Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Internal Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 36234

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: small animal gastrointestinal and pancreatic diseases; small animal flexible endoscopy; small animal respiratory, kidney and urinary diseases

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease in dogs and cats; investigation of host-microbiota interactions mediating GI health and disease

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Guest Editor
Companion Animal Clinic (Medicine Unit), School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: canine and feline chronic enteropathies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gastroenterology and hepatology are dynamic fields of research and clinical practice in small-animal internal medicine. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of liver, biliary, pancreatic and gastro-intestinal diseases over the last 2 decades. The standard of care has evolved; some new diagnostic tools have been developed, and treatment recommendations updated.

The goal of this Special Issue is to provide readers an update on the etiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of some of the most common digestive diseases and disorders clinicians come across on a daily basis. A further aim of the Issue is to highlight developing research areas related to alimentary tract diseases of dog and cat.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include, but are not limited to, the following: chronic and acute enteropathies, infectious disease, chronic hepatitis, pancreatitis, GI disease biomarkers and advances in laboratory diagnostic tests, imaging, histopathology, and nutrition in digestive diseases. Papers in the form of case reports are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Katerina K. Adamama-Moraitou
Prof. Dr. Albert E. Jergens
Dr. Alexandros O. Konstantinidis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • gastrointestinal diseases
  • hepatobiliary diseases
  • pancreatic diseases
  • inflammatory enteropathies biomarkers
  • microbiome
  • probiotics
  • fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Temporal Variability of the Dominant Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Adult Cats
by Chi-Hsuan Sung, Sina Marsilio, Rachel Pilla, Yu-An Wu, Joao Pedro Cavasin, Min-Pyo Hong and Jan S. Suchodolski
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11010031 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1445
Abstract
While shifts in gut microbiota have been studied in diseased states, the temporal variability of the microbiome in cats has not been widely studied. This study investigated the temporal variability of the feline dysbiosis index (DI) and the abundance of core bacterial groups [...] Read more.
While shifts in gut microbiota have been studied in diseased states, the temporal variability of the microbiome in cats has not been widely studied. This study investigated the temporal variability of the feline dysbiosis index (DI) and the abundance of core bacterial groups in healthy adult cats. The secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between the fecal abundance of Clostridium hiranonis and the fecal concentrations of unconjugated bile acids. A total of 142 fecal samples collected from 17 healthy cats were prospectively included: nine cats with weekly collection over 3 weeks (at least four time points), five cats with monthly collection over 2 months (three time points), and three cats with additional collections for up to 10 months. The DI remained stable within the reference intervals over two months for all cats (Friedman test, p > 0.2), and 100% of the DI values (n = 142) collected throughout the study period remained within the RI. While some temporal individual variation was observed for individual taxa, the magnitude was minimal compared to cats with chronic enteropathy and antibiotic exposure. Additionally, the abundance of Clostridium hiranonis was significantly correlated with the percentage of fecal primary bile acids, supporting its role as a bile acid converter in cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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18 pages, 15718 KiB  
Article
Congenital Partial Colonic Agenesis in Dogs and Cats: Clinical, Biological, Diagnostic Imaging, Endoscopic and Histopathologic Characterization, a Retrospective Study
by Paul Remmel, Lucile Gros, Jérémy Mortier and Valérie Freiche
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(9), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10090577 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Congenital diseases of the large intestine of dogs and cats have scarcely been reported and mostly include fistula, atresia or colonic duplication. Cases of partial colonic agenesis have rarely been described. The purpose of this study was to report a cohort of dogs [...] Read more.
