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Vet. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs, similar to with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in human patients. The immunologic milieu, inflammatory phenotype, and role of vitamin D have been well clarified in people with T1DM, but there is minimal information on dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. Human T1DM patients have several immune deficiencies, a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by cytokine and positive acute-phase protein derangements associated with diabetes-related complications, and vitamin D deficiency, linked to poor glycemic control and exaggerated inflammatory responses. The repletion of vitamin D in people has been shown to improve glycemic control and dampen inflammation. The study was to explore the immune function, inflammatory phenotype, and links with vitamin D in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. View this paper
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12 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Canine Oral Melanoma: Questioning the Existing Information through a Series of Clinical Cases
by Carmen G. Pérez-Santana, Ana A. Jiménez-Alonso, Francisco Rodríguez-Esparragón, Sara Cazorla-Rivero and Enrique Rodríguez Grau-Bassas
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050226 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Twelve dogs with oral malignant melanomas (MM) were evaluated in this study, with demographic details indicating a balanced distribution of gender, age, and weight among various breeds. Tumor locations varied, with diverse surgical procedures being performed, including mandibulectomies and maxillectomies. Lymphadenectomies were conducted, [...] Read more.
Twelve dogs with oral malignant melanomas (MM) were evaluated in this study, with demographic details indicating a balanced distribution of gender, age, and weight among various breeds. Tumor locations varied, with diverse surgical procedures being performed, including mandibulectomies and maxillectomies. Lymphadenectomies were conducted, revealing a 16.66% metastatic rate in regional lymph nodes. At the time of surgery, clinical staging identified stages I, II, and III, with most cases having non-infiltrated margins and a high mitotic index. Follow-up revealed local recurrences and metastases, prompting additional surgeries and affecting survival rates. This study reports varying outcomes, with some dogs completing one year without recurrence, while others experienced progressive disease, leading to six oral melanoma-related deaths. The characteristics of melanotic melanoma and amelanotic melanoma are observed in order to study differences between them, the degree of aggressiveness, the mortality rate and the possibility of future therapeutic targets. Although high pigmentation has been correlated with a better outcome, we could not find any significant correlation between survival and achromia. Oral benign melanomas might exist, and this could justify variabilities between stage and survival; however, carefulness is required due to their unpredictable behavior. The findings underscore the complexity of oral melanoma cases and highlight the need for further research on effective management strategies. Full article
17 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Newborns Dogs with Different Types of Delivery during the First 35 Days of Life
by Jaqueline Valença Corrêa, Carolina Dragone Latini, Beatriz Almeida Santos, Amanda Sarita Cruz Aleixo, Keylla Helena Nobre Pacífico Pereira, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, Luiz Henrique de Araujo Machado and Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050225 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the autonomic nervous system on cardiovascular function during the first 35 days of life in different types of delivery, using heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Thirty newborns were equally divided into two groups based [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the autonomic nervous system on cardiovascular function during the first 35 days of life in different types of delivery, using heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Thirty newborns were equally divided into two groups based on delivery type: eutocic delivery (EG) and emergency cesarean section (CG). Electrocardiographic evaluation was performed at birth (T0), 24 h postpartum (T1), and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days of life (T2 to T6). Physical parameters, neonatal reflexes, and Apgar scores were recorded. Over 35 days, the values of the time domain indices were higher in the GE group and increased with age. In the frequency domain, the low frequency (LF) index was higher in the CG, and the opposite occurred for the high frequency (HF) index. Since the CG presented lower HRV than the EG, it was shown that the type of delivery should be considered for the assessment of autonomic nervous system activity in neonates. Thus, as predictive factors of vitality, HRV and Apgar scores can help in the face of neonatal depression, demonstrating that delivery by emergency cesarean section can predispose newborns to delays in the autonomic influence on the heart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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12 pages, 585 KiB  
Article
Canine Euthanasia’s Trend Analysis during Thirty Years (1990–2020) in Italy: A Veterinary Hospital as Case Study
by Annalisa Previti, Vito Biondi, Michela Pugliese, Angela Alibrandi, Agata Zirilli, Mariana Roccaro, Angelo Peli and Annamaria Passantino
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050224 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for dogs’ euthanasia over the last thirty years. Data (breed, age, gender, neuter status, manner, and cause of death) from dogs’ euthanasia registered between 1990 and 2020 in a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for dogs’ euthanasia over the last thirty years. Data (breed, age, gender, neuter status, manner, and cause of death) from dogs’ euthanasia registered between 1990 and 2020 in a small animals’ veterinary hospital were analyzed. The overall period examined has been split into two terms (T1 = 1990–2004 and T2 = 2005–2020) considering the introduction and enforcement of Law 189/2004. During the whole period examined, a significant increasing trend in euthanasia cases has been recorded (p = 0.027). Comparing the two terms, we observed significant differences regarding variables such as age, breed, reproductive status, and ownership. The number of euthanized dogs was significantly higher in T1 than in T2. Dogs euthanized in T2 were older than dogs in T1. A high percentage of the euthanized dogs were crossbred and stray dogs. Additionally, the number of neutered/spayed dogs was significantly higher. Regarding the cause of death, a significantly higher percentage of neoplastic processes was detected in T2. The data here reported suggest a potential influence of Law 189/2004. This law in Italy has proven to be a legal milestone that has influenced the decision-making process between euthanasia and natural death. Full article
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8 pages, 1718 KiB  
Case Report
Isolation and Identification of Morganella morganii from Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) in China
by Heling Li, Zhigang Chen, Qing Ning, Faliang Zong and Hong Wang
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050223 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 768
Abstract
A bacterium was isolated and identified from the secretion of a rhesus monkey with endometritis. The morphological results showed that the strain exhibited round, convex, gray-white colonies with smooth surfaces and diameters ranging from 1 to 2 mm when cultured on Columbia blood [...] Read more.
