomy (OV). Methods: Instantaneous Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTAi) values, HR, fR, and non-invasive SAP and MAP were continuously monitored and systematically assessed. The time required for HR (HR time) and PTAi (PTAi time) to reach their minimum peak values following each surgical stimulus was collected at five points for each anaesthetized cat. Each collected surgical stimulus was categorized into 3 groups for statistical analysis: no nociception detection, no hemodynamic reaction and a PTAi > 50 (Nhre); no hemodynamic reaction and a PTAi < 50 (Nhre < 50); and hemodynamic reaction and PTAi < 50 (Hre < 50). Results: PTAi response demonstrated effectiveness in detecting nociception compared to HR. The SS were categorized as 36.1% in the Nhre group, 50% in the Nhre < 50 group, and only 13.9% in the Hre < 50 group. In the Hre < 50 group, PTAi time and HR time had similar speeds in detecting the SS (p = 0.821); however, PTA time was significantly slower in the Nhre < 50 group when compared to the Hre < 50 group (p = 0.001). Conclusions: PTA monitoring may be a useful tool to complement HR monitoring for detecting nociception. PTA monitoring demonstrated a superior diagnostic value compared to HR for detecting nociception in cats undergoing OV and a similar speed to HR in detecting SS when HR increases above 20%. Future studies are needed to understand in a clinical setting the meaning of sympathetic activation/nociception detected using the PTA monitor when the HR increase is not clinically relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Pain Management in Veterinary Surgery)
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6 pages, 416 KiB  
Communication
Design and Validation of RT-PCR Assays to Differentiate Salmonella Vaccine Strains from Wild-Type Field Isolates
by Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Doris Mueller-Doblies and Wesley Mattheus
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030120 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 996
Abstract
The timely differentiation of the AviPro Salmonella VAC T and VAC E strains from the wild-type Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and ser. Enteritidis isolates is crucial for effectively monitoring veterinary isolates. Currently, the distinction between field and vaccine strains has been conducted routinely via [...] Read more.
The timely differentiation of the AviPro Salmonella VAC T and VAC E strains from the wild-type Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and ser. Enteritidis isolates is crucial for effectively monitoring veterinary isolates. Currently, the distinction between field and vaccine strains has been conducted routinely via phenotypic antimicrobial resistance testing since the vaccines were first introduced more than 20 years ago, and the differentiation based on the antimicrobial resistance profile is still a valid and well-established method. However, an alternative method was sought for those laboratories that prefer a PCR-based method for logistic and/or operational reasons. In this study, we developed two triplex Real-Time PCR reactions that targeted conserved and specific mutations and, therefore, enabled the reliable differentiation of field and vaccine strains. To validate the effectiveness of both assays, we extensively tested them on a dataset consisting of 405 bacterial strains. The results demonstrated a 100% sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing both Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and Enteritidis, although a confirmed culture is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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16 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Study (2015–2020) on the Risk Factors Associated with the Persistence and Spread of Brucellosis in Buffalo Farms in Caserta Province, Italy
by Maria Ottaiano, Roberta Brunetti, Antonio Limone, Maria Rosaria Capone, Alessandra Di Giuseppe, Annamaria Conte, Fabrizio De Massis, Paolo Chiodini, Simona Signoriello, Loredana Baldi and E. De Carlo
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030119 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Bovine and bubaline brucellosis is still present in some regions of Italy. Although control and eradication measures have been implemented for several years, the brucellosis situation remains problematic in the Campania region. The infection is present in the provinces of Salerno and Caserta, [...] Read more.