Congenital diseases of the large intestine of dogs and cats have scarcely been reported and mostly include fistula, atresia or colonic duplication. Cases of partial colonic agenesis have rarely been described. The purpose of this study was to report a cohort of dogs and cats diagnosed with partial colonic agenesis. The colon was measured during colonoscopy or contrast-radiography and compared to the average length described in the literature. Six dogs and 17 cats were retrospectively included. Depending on the case, partial colonic agenesis could represent an incidental finding or the likeliest cause of clinical signs. Diarrhea was reported in most cases, and no specific clinical or biological abnormality was observed. Median age of presentation was variable and long asymptomatic periods were common. Abdominal ultrasound was useful and identified a short colon in 14/17 cats but only in one dog. Endoscopy was useful to confirm the diagnosis and to identify associated lesions and complications. Among others, colonic stenosis was reported in 8/9 cases that had lifelong clinical signs and the shortest colon length. This anatomical abnormality could promote chronic inflammation that might generate fibrosis and ultimately stenosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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10 pages, 747 KiB  
Article
Serum α1-Proteinase Inhibitor, Calprotectin, and S100A12 Concentrations in the Characterization of Pancreatitis in Dogs
by Annina N. Jandel, Romy M. Heilmann, Henri Sander, Jörg M. Steiner, Niels Grützner and Panagiotis G. Xenoulis
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070428 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to develop pancreatitis, with familial hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) described as a potential risk factor. Diagnosing pancreatitis in dogs is based on the integration of serum canine-specific pancreatic lipase (cPLI) concentration, clinical presentation, and diagnostic imaging findings. However, markers of systemic [...] Read more.
Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to develop pancreatitis, with familial hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) described as a potential risk factor. Diagnosing pancreatitis in dogs is based on the integration of serum canine-specific pancreatic lipase (cPLI) concentration, clinical presentation, and diagnostic imaging findings. However, markers of systemic inflammation and antiprotease activity have not been extensively investigated in the characterization and prognostication of pancreatitis in dogs. Serum concentrations of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; as a marker of systemic antiprotease response) and calprotectin and S100A12 (as markers of systemic inflammation) were measured in serum samples from 35 Miniature Schnauzers diagnosed with pancreatitis (serum cPLI concentration >400 μg/L, clinical signs, abdominal imaging findings). These markers were evaluated for possible associations with patient characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors for pancreatitis, and outcome. The study showed that biomarkers of systemic inflammation and antiprotease activity are commonly increased in Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis. Whereas serum calprotectin and S100A12 concentrations were found to have limited utility in differentiating pancreatitis presentations, serum α1PI concentrations and potentially also the serum calprotectin-to-S100A12 ratio might be non-invasive surrogate markers of disease severity in dogs with pancreatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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12 pages, 475 KiB  
Article
Changes of Enterocyte Morphology and Enterocyte: Goblet Cell Ratios in Dogs with Protein-Losing and Non-Protein-Losing Chronic Enteropathies
by David Díaz-Regañón, Vojtech Gabriel, Vanessa Livania, Dongjie Liu, Basant H. Ahmed, Addison Lincoln, Hannah Wickham, Abigail Ralston, Maria M. Merodio, Dipak K. Sahoo, Christopher Zdyrski, David K. Meyerholz, Jonathan P. Mochel and Karin Allenspach
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070417 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the morphometry of enterocytes as well as the goblet cell-to-enterocyte ratio in different intestinal segments of dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE). Histopathological intestinal samples from 97 dogs were included in the study (19 healthy juveniles, 21 healthy adults, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the morphometry of enterocytes as well as the goblet cell-to-enterocyte ratio in different intestinal segments of dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE). Histopathological intestinal samples from 97 dogs were included in the study (19 healthy juveniles, 21 healthy adults, 24 dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), and 33 CE dogs without PLE). Healthy adult small intestinal enterocytes showed progressively reduced epithelial cell height in the aboral direction, while juvenile dogs showed progressively increased epithelial cell height in the aboral direction. CE dogs had increased epithelial cell height in the duodenum, while PLE dogs had decreased epithelial cell heights compared to