A bacterium was isolated and identified from the secretion of a rhesus monkey with endometritis. The morphological results showed that the strain exhibited round, convex, gray-white colonies with smooth surfaces and diameters ranging from 1 to 2 mm when cultured on Columbia blood agar at 37 °C for 24 h; on salmonella–shigella agar (S.S.) at 37 °C for 24 h, the colonies appeared round, flat, and translucent. Gram staining showed negative results with blunt ends and non-spore-forming characteristics. Molecular biology results showed that the 16S rRNA sequence of the strain revealed over 96.9% similarity with published sequences of M. morganii from different sources in the NCBI GenBank database. Morphological and molecular biology analysis confirmed that the strain (RM2023) isolated from cervical secretions of rhesus monkey was M. morganii. Drug sensitivity testing demonstrated that the isolated strain (RM2023) was sensitive to ceftriaxone, amikacin, gentamicin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin, and tetracycline; moderately sensitive to ampicillin; and resistant to penicillin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. The research findings provide valuable insights for disease prevention in rhesus monkeys and contribute to molecular epidemiological studies. Full article
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16 pages, 4469 KiB  
Article
Hematologic and Serum Biochemical Characteristics of Belgian Blue Cattle
by Hugues Guyot, Damien Legroux, Justine Eppe, Fabrice Bureau, Leah Cannon and Eve Ramery
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050222 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Belgian blue (BB) cattle have an 11-bp deletion in myostatin that causes skeletal muscle hyperplasia and increased muscle mass, leading to a ‘double-muscled’ phenotype. Preliminary data suggest that this phenotype may be associated with breed-specific hematologic and biochemical values. Therefore, in this study, [...] Read more.
Belgian blue (BB) cattle have an 11-bp deletion in myostatin that causes skeletal muscle hyperplasia and increased muscle mass, leading to a ‘double-muscled’ phenotype. Preliminary data suggest that this phenotype may be associated with breed-specific hematologic and biochemical values. Therefore, in this study, we sought to compare hematologic and serum biochemical parameters in healthy BB and Holstein Friesian (HF) cows and to propose breed-specific reference intervals for BB cows. Hematologic parameters, total protein, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, albumin, and globulins were measured in 183 clinically healthy adult BB and HF cows. There were significant differences between BB and HF cows in 17 of 27 measured parameters. BB cows had significantly higher creatinine concentration and CK and AST activities (p < 0.001). RBCs, hemoglobin, hematocrit (p < 0.001), MCV and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) were also significantly higher in BB cows compared with HF cows. The average N/L ratio was greater than 1 in both breeds. These results suggest that BB and HF cows have significantly different clinically relevant hematologic and serum biochemical values, and, therefore, breed-specific reference intervals should be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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16 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
Microbial Colonization of Explants after Osteosynthesis in Small Animals: Incidence and Influencing Factors
by Mario Candela Andrade, Pavel Slunsky, Tanja Pagel, Ignacio De Rus Aznar, Mathias Brunnberg and Leo Brunnberg
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050221 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Despite recent advancements in antibiotics, hygienic measures, and peri-operative systemic antibiotics, post-operative infections in osteosynthesis remain prevalent and continue to be among the most common surgical complications, leading to delayed fracture healing, osteomyelitis, implant loosening, and loss of function. Osteosynthesis implants are routinely [...] Read more.
Despite recent advancements in antibiotics, hygienic measures, and peri-operative systemic antibiotics, post-operative infections in osteosynthesis remain prevalent and continue to be among the most common surgical complications, leading to delayed fracture healing, osteomyelitis, implant loosening, and loss of function. Osteosynthesis implants are routinely utilized in veterinary medicine and the current study investigates the microbial colonization of implants following osteosynthesis in small animals, along with its incidence and influencing factors. The results are analyzed in regard to correlations between infection, patient, disease progression, and radiographic images, as well as other factors that may promote infection. Seventy-one explants from sixty-five patients were examined and evaluated for microbial colonization. Factors like body weight and age, location and type of plate and additional injuries like lung lesions, the surgeon’s experience, or the number of people present during the surgical procedure seem to influence the development of an infection. Of the animals, 60% showed osteolytic changes and 73.3% of those with dysfunctional mobility had an implant infection. Microorganisms were detected in almost 50% of the explants, but a clinically relevant infection was only present in five patients (7.3%), suggesting that the presence of microorganisms on an implant does not necessarily lead to treatment complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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19 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Mapping Bovine Tuberculosis in Colombia, 2001–2019
by D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana, S. Daniela Jiménez-Diaz, Carlos Lozada-Riascos, Kenneth Silva-Cajaleon and Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050220 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Introduction: Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of significant impact, particularly in countries where a pastoral economy is predominant. Despite its importance, few studies have analysed the disease’s behaviour in Colombia, and none have developed maps using geographic information systems (GIS) to characterise [...] Read more.
Introduction: Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of significant impact, particularly in countries where a pastoral economy is predominant. Despite its importance, few studies have analysed the disease’s behaviour in Colombia, and none have developed maps using geographic information systems (GIS) to characterise it; as such, we developed this study to describe the temporal–spatial distribution of bovine tuberculosis in Colombia over a period of 19 years. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study, based on reports by the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), surveillance of tuberculosis on cattle farms in Colombia from 2001 to 2019 was carried out. The data were converted into databases using Microsoft Access 365®, and multiple epidemiological maps were generated with the QGIS® version 3.36 software coupled to shape files of all the country’s departments. Results: During the study period, 5273 bovine tuberculosis cases were identified in multiple different departments of Colombia (with a mean of 278 cases/year). Regarding its temporal distribution, the number of cases varied from a maximum of 903 cases (17.12% of the total) in 2015 to a minimum of 0 between 2001 and 2004 and between 2017 and 2019 (between 2005 and 2016, the minimum was 46 cases, 0.87%). Conclusions: GIS are essential for understanding the temporospatial behaviour of zoonotic diseases in Colombia, as is the case for bovine tuberculosis, with its potential implications for the Human and One Health approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Tuberculosis and Mycoplasmosis in Cattle)
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14 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
Radiotherapy for Canine Apocrine Gland Anal Sac Adenocarcinoma: Survival Outcomes and Side Effects of a Palliative Treatment Protocol of 20 Gy in Five Consecutive Fractions
by Carlos Roberto Mendez Valenzuela, Kelly Shin, Hsin-Yi Weng, Jeannie M. Plantenga and Isabelle F. Vanhaezebrouck
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050219 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 678
Abstract
This research aims to evaluate the outcomes of a radiotherapy protocol, consisting of five fractions of 4 Gy each, resulting in a total dose of 20 Gy for apocrine gland anal sac tumors and local lymph nodes in canines. This protocol was assessed [...] Read more.