Bovine and bubaline brucellosis is still present in some regions of Italy. Although control and eradication measures have been implemented for several years, the brucellosis situation remains problematic in the Campania region. The infection is present in the provinces of Salerno and Caserta, with the latter experiencing a drastic increase in the prevalence and incidence of infection in buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis) in recent years. The brucellosis eradication plan in Italy is subject to the European co-financing system, and failure to achieve the objectives of the plan has resulted in economic cuts for the Campania Region for years. This study aimed to evaluate the possible risk factors associated with the spread and persistence of brucellosis infection on buffalo farms in the Province of Caserta. The results of official controls carried out from 2015 to 2020 on the buffalo farms of the Province were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the R software (version 4.1.0) on a final dataset consisting of 4583 observations. The possible association between covariates and outcome (presence/absence of infection) was evaluated (T-Fisher and Wilcoxon). A logistic regression model with mixed effects was carried out. The study shows that the risk of infection is statistically associated with the density of farms per square km and previous notifications of abortions on the same farms. Furthermore, animal movements constitute a risk factor for the permanence of infection over time (OR > 1), and herds already infected prior to 2015 were seen to have an almost three-fold higher risk of developing the disease (OR = 3.35). Full article
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19 pages, 10608 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Techniques for Canine Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease Classification: Integrating Anamnesis, Quality of Life Survey, and Physical Examination
by Javier Engel-Manchado, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis Doménech, Oscar Monge-Utrilla, Yamir Reina-Doreste, Jorge Isidoro Matos, Alicia Caro-Vadillo, Laín García-Guasch and José Ignacio Redondo
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030118 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is a prevalent canine cardiac disease typically diagnosed and classified using echocardiography. However, accessibility to this technique can be limited in first-opinion clinics. This study aimed to determine if machine learning techniques can classify MMVD according to the [...] Read more.
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is a prevalent canine cardiac disease typically diagnosed and classified using echocardiography. However, accessibility to this technique can be limited in first-opinion clinics. This study aimed to determine if machine learning techniques can classify MMVD according to the ACVIM classification (B1, B2, C, and D) through a structured anamnesis, quality of life survey, and physical examination. This report encompassed 23 veterinary hospitals and assessed 1011 dogs for MMVD using the FETCH-Q quality of life survey, clinical history, physical examination, and basic echocardiography. Employing a classification tree and a random forest analysis, the complex model accurately identified 96.9% of control group dogs, 49.8% of B1, 62.2% of B2, 77.2% of C, and 7.7% of D cases. To enhance clinical utility, a simplified model grouping B1 and B2 and C and D into categories B and CD improved accuracy rates to 90.8% for stage B, 73.4% for stages CD, and 93.8% for the control group. In conclusion, the current machine-learning technique was able to stage healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD classified into stages B and CD in the majority of dogs using quality of life surveys, medical history, and physical examinations. However, the technique faces difficulties differentiating between stages B1 and B2 and determining between advanced stages of the disease. Full article
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7 pages, 1800 KiB  
Case Report
Histophilus somni as a Unique Causative Agent of Puerperal Metritis (PM) in a Third-Lactation Holstein Cow
by Jéssica Molín, Andrea Ainoza and Ramon Armengol
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030117 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
This manuscript aims to report the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of puerperal metritis (PM) in a dairy cow, caused by H. somni as a unique pathogen. The cow showed signs of systemic illness, including a sudden drop in milk production, a rectal temperature [...] Read more.
This manuscript aims to report the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of puerperal metritis (PM) in a dairy cow, caused by H. somni as a unique pathogen. The cow showed signs of systemic illness, including a sudden drop in milk production, a rectal temperature of 40.4 °C, tachypnea, dehydration, and completely fluid, brown, and fetid uterine discharge. Pure cultures of H. somni were identified and submitted to the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method for antibiotic sensitivity. The study showed that H. somni was resistant to tetracyclines and cephalosporins (Ceftiofur), antibiotics commonly used to treat uterine infections in dairy cows. To the authors’ knowledge, this case describes for the first time PM caused by H. somni as a primary pathogen. Our results should lead to the inclusion of H. somni as a primary pathogen of metritis in laboratory diagnoses on a routine basis, which, in turn, may help to elucidate the incidence of H. somni as a causative agent of uterine infections in cows. If the incidence of H. somni is remarkably high or frequent, researchers could consider the use of commercial vaccines nowadays destined for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease and which could perhaps be effective in the prevention of reproductive pathology caused by H. somni. Full article
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12 pages, 1982 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Season on Blood Changes of Oxidative Stress Index in the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalis bubalis)
by Giovanna De Matteis, Susana Flores-Villalva, Emanuela Rossi, Maria Chiara La Mantia, Roberto Steri, Vittoria Lucia Barile and David Meo Zilio
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030116 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Studies in cattle have shown that high temperatures increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing an imbalance between ROS and the ability of antioxidant systems to detoxify and remove the reactive intermediates. As such studies remain limited in buffalo, the effect [...] Read more.