healthy adult dogs. Both the CE and PLE dogs showed decreased enterocyte width in the duodenal segment, and the ileal and colonic enterocytes of CE dogs were narrower than those of healthy adult dogs. CE dogs had a lower goblet cell-to-enterocyte ratio in the colon segment compared to healthy dogs. This study provides valuable morphometric information on enterocytes during canine chronic enteropathies, highlighting significant morphological enterocyte alterations, particularly in the small intestine, as well as a reduced goblet cell-to-enterocyte ratio in the colon of CE cases compared to healthy adult dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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10 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Quality of Life of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Their Owners
by David Díaz-Regañón, Ángel Sainz, Fernando Rodríguez-Franco, Alejandra Villaescusa, Patricia Olmeda, Ana Morcillo and Mercedes García-Sancho
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070405 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the impact on the life and relationship of the owner. An online questionnaire based on a Likert scale score (1–10) was designed [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the impact on the life and relationship of the owner. An online questionnaire based on a Likert scale score (1–10) was designed to assess items related to dog QoL, owner QoL, and the owner–dog relationship. Responses from 110 dog owners (30 with IBD and 80 healthy dogs) were included in the study. IBD dogs had significantly lower overall QoL (p < 0.001), health (p < 0.0001), and level of activity (p = 0.049). Owners of dogs with IBD reported lower overall QoL (p < 0.001). The scores for how their dog’s QoL might affect their own QoL (p = 0.028), how much their dog limited their social life, leisure time, or daily activities (p = 0.015), and how often they felt burdened by caring for their dog (p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the IBD group when compared to the healthy group. In addition, IBD dog owners were more likely to see their dogs as children (p = 0.0004). IBD has a negative impact on affected dogs and their owners regardless of the severity of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
18 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Clinical Effects of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation as Adjunctive Therapy in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathies—A Retrospective Case Series of 41 Dogs
by Linda Toresson, Thomas Spillmann, Rachel Pilla, Ulrika Ludvigsson, Josefin Hellgren, Gunilla Olmedal and Jan S. Suchodolski
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040271 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5331
Abstract
Chronic enteropathies (CE) are common in dogs, but not all affected dogs respond to standard therapy. Successful responses to faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) in dogs with non-responsive CE have been reported in two case series. The objective of this retrospective study was to [...] Read more.
Chronic enteropathies (CE) are common in dogs, but not all affected dogs respond to standard therapy. Successful responses to faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) in dogs with non-responsive CE have been reported in two case series. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical effects of FMT as an adjunctive therapy in a larger population of dogs with CE. Forty-one dogs aged 0.6–13.0 years (median 5.8) under treatment for CE at one referral animal hospital were included. Dogs were treated with 1–5 (median 3) FMTs as a rectal enema at a dose of 5–7 g/kg body weight. The canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) was compared at baseline versus after the last FMT. Stored faecal samples (n = 16) were analysed with the dysbiosis index. CIBDAI at baseline was 2–17 (median 6), which decreased to 1–9 (median 2; p < 0.0001) after FMT. Subsequently, 31/41 dogs responded to treatment, resulting in improved faecal quality and/or activity level in 24/41 and 24/41 dogs, respectively. The dysbiosis index at baseline was significantly lower for good responders versus poor responders (p = 0.043). Results suggest that FMT can be useful as an adjunctive therapy in dogs with poorly responsive CE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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12 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
Fecal Protein Profile in Eight Dogs Suffering from Acute Uncomplicated Diarrhea before and after Treatment
by Matteo Cerquetella, Sara Mangiaterra, Giacomo Rossi, Alessandra Gavazza, Andrea Marchegiani, Gianni Sagratini, Massimo Ricciutelli, Simone Angeloni, Licia Fioretti, Carlotta Marini, Stefania Pucciarelli and Silvia Vincenzetti
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030233 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Acute diarrhea is a very frequent condition affecting dogs; nevertheless, little is known about what happens in the GI tract during such conditions. Proteomics allows the study of proteins present in a specific biologic substrate, and fecal proteomic investigations have been recently implemented [...] Read more.