This research aims to evaluate the outcomes of a radiotherapy protocol, consisting of five fractions of 4 Gy each, resulting in a total dose of 20 Gy for apocrine gland anal sac tumors and local lymph nodes in canines. This protocol was assessed as a palliative treatment for macroscopic tumors alone, or in combination with additional therapies under different scenarios. Medical records from fifty canine patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into different treatment groups: radiotherapy alone (n = 22, 44%), radiotherapy with chemotherapy or targeted therapy with toceranib (n = 18, 36%), surgery with radiotherapy (n = 5, 10%), and surgery with radiotherapy and chemotherapy or targeted therapy with toceranib (n = 5, 10%). Patients who received radiotherapy alone had a median survival time of 384 days (95% CI 198–569) and 628 days (95% CI 579–676) for RT + additional therapies. The median time to progression for patients with radiotherapy alone was 337 days (95% CI 282–391 days), and 402 days (95% CI 286–517 days) for radiotherapy plus additional treatments. Acute side effects were mild, with the majority having diarrhea (61%), and only one patient developed grade III late effects VRTOG v2 classification; however, this happened 22 months after the first radiotherapy protocol after re-irradiation. The results demonstrate that radiotherapy alone under this protocol provided a comparable median time to progression vs. radiotherapy plus additional treatments while maintaining acceptable side effects. The combination of this protocol with other treatment modalities offers attractive results for local disease control and survival while maintaining acceptable toxicities. Overall, these findings contribute to the growing evidence supporting the role of radiotherapy in managing apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
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12 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Milk Yield and Reproductive Parameters on Three Hungarian Dairy Farms
by Zsófia Amma, Jenő Reiczigel, Hedvig Fébel and László Solti
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050218 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 704
Abstract
It is postulated that there is negative correlation between milk yield and reproductive performance. However, some studies definitely doubt this causality. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between milk production and fertility on three dairy farms. The production parameter [...] Read more.
It is postulated that there is negative correlation between milk yield and reproductive performance. However, some studies definitely doubt this causality. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between milk production and fertility on three dairy farms. The production parameter was the milk yield (in kg), and fertility was expressed by the number of inseminations per conception (AI index), as well as by the length of the service period (in days). A total of 13 012 lactations from cows with their first three lactations completed were analysed. The number of inseminations was significantly correlated with the milk yield and with the studied farm (p < 0.0001), but its correlation with the lactation number was not significant (p = 0.9477). A similar relationship was found after evaluating the length of the service period. A multiplicative model showed that a 2000 kg milk increase extended the service period by 9% and increased the AI index by 13%. Thereafter, using quartiles of the cows, the service period of the highest-producing group rose by 41.5 days, and the AI index by almost 1, compared to the lowest quartile. Our results indicate a definitive decline in reproductive indicators parallel to an increase in milk production but did not prove an inevitable correlation. Full article
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13 pages, 3727 KiB  
Article
Wildlife–Livestock Host Community Maintains Simultaneous Epidemiologic Cycles of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in a Mountain Ecosystem
by Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Eva Ramírez, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco and José Enrique Granados
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050217 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an eye disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae that affects domestic and wild caprines, including Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate. However, its role in IKC dynamics in multi-host communities has been poorly studied. This study [...] Read more.
Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is an eye disease caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae that affects domestic and wild caprines, including Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate. However, its role in IKC dynamics in multi-host communities has been poorly studied. This study assessed M. conjunctivae in Iberian ibex and seasonally sympatric domestic small ruminants in the Natural Space of Sierra Nevada (NSSN), a mountain habitat in southern Spain. From 2015 to 2017, eye swabs were collected from 147 ibexes (46 subadults, 101 adults) and 169 adult domestic small ruminants (101 sheep, 68 goats). Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated through real-time qPCR and statistically assessed according to species, sex, age category, year, period, and area. The lppS gene of M. conjunctivae was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was endemic and asymptomatic in the host community of the NSSN. Three genetic clusters were shared by ibex and livestock, and one was identified only in sheep, although each host species could maintain the infection independently. Naïve subadults maintained endemic infection in Iberian ibex, with an epizootic outbreak in 2017 when the infection spread to adults. Wild ungulates are epidemiologically key in maintaining and spreading IKC and other shared diseases among spatially segregated livestock flocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Ophthalmologic Pathology in Animals)
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9 pages, 13907 KiB  
Case Report
Ultrasound, Histomorphologic, and Immunohistochemical Analysis of a Cardiac Tumor with Increased Purkinje Cells Detected in a Canine Fetus 42 Days into Pregnancy
by Enrico Giordano, Ignazio Ponticelli, Simona Attard, Teresa Bruna Pagano and Maria Carmela Pisu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050216 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 871
Abstract
A seven-year-old healthy female Chow Chow was referred for pregnancy monitoring. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate all pregnancy and fetus parameters, and they were found to be normal. During the examination of the 42 day pregnant bitch, an unusual mass was seen in [...] Read more.
A seven-year-old healthy female Chow Chow was referred for pregnancy monitoring. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate all pregnancy and fetus parameters, and they were found to be normal. During the examination of the 42 day pregnant bitch, an unusual mass was seen in a fetus’s heart. This fetus had a cardiac frequency of 273–300 beats, while the others had heart rates of 220–240 beats. Natural vaginal birth occurred at 63 days pregnant: the first two puppies were stillborn but perfectly formed, and the other three were alive and had optimal APGAR. In one of two deceased puppies, an unusual, reddish, smooth mass occupying the space in the heart was found through necroscopy. The organ was submitted for histological examination. Histopathology, immunohistochemical, and histochemical analyses all indicated a cardiac tumor with increased Purkinje cells. This type of tumor has been described in infants, swine, bearded seals, and deer but never in fetuses and neonates of dogs. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in veterinary medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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12 pages, 3190 KiB  
Article
Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Schizophyllum commune Co-Infection in a Harbor Seal in Japan
by Marina Fujii, Soma Ito, Etsuko Katsumata, James K. Chambers, Hiromichi Matsugo, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Shin Murakami, Kazuyuki Uchida and Taisuke Horimoto
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050215 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has a wide host range, extending from pigs and ardeid birds to opportunistic dead-end hosts, such as humans and horses. However, JEV encephalitis infections in aquatic mammals are rare, with only two cases in seals [...] Read more.