Studies in cattle have shown that high temperatures increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing an imbalance between ROS and the ability of antioxidant systems to detoxify and remove the reactive intermediates. As such studies remain limited in buffalo, the effect of temperature on oxidative stress was investigated through the oxidative stress index (OSi). Blood samples were collected from 40 buffaloes over 12 time points distributed over two years (2021, 2022). Samples were taken monthly during the hot and cold seasons. Plasma free oxygen radicals were determined using the d-ROMs test (Diacron, Italy), modified for a microplate procedure, and the results were expressed in arbitrary Carratelli Units (U.CARR). Plasma antioxidants were determined by using the BAP test (Diacron) in a dedicated spectrophotometer (Carpe Diem Free, Diacron). The OSi parameter was calculated as d-ROMs/BAP × 100. Temperature and humidity were recorded daily during the trial to calculate the Temperature Humidity Index (THI). For statistical analysis, year and season and their interactions were included in the model. The results of this study showed for the first time the effect of season on the oxidative stress in buffalo. The minimum and maximum THI values for the hot and cold season recorded during the experimental period were 79.27 ± 2.20 and 63.42 ± 3.20, respectively. Levels of d-ROMs and BAP were affected by the seasons (133.0 vs. 145.1 U.CARR, p = 0.0189, and 2489.19 vs. 2392.43 mml/L, p = 0.033, in the hot and cold season, respectively). A significant year × season interaction was found both for d-ROMs and BAP (p = 0.06 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, OSi was affected by season, showing a growing trend from hot to cold season (5.35 vs. 6.17, p < 0.0001), but, interestingly, it was unaffected by annual variation. Therefore, Osi could be considered a better and independent marker of oxidative status in buffalo, with respect to the evaluation of single determinations of d-ROMs and BAP. Lastly, there were no differences in the plasma 25OHD levels between seasons; concentrations were 12.24 and 10.26 ng/mL in the hot and cold season, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Livestock)
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15 pages, 4699 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Ovary Transcriptome among Wanyue Black and Yorkshire Gilts Using RNA-Seq
by Huibin Zhang, Shuo Chen, Yangguang Liu, Fan Xie, Haoyu Wen, Shiming Zhao, Xianrui Zheng, Yueyun Ding, Zongjun Yin and Xiaodong Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030115 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Pubertal genetic variations between the indigenous Chinese Wanyue Black pig breed and the imported Yorkshire breed significantly impact their reproductive capacity. In order to identify the differentially expressed genes, gene networks, and metabolic pathways in ovary transcriptome of gilts, the serum hormone levels [...] Read more.
Pubertal genetic variations between the indigenous Chinese Wanyue Black pig breed and the imported Yorkshire breed significantly impact their reproductive capacity. In order to identify the differentially expressed genes, gene networks, and metabolic pathways in ovary transcriptome of gilts, the serum hormone levels were analyzed by ELISA, and RNA-seq was performed to analyze ovarian genes. Our results reveal higher estradiol (E2) levels in Wanyue black gilts compared to Yorkshire gilts, while Yorkshire gilts exhibit elevated progesterone (P4) and GnRH levels. We identified a total of 154 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 87 up-regulated and 67 down-regulated genes in the Wanyue black gilts ovaries compared to the Yorkshire gilts. GO enrichment analysis unveiled the participation of DEGs in processes such as “Reproduction”, “Reproductive system development”, and “Ovarian follicle development”. Moreover, KEGG enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of DEGs in multiple signaling pathways associated with hormone biosynthesis and puberty, encompassing “Steroid hormone biosynthesis”, “Estrogen signaling pathway”, and “Prolactin signaling pathway”. The subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified nine functional genes that potentially contribute to the disparity in ovaries between Wanyue black gilts and Yorkshire gilts. This study offers significant insights into the endocrine and genetic aspects of pubertal development in gilts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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12 pages, 1524 KiB  
Article
Beyond Birth: Pioneering Insights into Colostrum Quality Variation among Bitches with Different Types of Parturition
by Maja Zakošek Pipan, Meta Sterniša and Tanja Plavec
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030114 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
This study deals with the immunological quality of canine colostrum in relation to the different parturition modes in bitches. It included four groups of bitches, who underwent vaginal parturition (VP), emergency cesarean section (EM-CS), elective cesarean section (EL-CS), or elective cesarean section with [...] Read more.