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has a wide host range, extending from pigs and ardeid birds to opportunistic dead-end hosts, such as humans and horses. However, JEV encephalitis infections in aquatic mammals are rare, with only two cases in seals reported to date. Here, we report a lethal case of JEV and Schizophyllum commune co-infection in an aquarium-housed harbor seal in Japan. We isolated JEV from the brain of the dead seal and characterized its phylogeny and pathogenicity in mice. The virus isolate from the seal was classified as genotype GIb, which aligns with recent Japanese human and mosquito isolates as well as other seal viruses detected in China and Korea, and does not exhibit a unique sequence trait distinct from that of human and mosquito strains. We demonstrated that the seal isolate is pathogenic to mice and causes neuronal symptoms. These data suggest that seals should be considered a susceptible dead-end host for circulating JEV in natural settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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16 pages, 1387 KiB  
Article
Influence of Clinical Aspects and Genetic Factors on Feline HCM Severity and Development
by Victoria Korobova and Yulia Kruglova
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050214 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is associated with thickening of the left ventricular wall, is one of the most common heart pathologies in cats. This disease has a hereditary etiology and is primarily related to mutations in the MYBPC3 and MYH7 genes. This study [...] Read more.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is associated with thickening of the left ventricular wall, is one of the most common heart pathologies in cats. This disease has a hereditary etiology and is primarily related to mutations in the MYBPC3 and MYH7 genes. This study aims to determine the effect of the presence of heterozygosity or homozygosity for the p. A31P mutation (c.91G>C) in the MYBPC3 gene in cats (Maine Coon) of different ages referring to the HCM severity and development, and to compare echocardiographic data and various clinical aspects for the most objective detection of disease in cats of different breeds. The incidence of HCM was 59% of the 103 cases of heart disease in cats in this study. In 23 cats diagnosed with HCM, cats heterozygous for the mutation accounted for 34%, and homozygous cats accounted for 26%. Cats homozygous for this mutation had moderate to severe HCM, suggesting an association with high penetrance of HCM and a significant risk of cardiac death in this group. The penetrance of the heterozygous type was lower than that of the homozygous genotype. This study also indicates that HCM has some age-related penetrance. The disease did not occur in the study group of cats aged up to 1 year, whereas at the age of 7 and older, the percentage of animals diagnosed with HCM was the highest and amounted to 44.3% of the total number of studied cats with HCM. Full article
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13 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Efficacy of a Peripheral Nerve Simulator-Guided Brachial Plexus Block in Rabbits Undergoing Orthopaedic Surgery Compared to Systemic Analgesia
by Sophie A. Mead, Matthew J. Allen, Sara Ahmed Hassouna Elsayed and Claudia S. Gittel
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050213 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Locoregional anaesthetic techniques are invaluable for providing multimodal analgesia for painful surgical procedures. This prospective, randomised study describes a nerve stimulator-guided brachial plexus blockade (BPB) in rabbits undergoing orthopaedic surgery in comparison to systemic lidocaine. Premedication was provided with intramuscular (IM) medetomidine, fentanyl, [...] Read more.
Locoregional anaesthetic techniques are invaluable for providing multimodal analgesia for painful surgical procedures. This prospective, randomised study describes a nerve stimulator-guided brachial plexus blockade (BPB) in rabbits undergoing orthopaedic surgery in comparison to systemic lidocaine. Premedication was provided with intramuscular (IM) medetomidine, fentanyl, and midazolam. Anaesthesia was induced (propofol IV) and maintained with isoflurane. Nine rabbits received a lidocaine BPB (2%; 0.3 mL kg−1), and eight received a lidocaine constant rate infusion (CRI) (2 mg kg−1 IV, followed by 100 µg kg−1 min−1). Rescue analgesia was provided with fentanyl IV. Carprofen was administered at the end of the surgery. Postoperative pain was determined using the Rabbit Grimace Scale (RGS) and a composite pain scale. Buprenorphine was administered according to the pain score for two hours after extubation. Rabbits were filmed during the first two hours to measure distance travelled and behaviours. Food intake and faeces output were compared. Every rabbit in CRI required intraoperative rescue analgesia compared to none in BPB. However, rabbits in both groups had similar pain scores, and there was no difference in the administration of postoperative analgesia. There were no significant differences in food intake or faeces production over 18 h, and no significant differences in distance travelled or behaviours examined during the first two hours. BPB seems superior for intraoperative analgesia. Postoperatively, both groups were comparable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Pain Management in Veterinary Surgery)
11 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Anemia in Dogs with Acute Kidney Injury
by Ilaria Lippi, Francesca Perondi, Giulia Ghiselli, Sara Santini, Verena Habermaass and Veronica Marchetti
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050212 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 785
Abstract
Anemia is a well-known complication in CKD dogs, but its frequency in AKI dogs has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate frequency, degree of severity, and regeneration rate of anemia in relation to IRIS grade, etiology, [...] Read more.
Anemia is a well-known complication in CKD dogs, but its frequency in AKI dogs has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate frequency, degree of severity, and regeneration rate of anemia in relation to IRIS grade, etiology, therapy, and outcome. Medical records of dogs (2017–2023) with historical, laboratory, and ultrasound findings consistent with AKI were retrospectively reviewed. According to etiology, AKI was classified as ischemic/inflammatory (IS), infectious (INF), nephrotoxic (NEP), obstructive (OBS), and unknown (UK). AKI dogs were also classified according to therapeutical management (medical vs. hemodialysis), survival to discharge (survivors vs. non-survivors). Anemia was defined as HCT < 37% and classified as mild (HCT 30–37%), moderate (HCT 20–29%), severe (13–19%), or very severe (<13%). Anemia was classified as microcytic (MCV < 61 fL), normocytic (61 and 73 fL), and macrocytic (>73 fL). Anemia was considered hypochromic (MCHC< 32 g/dL), normochromic (32 and 38 g/dL), and hyperchromic (>38 g/dL). Regeneration rate was considered absent (RET ≤ 60,000/μL), mild 61,000–150,000/μL), and moderate (>150,000/μL). A total of 120 AKI dogs were included in the study, and anemia was found in 86/120 dogs (72%). The severity of anemia was mild in 32/86 dogs (37%), moderate in 40/86 dogs (47%), severe in 11/86 dogs (13%), and very severe in 3/86 (3%). Anemia was normochromic in 71/86 dogs (83%), hyperchromic in 12/86 dogs (14%), and hypochromic in 3/86 dogs (3%). Normocytic anemia was present in 56/86 dogs (65%), microcytic anemia in 27/86 dogs (31%), and macrocytic anemia in 3/86 dogs (4%). Non-regenerative anemia was found in 76/86 dogs (88%). The frequency of anemia increased significantly (p < 0.0001) with the progression of IRIS grade, although no significant difference in the severity of anemia was found among the IRIS grades. The frequency of non-regenerative forms of anemia was significantly higher than regenerative forms (p < 0.0001) in all IRIS grades. In our population of AKI dogs, anemia was a very frequent finding, in agreement with current findings in human nephrology. Full article
13 pages, 4018 KiB  
Article
Amphistome Infection and Species Diversity of Freshwater Snails Collected from Selected Wildlife Drinking Water Sources in Matebeleland Region of Zimbabwe
by Madeline Siyazisiwe Sibula, Mokgadi Pulane Malatji, Cosmas Nyahunda and Samson Mukaratirwa
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050211 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 712
Abstract
This study aimed at determining the identity of freshwater snails collected from selected water habitats frequented by wildlife as source of drinking water in the Matebeleland region of Zimbabwe and further screening the identified snails for natural infections with amphistomes using PCR. A [...] Read more.
This study aimed at determining the identity of freshwater snails collected from selected water habitats frequented by wildlife as source of drinking water in the Matebeleland region of Zimbabwe and further screening the identified snails for natural infections with amphistomes using PCR. A total of 487 freshwater snails were collected from six areas in the Matebeleland region of Zimbabwe for identification and screening of amphistome infection. Eight freshwater snail species were morphologically identified and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bul. tropicus, Bul. truncatus, Bul. globosus, and L. (R.) natalensis were confirmed using the COI gene. Bulinus tropicus and Phy. acuta were the most abundant species at 33.9% (165/487) and 31.2% (155/487), respectively. DNA of amphistome was detected in 11.9% (58/487) of the collected snails. The highest infection rate was detected in Bul. globosus (44.4%). West Nicholson recorded the highest infection rate (33.9%), and infection was not detected in L. (R.) natalensis, Phy. acuta, and Bellamya spp. Amphistome DNA from M. tuberculata was successfully sequenced and identified as Calicophoron microbothrium. An additional band was detected in M. tuberculata, Bul. tropicus, and Bul. trancatus, which showed a 96.42% similarity to Paragonimus sp. sequence in the GenBank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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15 pages, 1178 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Prevalence and Resistance of Campylobacter in Urban Bird Populations
by Aida Mencía-Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier García-Peña, Fernando González, Natalia Pastor-Tiburón, Iratxe Pérez-Cobo, María Marín and Bárbara Martín-Maldonado
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050210 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 682
Abstract
The increasing urbanization of ecosystems has had a significant impact on wildlife over the last few years. Species that find an unlimited supply of food and shelter in urban areas have thrived under human presence. Wild birds have been identified as amplifying hosts [...] Read more.
The increasing urbanization of ecosystems has had a significant impact on wildlife over the last few years. Species that find an unlimited supply of food and shelter in urban areas have thrived under human presence. Wild birds have been identified as amplifying hosts and reservoirs of Campylobacter worldwide, but the information about its transmission and epidemiology is still limited. This study assessed the prevalence of Campylobacter in 137 urban birds admitted at a wildlife rescue center, with 18.8% of individuals showing positive. C. jejuni was the most frequent species (82.6%), followed by C. coli and C. lari (4.3% each). The order Passeriformes (33.3%) showed significant higher presence of Campylobacter when compared to orders Columbiformes (0%) and Ciconiiformes (17.6%), as well as in samples collected during the summer season (31.9%), from omnivorous species (36.8%) and young individuals (26.8%). Globally, Campylobacter displayed a remarkable resistance to ciprofloxacin (70.6%), tetracycline (64.7%), and nalidixic acid (52.9%). In contrast, resistance to streptomycin was low (5.8%), and all the isolates showed susceptibility to erythromycin and gentamycin. The results underline the importance of urban birds as reservoirs of thermophilic antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and contribute to enhancing the knowledge of its distribution in urban and peri-urban ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wild Birds as Sentinels of the Health Status of the Environment)
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13 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus among Equids in Bulgaria in 2022 and Assessment of Some Risk Factors
by Nikolina Rusenova, Anton Rusenov, Mihail Chervenkov and Ivo Sirakov
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050209 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) among equids in Bulgaria, confirm the results of a competitive ELISA versus the virus neutralization test (VNT) and investigate some predisposing factors for WNV seropositivity. A total of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) among equids in Bulgaria, confirm the results of a competitive ELISA versus the virus neutralization test (VNT) and investigate some predisposing factors for WNV seropositivity. A total of 378 serum samples from 15 provinces in northern and southern Bulgaria were tested. The samples originated from 314 horses and 64 donkeys, 135 males and 243 females, aged from 1 to 30 years. IgG and IgM antibodies against WNV protein E were detected by ELISA. ELISA-positive samples were additionally tested via VNT for WNV and Usutu virus. Thirty-five samples were WNV-positive by ELISA (9.26% [CI = 6.45–12.88]), of which 15 were confirmed by VNT; hence, the seroprevalence was 3.97% (CI = 2.22–6.55). No virus-neutralizing antibodies to Usutu virus were detected among the 35 WNV-ELISA-positive equids in Bulgaria. When compared with VNT, ELISA showed 100.0% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity. A statistical analysis showed that the risk factors associated with WNV seropositivity were the region (p < 0.0001), altitude of the locality (p < 0.0001), type of housing (p < 0.0001) and breed (p = 0.0365). The results of the study demonstrate, albeit indirectly, that WNV circulates among equids in northern and southern Bulgaria, indicating that they could be suitable sentinel animals for predicting human cases and determining the risk in these areas or regions of the country. Full article
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11 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Establishment of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for the Characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum
by Mengjiao Guo, Yikun Jin, Haonan Wang, Xiaorong Zhang and Yantao Wu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050208 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory infection caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, which is widely distributed throughout the world. However, there is no effective molecular typing scheme to obtain basic knowledge about the Av. paragallinarum population structure. This study aimed to develop a [...] Read more.
Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory infection caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, which is widely distributed throughout the world. However, there is no effective molecular typing scheme to obtain basic knowledge about the Av. paragallinarum population structure. This study aimed to develop a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Av. paragallinarum that allows for the worldwide comparison of sequence data. For this purpose, the genetic variability of 59 Av. paragallinarum strains from different geographical origins and serovars was analyzed to identify correlations. The MLST scheme was developed using seven conserved housekeeping genes, which identified eight STs that clustered all of the strains into three evolutionary branches. The analytical evaluation of the clone group relationship between the STs revealed two clone complexes (CC1 and CC2) and three singletons (ST2, ST5, and ST6). Most of the isolates from China belonged to ST1 and ST3 in CC1. ST8 from Peru and ST7 from North America together formed CC2. Our results showed that the Av. paragallinarum strains isolated from China had a distant genetic relationship with CC2, indicating strong regional specificity. The MLST scheme established in this study can monitor the dynamics and genetic differences of Av. paragallinarum transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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13 pages, 5498 KiB  
Article
Clinicopathological and Molecular Analysis of Aqueous Humor for the Diagnosis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis
by Angelica Stranieri, Stefania Lauzi and Saverio Paltrinieri
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050207 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Background: This study was designed to assess the diagnostic utility for FIP of cytology, protein measurement and RT-PCR for feline coronaviruses (FCoV) on aqueous humor (AH), since little information is currently available. Methods: AH samples (n = 85) were collected post-mortem from [...] Read more.
Background: This study was designed to assess the diagnostic utility for FIP of cytology, protein measurement and RT-PCR for feline coronaviruses (FCoV) on aqueous humor (AH), since little information is currently available. Methods: AH samples (n = 85) were collected post-mortem from 13 cats with effusive FIP (E-FIP), 15 with non-effusive FIP (NE-FIP) and 16 without FIP, to perform cytology (n = 83) and RT-PCR (n = 66) and to calculate their sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR−). The protein concentration was measured on 80 fluids. Results: The proportion of RT-PCR positive samples did not differ among groups, while positive cytology was more frequent in samples with FIP (p = 0.042) or positive RT-PCR (p = 0.007). Compared with other groups, the protein concentration was higher in samples with NE-FIP (p = 0.017), positive RT-PCR (p = 0.005) or positive cytology (p < 0.001). The specificity of cytology together with RT-PCR, cytology alone, RT-PCR alone and cytological proteinaceous background were 90.0%, 84.6%, 70.0%, 61.5%, and the LRs 3.48, 2.65, 1.83, 1.64, respectively. However, their sensitivities were low (34.8–63.0%) and their LR− high (0.60–0.72). Conclusions: Based on the LR+, cytology and/or RT-PCR may support the diagnosis when the pre-test probability of FIP is high. The concentration of intraocular protein is a promising marker, especially in NE-FIP. Full article
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16 pages, 5666 KiB  
Article
miR-329b-5p Affects Sheep Intestinal Epithelial Cells against Escherichia coli F17 Infection
by Yeling Xu, Weihao Chen, Huiguo Yang, Zhenghai Song, Yeqing Wang, Rui Su, Joram M. Mwacharo, Xiaoyang Lv and Wei Sun
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050206 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Diarrhea is the most common issue in sheep farms, typically due to pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections, such as E. coli F17. microRNA, a primary type of non-coding RNA, has been shown to be involved in diarrhea caused by pathogenic [...] Read more.
Diarrhea is the most common issue in sheep farms, typically due to pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections, such as E. coli F17. microRNA, a primary type of non-coding RNA, has been shown to be involved in diarrhea caused by pathogenic E. coli. To elucidate the profound mechanisms of miRNA in E. coli F17 infections, methods such as E. coli F17 adhesion assay, colony counting assay, relative quantification of bacterial E. coli fimbriae gene expression, indirect immune fluorescence (IF), Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), Western blotting (WB), and scratch assay were conducted to investigate the effect of miR-329b-5p overexpression/knock-down on E. coli F17 susceptibility of sheep intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The findings indicated that miR-329b-5p enhances the E. coli F17 resistance of sheep IECs to E.coli F17 by promoting adhesion between E. coli F17 and IEC, as well as IEC proliferation and migration. In summary, miR-329b-5p plays a crucial role in the defense of sheep IECs against E. coli F17 infection, providing valuable insights into its mechanism of action. Full article
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11 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Haematochemical Profile of Healthy Dogs Seropositive for Single or Multiple Vector-Borne Pathogens
by Raffaella Cocco, Sara Sechi, Maria Rizzo, Andrea Bonomo, Francesca Arfuso and Elisabetta Giudice
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050205 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Background: the present study aimed to investigate the immunological response to common vector-borne pathogens and to evaluate their impact on haematochemical parameters in owned dogs. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 400 clinically healthy dogs living in an endemic area (Sardinia Island, Italy). [...] Read more.
Background: the present study aimed to investigate the immunological response to common vector-borne pathogens and to evaluate their impact on haematochemical parameters in owned dogs. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 400 clinically healthy dogs living in an endemic area (Sardinia Island, Italy). All dogs were serologically tested for VBDs and divided into groups based on their negative (Neg) or positive response towards Ehrlichia (Ehrl), Rickettsia (Rick), Leishmania (Leish), Borrelia (Borr), Anaplasma (Anapl), and Bartonella (Barto). A Kruskall–Wallis’s test, followed by Dunn’s post hoc comparison test, was applied to determine the statistical effect of negativity and single or multiple positivity on the studied parameters. Results: the group of dogs simultaneously presenting antibodies towards Leishmania, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia showed higher values of total proteins, globulins, creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and amylase than dogs that tested negative or dogs with antibodies toward a single pathogen investigated herein. Conclusions: Our results seem to suggest that exposure to more vector-borne pathogens could lead to greater liver function impairment and a greater inflammatory state. Further investigations are needed in order to better clarify how co-infections affect haematochemical patterns in dogs living in endemic areas of VBDs. Full article
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14 pages, 2153 KiB  
Article
Host miR-146a-3p Facilitates Replication of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus by Targeting WNT3a and CCND1
by Jingwen Huang, Shihao Zheng, Qiuji Li, Hongying Zhao, Xinyue Zhou, Yutong Yang, Wenlong Zhang and Yongsheng Cao
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050204 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a serious pathogen that causes great economic loss to the salmon and trout industry. Previous studies showed that IHNV alters the expression patterns of splenic microRNAs (miRNAs) in rainbow trout. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNA146a-3p was [...] Read more.