This study deals with the immunological quality of canine colostrum in relation to the different parturition modes in bitches. It included four groups of bitches, who underwent vaginal parturition (VP), emergency cesarean section (EM-CS), elective cesarean section (EL-CS), or elective cesarean section with aglepristone injection 24 h prior to surgery (EL-A). Colostrum samples from 40 bitches of 18 breeds were taken immediately after the birth of the first puppy or directly after surgery, and four hours later. The concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA were measured using ELISA tests. The initial IgG concentration was 18.3 ± 10.2 g/L, and the IgA concentration was 13.7 ± 5.8 g/L, respectively. Significantly lower IgG and IgA concentrations were observed in the EL-CS group compared to other groups. The administration of aglepristone led to an increase in IgG and IgA concentrations. Despite the lower immunoglobulin levels with EL-CS, the survival rate of the puppies was not affected. The study shows that immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum vary between bitches, with the type of birth significantly influencing the levels. Progesterone withdrawal before birth could play a decisive role in increasing IgG and IgA concentrations in the mammary glands of the bitches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Feline and Canine Neonatal Medicine and Reproduction)
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12 pages, 1024 KiB  
Article
Short Road Transport and Slaughter Stress Affects the Expression Profile of Serotonin Receptors, Adrenocortical, and Hematochemical Responses in Horses
by Giuseppe Bruschetta, Gabriella Zanghì, Renato Paolo Giunta, Alida Maria Ferlazzo, Katiuska Satué, Angela D’Ascola and Esterina Fazio
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030113 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Horse transport is considered a cause of stress in animals and is known to affect the 5-HT concentrations in both the brain and other tissues. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of horse transportation and slaughter stress on plasma [...] Read more.
Horse transport is considered a cause of stress in animals and is known to affect the 5-HT concentrations in both the brain and other tissues. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of horse transportation and slaughter stress on plasma serotonin’s concentration and the expression levels of the related 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors in PBMCs. Furthermore, the IL-12 levels and a variety of blood parameters, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, were also considered. This research was carried out on 32 horses submitted to short road transport of 40 km to slaughter. Blood samples were collected in baseline conditions (T0) and 24 h later, after they were slaughtered (T1). The results showed a significantly increased expression of 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors and a significantly decreased expression of IL-12 in PBMCs at T1 vs. T0. Furthermore, a significant increase in cortisol and glucose concentrations, and LDH activity was observed at T1. In contrast, a significantly lower circulating 5-HT concentration was observed at T1 vs. T0. These results indicate that the stress induced by transport and slaughter stimuli led to the serotoninergic system’s activation, suggesting that the expression of serotonin receptors could be used as a pivotal marker of stress, with potential applications for the improvement of elective protocols to observe the guidelines relating to transported horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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9 pages, 578 KiB  
Article
Plasma Concentrations of Oral Ondansetron in Hospitalized Dogs Exhibiting Clinical Signs of Nausea
by Kristin M. Zersen, Angela Molli, Brooke G. Weisbeck, Samantha Fedotova, Jessica M. Quimby, Daniel L. Gustafson and Sarah B. Shropshire