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a serious pathogen that causes great economic loss to the salmon and trout industry. Previous studies showed that IHNV alters the expression patterns of splenic microRNAs (miRNAs) in rainbow trout. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNA146a-3p was upregulated by IHNV. However, it is unclear how IHNV utilizes miRNA146a-3p to escape the immune response or promote viral replication. The present study suggested that one multiplicity of infection (MOI) of IHNV induced the most significant miR-146a-3p expression at 1 day post infection (dpi). The upregulation of miR-146a-3p by IHNV was due to viral N, P, M, and G proteins and relied on the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that Wingless-type MMTV integration site family 3a (WNT3a) and G1/S-specific cyclin-D1-like (CCND1) are the target genes of miRNA-146a-3p. The regulation of IHNV infection by miRNA-146a-3p is dependent on WNT3a and CCND1. MiRNA-146a-3p was required for the downregulation of WNT3a and CCND1 by IHNV. Moreover, we also found that WNT3a and CCND1 are novel proteins that induce the type-I IFN response in RTG-2 cells, and both of them could inhibit the replication of IHNV. Therefore, IHNV-induced upregulation of miRNA-146a-3p promotes early viral replication by suppressing the type-I IFN response by targeting WNT3a and CCND1. This work not only reveals the molecular mechanism of miRNA-146a-3p during IHNV infection but also provides new antiviral targets for IHNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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8 pages, 2622 KiB  
Brief Report
Molecular Identification and Survey of Trichomonad Species in Pigs in Shanxi Province, North China
by Zi-Rui Wang, Qing-Xin Fan, Jin-Long Wang, Shuo Zhang, Yu-Xuan Wang, Ze-Dong Zhang, Wen-Wei Gao, Xing-Quan Zhu and Qing Liu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050203 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Several trichomonad species have already been identified in pigs, and their pathogenic potential may not be ruled out. To date, however, no information is available regarding the prevalence of trichomonads in pigs in Shanxi Province, North China. In the present study, a total [...] Read more.
Several trichomonad species have already been identified in pigs, and their pathogenic potential may not be ruled out. To date, however, no information is available regarding the prevalence of trichomonads in pigs in Shanxi Province, North China. In the present study, a total of 362 fecal samples collected from pigs in three representative counties (Qi, Jishan, and Shanyin) in this province were examined for Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Pentatrichomonas hominis using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The overall prevalence of T. buttreyi was 49.72%, and region and age were found to be significantly associated with T. buttreyi infection, respectively. Only one pig fecal sample from Qi County was found to be positive for T. foetus, and all samples were negative for P. hominis. Molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that some T. buttreyi isolates showed complete genetic identity with those reported previously, and some T. buttreyi isolates and one T. foetus isolate showed minor allelic variations compared with those reported previously. This is the report of the molecular epidemiology of T. foetus and T. buttreyi in pigs in Shanxi Province, North China. These findings not only enrich the knowledge on the distribution of these trichomonad species in pigs in China but also provide baseline information for planning future research and control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Parasitic Diseases in Livestock)
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11 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Individual- and Herd-Level Milk ELISA Test Status and Incidence for Paratuberculosis in Hubei Province, China
by Yingyu Chen, Liyue Hou, Abdul Karim Khalid, Ian Duncan Robertson, Yuhao Zhao, Xi Chen and Aizhen Guo
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050202 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is responsible for the persistent infectious illness known as bovine paratuberculosis, which is one of the most easily overlooked diseases in China amid a lack of epidemiological data. In this study, we evaluated the agreement of milk and [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is responsible for the persistent infectious illness known as bovine paratuberculosis, which is one of the most easily overlooked diseases in China amid a lack of epidemiological data. In this study, we evaluated the agreement of milk and blood antibody tests for paratuberculosis and showed an overall agreement of 92.0%, with a 95.0% negative coincidence rate and a 78.6% positive coincidence rate. The milk test was then used to examine the prevalence and incidence of dairy cows in Hubei Province, China. We found that, at the individual level, the highest lacto-prevalence reached up to 22.9%; the farm-level prevalence was as high as 92.3% (12/13) and 84.6% (11/13) in January and April 2018, respectively. The total incidence risk of all farms was 6% per three months. We also found that large-scale farms had a significantly lower prevalence and incidence than small-scale farms. Finally, the correlation between paratuberculosis and milk quality was evaluated, and we confirmed that MAP can significantly alter milk quality and raise somatic cell counts in the milk. This study provides valuable information for assessing the prevalence and incidence risk of paratuberculosis in China. It further provides an essential basis for calling for the prevention and control of paratuberculosis in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Tuberculosis and Mycoplasmosis in Cattle)
7 pages, 193 KiB  
Communication
Comparison of St. Thomas II Cardioplegia and Modified Del Nido Cardioplegia in Dogs Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery
by Yuki Onuma, Tomohiko Yoshida, Katsuhiro Matsuura, Yuki Aboshi, Mizuki Hasegawa, Shusaku Yamada and Youta Yaginuma
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050201 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Myocardial protection has become an essential adjunctive procedure in veterinary cardiac surgery. Del Nido cardioplegia is a good alternative to the traditional St. Thomas II (ST) cardioplegia in open heart surgery in humans. This study aims to compare intra- and postoperative results between [...] Read more.
Myocardial protection has become an essential adjunctive procedure in veterinary cardiac surgery. Del Nido cardioplegia is a good alternative to the traditional St. Thomas II (ST) cardioplegia in open heart surgery in humans. This study aims to compare intra- and postoperative results between ST cardioplegia and modified del Nido (mDN) cardioplegia in mitral valve surgery in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). This retrospective study was conducted using clinical records of 16 MMVD dogs that underwent either ST or mDN cardioplegia. We measured cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aortic cross-clamp (ACC) time, total operation time, the number of cardioplegia doses, total amount of cardioplegia, required defibrillations, in-hospital mortality and pre- and one-month postoperative echocardiographic variables. CPB (159.4 ± 16.1 vs. 210.1 ± 34.0 min), ACC (101.4 ± 7.0 vs. 136.0 ± 24.8 min) and total operation time (262.3 ± 13.1 vs. 327.0 ± 45.4 min) were significantly shorter in the mDN group (p < 0.05). The number of cardioplegia doses (3.25 ± 0.4 vs. 6.25 ± 1.2) and total amount of cardioplegia (161.3 ± 51.5 vs. 405.0 ± 185.9 mL) in the mDN group were also significantly smaller than the ST group (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in the requirement of defibrillation, in-hospital mortality and pre- and postoperative echocardiographic variables. The utilization of mDN cardioplegia was associated with shorter operative time in mitral valve surgery in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
12 pages, 1091 KiB  
Article
A Clinical Study on Urinary Clusterin and Cystatin B in Dogs with Spontaneous Acute Kidney Injury
by Emilia Gordin, Sanna Viitanen, Daniel Gordin, Donald Szlosek, Sarah Peterson, Thomas Spillmann and Mary Anna Labato
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050200 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 941
Abstract
Novel biomarkers are needed in diagnosing reliably acute kidney injury (AKI) in dogs and in predicting morbidity and mortality after AKI. Our hypothesis was that two novel tubular biomarkers, urinary clusterin (uClust) and cystatin B (uCysB), are elevated in dogs with AKI of [...] Read more.
Novel biomarkers are needed in diagnosing reliably acute kidney injury (AKI) in dogs and in predicting morbidity and mortality after AKI. Our hypothesis was that two novel tubular biomarkers, urinary clusterin (uClust) and cystatin B (uCysB), are elevated in dogs with AKI of different etiologies. In a prospective, longitudinal observational study, we collected serum and urine samples from 18 dogs with AKI of different severity and of various etiology and from 10 healthy control dogs. Urinary clusterin and uCysB were compared at inclusion between dogs with AKI and healthy controls and remeasured one and three months later. Dogs with AKI had higher initial levels of uClust (median 3593 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR]; 1489–10,483) and uCysB (554 ng/mL; 29–821) compared to healthy dogs (70 ng/mL; 70–70 and 15 ng/mL; 15–15; p < 0.001, respectively). Initial uCysB were higher in dogs that died during the one-month follow-up period (n = 10) (731 ng/mL; 517–940), compared to survivors (n = 8) (25 ng/mL; 15–417 (p = 0.009). Based on these results, uClust and especially uCysB are promising biomarkers of AKI. Further, they might reflect the severity of tubular injury, which is known to be central to the pathology of AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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51 pages, 12597 KiB  
Review
Clinical Use of Molecular Biomarkers in Canine and Feline Oncology: Current and Future
by Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Alexandra Kehl, Simone de Brot and Louise van der Weyden
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050199 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Molecular biomarkers are central to personalised medicine for human cancer patients. It is gaining traction as part of standard veterinary clinical practice for dogs and cats with cancer. Molecular biomarkers can be somatic or germline genomic alterations and can be ascertained from tissues [...] Read more.
Molecular biomarkers are central to personalised medicine for human cancer patients. It is gaining traction as part of standard veterinary clinical practice for dogs and cats with cancer. Molecular biomarkers can be somatic or germline genomic alterations and can be ascertained from tissues or body fluids using various techniques. This review discusses how these genomic alterations can be determined and the findings used in clinical settings as diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and screening biomarkers. We showcase the somatic and germline genomic alterations currently available to date for testing dogs and cats in a clinical setting, discussing their utility in each biomarker class. We also look at some emerging molecular biomarkers that are promising for clinical use. Finally, we discuss the hurdles that need to be overcome in going ‘bench to bedside’, i.e., the translation from discovery of genomic alterations to adoption by veterinary clinicians. As we understand more of the genomics underlying canine and feline tumours, molecular biomarkers will undoubtedly become a mainstay in delivering precision veterinary care to dogs and cats with cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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12 pages, 3453 KiB  
Article
The Establishment of a Novel γ-Interferon In Vitro Release Assay for the Differentiation of Mycobacterial Bovis-Infected and BCG-Vaccinated Cattle
by Yuhao Zhao, Wentao Fei, Li Yang, Zhijie Xiang, Xi Chen, Yingyu Chen, Changmin Hu, Jianguo Chen and Aizhen Guo
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050198 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
BCG vaccination is increasingly reconsidered in the effective prevention of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). However, the primary challenge in BCG vaccination for cattle is the lack of a technique for differentiating between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). This study aimed to establish a novel [...] Read more.
BCG vaccination is increasingly reconsidered in the effective prevention of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). However, the primary challenge in BCG vaccination for cattle is the lack of a technique for differentiating between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). This study aimed to establish a novel DIVA diagnostic test based on an interferon-gamma in vitro release assay (IGRA). The plasmid encoding three differential antigens (Rv3872, CFP-10, and ESAT-6) absent in BCG genes but present in virulent M. bovis was previously constructed. Thus, a recombinant protein called RCE (Rv3872, CFP-10, and ESAT-6) was expressed, and an RCE-based DIVA IGRA (RCE-IGRA) was established. The RCE concentration was optimized at 4 μg/mL by evaluating 97 cattle (74 of which were bTB-positive, and 23 were negative) using a commercial IGRA bTB diagnostic kit. Further, 84 cattle were tested in parallel with the RCE-IGRA and commercial PPD-based IGRA (PPD-IGRA), and the results showed a high correlation with a kappa value of 0.83. The study included BCG-vaccinated calves (n = 6), bTB-positive cattle (n = 6), and bTB-negative non-vaccinated calves (n = 6). After 3 months post-vaccination, PPD-IGRA generated positive results in both vaccinated and infected calves. However, RCE-IGRA developed positive results in infected calves but negative results in vaccinated calves. In conclusion, this DIVA method has broad prospects in differentiating BCG vaccination from natural infection to prevent bTB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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13 pages, 1024 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Metronidazole versus a Synbiotic on Clinical Course and Core Intestinal Microbiota in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea
by Helene Stübing, Jan S. Suchodolski, Andrea Reisinger, Melanie Werner, Katrin Hartmann, Stefan Unterer and Kathrin Busch
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11050197 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The usefulness of antibiotics in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) is controversial. It is also unclear what effect metronidazole has on potential enteropathogens such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
The usefulness of antibiotics in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) is controversial. It is also unclear what effect metronidazole has on potential enteropathogens such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole vs. a synbiotic on the clinical course and core intestinal bacteria of dogs with AD. Twenty-seven dogs with AD were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial and treated with either metronidazole (METg) or a synbiotic (SYNg; E. faecium DSM 10663; NCIMB 10415/4b170). The Canine Acute Diarrhea Severity (CADS) index was recorded daily for eleven days. Bacteria were quantified using qPCR. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. A higher concentration of E. coli was observed in the METg group vs. the SYNg group on Day 6 (p < 0.0001) and Day 30 (p = 0.01). Metronidazole had no effect on C. perfringens. C. hiranonis was significantly lower in the METg group than in the SYNg group on Days 6 and 30 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.0015). No significant differences were observed in CADS index, fecal consistency, or defecation frequency between treatment groups (except for the CADS index on one single day). In conclusion, metronidazole negatively impacts the microbiome without affecting clinical outcomes. Thus, synbiotics might be a preferred treatment option for dogs with AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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