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030112 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma ondansetron (OND) concentrations in a population of dogs with naturally occurring nausea after oral OND administration. Twenty-four dogs were randomly assigned to receive one of the following doses of oral OND: 0.5 mg/kg q8h, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma ondansetron (OND) concentrations in a population of dogs with naturally occurring nausea after oral OND administration. Twenty-four dogs were randomly assigned to receive one of the following doses of oral OND: 0.5 mg/kg q8h, 0.5 mg/kg q12h, 1 mg/kg q8h, or 1 mg/kg q12h. Blood samples for plasma OND measurements were collected at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 h after administration of the first dose of OND. OND concentrations averaged over an 8 h time period were not significantly different between dose groups (0.5 mg/kg group: median 8.5 ng/mL [range 1–96.8 ng/mL], 1 mg/kg group: median 7.4 ng/mL [range 1–278.7 ng/mL]). The mean maximum concentrations in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg groups were 35.8 ± 49.0 ng/mL and 63.3 ± 121.1 ng/mL, respectively. OND concentrations were below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in 50% (18/36) of samples in the 0.5 mg/kg groups and 39% (14/36) of samples in the 1 mg/kg groups. Six dogs (6/24, 25%) did not have OND detected at any time. The mean nausea scores at baseline were similar amongst all groups and decreased over time. The bioavailability of oral OND appears to be poor. Despite low plasma OND concentrations, nausea scores improved over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Animal Clinical Treatment)
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13 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Influence of Maternal Supplementation with Vitamins, Minerals, and (or) Protein/Energy on Placental Development and Angiogenic Factors in Beef Heifers during Pregnancy
by Bethania J. Dávila Ruiz, Carl R. Dahlen, Kacie L. McCarthy, Joel S. Caton, Jennifer L. Hurlbert, Friederike Baumgaertner, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Wellison J. S. Diniz, Sarah R. Underdahl, James D. Kirsch, Kevin K. Sedivec, Kerri A. Bochantin, Pawel P. Borowicz, Sebastián Canovas and Lawrence P. Reynolds
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030111 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
The effect of vitamins and minerals supplementation (VTM) and/or two rates of body weight gain (GAIN) on bovine placental vascular development and angiogenic factors gene expression were evaluated in two experiments: In Exp. 1, crossbred Angus heifers (n = 34) were assigned [...] Read more.
The effect of vitamins and minerals supplementation (VTM) and/or two rates of body weight gain (GAIN) on bovine placental vascular development and angiogenic factors gene expression were evaluated in two experiments: In Exp. 1, crossbred Angus heifers (n = 34) were assigned to VTM/NoVTM treatments at least 71 days before breeding to allow changes in the mineral status. At breeding, through artificial insemination (AI), heifers were assigned to low-gain (LG) 0.28 kg/d or moderate-gain (MG) 0.79 kg/d treatments, resulting in NoVTM-LG (Control; n = 8), NoVTM-MG (n = 8), VTM-LG (n = 9), and VTM-MG (n = 9) until day 83 of gestation; In Exp. 2, crossbred angus heifers (n = 28), were assigned to control (CON; n = 12), receiving a basal total mixed ration (TMR) or TMR + VTM (VTM; n = 16) from breeding until parturition. Placentomes from Exp. 1 and cotyledons (COT) from Exp. 2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for COT vascular density area. COTs from Exp. 1 were evaluated for angiogenic factor (ANGPT-1, ANGPT-2, eNOS2, eNOS3, FLT1, KDR, TEK, VEGFA) gene expression. In Exp. 1, COT vascularity was not affected by the interaction of VTM and GAIN (p = 0.67) or the main effects of VTM (p = 0.50) and GAIN (p = 0.55). Likewise, angiogenic factors were not differentially expressed between treatments (p < 0.05). In Exp. 2, COT vascularity was greater in VTM vs. CON (p = 0.07). In conclusion, there is a suggested later-stage influence of vitamin and mineral supplementation on placental vascularity, emphasizing the importance of supplementation beyond early pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Supplementation during Gestation in Beef Cattle)
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19 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Effect of Simultaneous Dietary Supplementation of Betaine, Selenomethionine, and Vitamins E and C under Summer Conditions in Growing–Finishing Pigs
by Lotte De Prekel, Dominiek Maes, Alice Van den Broeke, Bart Ampe and Marijke Aluwé
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030110 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Heat stress in pigs negatively affects welfare, health, and performance. Osmoprotectants and antioxidants may alleviate oxidative damage during hot periods. We investigated whether an additive-enriched feed can reduce negative effects in pigs during summer conditions. Sixty growing–finishing pigs were allocated into two groups: [...] Read more.
Heat stress in pigs negatively affects welfare, health, and performance. Osmoprotectants and antioxidants may alleviate oxidative damage during hot periods. We investigated whether an additive-enriched feed can reduce negative effects in pigs during summer conditions. Sixty growing–finishing pigs were allocated into two groups: the control (CF) and summer feed (SF) group. The CF group contained 0.4 mg/kg inorganic selenium and 100 ppm vitamin E, while the SF group contained 0.3 mg/kg inorganic selenium, 0.1 mg/kg selenomethionine, 200 ppm vitamins E and C, and 0.2% betaine. Feed was offered ad libitum. Respiration rate, rectal and skin temperature, behaviour, and weight gain were assessed weekly. Daily measurements of these parameters were performed during a 3-day heat wave (temperature humidity index (THI) ≥ 75) and during an artificial heating period. Individual average daily water intake (ADWI) and feed intake were measured using RFID systems. The ADWI of the SF group did not change during heat load while it increased for the CF group. Independent of dietary treatment, increases in ∆THI or the THI were accompanied by significant increases in both respiration rate and skin temperature. In conclusion, the SF may induce a reduced need to increase ADWI during hot periods. In addition, mainly skin temperatures and especially respiration rates revealed the sensitivity of pigs to heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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13 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Pro-Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Transcriptome in Skin Lesions of the Experimental Canine Atopic Acute IgE-Mediated Late Phase Reactions Model and Correlation to Acute Skin Lesions of Human Atopic Dermatitis
by Amanda Blubaugh, Kathleen Hoover, Sujung Jun Kim, Jonathan E. Fogle, Fatoumata B. Sow and Frane Banovic
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030109 - 01 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Intradermal injection of anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in dogs grossly and histologically resemble naturally occurring atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the activated inflammatory and pruritic pathways have not been characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize the inflammatory transcriptome of experimental acute [...] Read more.
Intradermal injection of anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in dogs grossly and histologically resemble naturally occurring atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the activated inflammatory and pruritic pathways have not been characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize the inflammatory transcriptome of experimental acute canine IgE-induced lesions and to determine how these correlate to the transcriptome of naturally occurring human and canine acute atopic dermatitis. Biopsies were collected at 6 and 24 h after intradermal injections of anticanine-IgE antibodies to eight healthy male castrated Beagles; healthy and saline-injected skin served as controls. We extracted total RNA from skin biopsies and analyzed transcriptome using RNA-sequencing. Gene expressions of IgE-induced biopsies were compared to that of controls from the same subject (1.5-fold change, p-adjusted value ≤ 0.05). Acute IgE-mediated lesions had a significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory (e.g., LTB, IL-1B, PTX3, CCL2, IL6, IL8, IL18), T helper-(Th)1/IFNγ signal (e.g., STAT-1, OASL, MX-1, CXCL10, IL-12A) and Th2 (e.g., IL4R, IL5, IL13, IL33 and POSTN) genes, as well as Th2 chemokines (CCL17, CCL24). Pathway analysis revealed strong significant upregulation of JAK-STAT, histamine, IL-4 and IL13 signaling. Spearman correlation coefficient for the shared DEGs between canine anti-canine-IgE and human AD samples revealed a significant moderate positive correlation for anti-canine-IgE 6-h samples (r = 0.53) and 24-h samples (r = 0.47). In conclusion, acute canine IgE-mediated skin lesions exhibit a multipolar immunological axis upregulation (Th1, Th2 and Th17) in healthy dogs, resembling acute spontaneous human AD lesions. Full article
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