Acute diarrhea is a very frequent condition affecting dogs; nevertheless, little is known about what happens in the GI tract during such conditions. Proteomics allows the study of proteins present in a specific biologic substrate, and fecal proteomic investigations have been recently implemented to study GI diseases in dogs. In the present study, the fecal protein profiles of eight dogs suffering from acute uncomplicated diarrhea at the time of inclusion was investigated for the first time, and then the same patients were followed, replicating two further evaluations at two subsequent time points (after 2 and 14 days from the first presentation), with the aim of gaining possible new insights regarding the pathologic changes in the gastrointestinal environment during such conditions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed, followed by mass spectrometry. Nine spots, corresponding to four (groups of) proteins (i.e., albumin, alkaline phosphatase, chymotrypsin-C-like, and some immunoglobulins), showed significant differences at two or more of the three time points investigated, almost all behaving similarly and decreasing at T1 (2 days after the onset of the condition) and significantly increasing at T2 (14 days after the onset), mainly evidencing a reaction of the organism. Further studies including a greater number of patients and possibly different techniques are needed to confirm the present findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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9 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Clinicopathological Data, the Specific Feline Pancreatic Lipase Assay, and Abdominal Ultrasound as Severity Determinants in Cats with Pancreatitis
by Christy Buckley, Alison M. Lee, Robert W. Wills, Alyssa M. Sullivant and Harry Cridge
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030209 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
Limited data exist to predict the severity of pancreatitis in cats. In this retrospective case series, we reviewed the medical records of 45 cats with SP from June 2014 to June 2019. Case definition was based on an internist’s review of clinopathologic data, [...] Read more.
Limited data exist to predict the severity of pancreatitis in cats. In this retrospective case series, we reviewed the medical records of 45 cats with SP from June 2014 to June 2019. Case definition was based on an internist’s review of clinopathologic data, Spec fPL concentration, and AUS findings. Information extracted from the medical records included signalment, history, physical examination findings, selected clinicopathological data (total bilirubin, glucose, ALP, ALT, and total calcium), Spec fPL concentration, AUS images/clips, length of hospitalization, and survival data. Hazard ratios were used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological data, the Spec fPL assay, AUS findings, and the length of hospitalization. Clinicopathological abnormalities, the Spec fPL, and AUS abnormalities were not statistically associated with the length of hospitalization. Despite a lack of statistical significance, the hazard ratios suggest the potential that an elevated total bilirubin (hazard ratio (HR): 1.19), hypocalcemia (HR: 1.49), and an elevated Spec fPL concentration (HR: 1.54) could be associated with prolonged hospitalization, although additional studies would be needed to verify this. Additionally, hazard ratios suggest that AUS evidence of concurrent gallbladder (HR: 1.61) and gastric abnormalities (HR: 1.36) could be associated with prolonged hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
12 pages, 1147 KiB  
Article
Changes in Faecal and Plasma Amino Acid Profile in Dogs with Food-Responsive Enteropathy as Indicators of Gut Homeostasis Disruption: A Pilot Study
by Cristina Higueras, Rosa Escudero, Almudena Rebolé, Mercedes García-Sancho, Fernando Rodríguez-Franco, Ángel Sainz and Ana I. Rey
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020112 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Dogs suffering from food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) respond to an elimination diet based on hydrolysed protein or novel protein; however, studies regarding the amino acid profile in FRE dogs are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the plasma and [...] Read more.
Dogs suffering from food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) respond to an elimination diet based on hydrolysed protein or novel protein; however, studies regarding the amino acid profile in FRE dogs are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the plasma and faecal amino acid profiles differed between control and FRE dogs and whether these could serve as indicators of severity of illness. Blood, faecal samples, body condition score, and severity of clinical signs based on the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index were collected before starting the elimination diet. FRE dogs had lower proportions of plasma Asparagine, Histidine, Glycine, Cystine, Leucine, and branched-chain/aromatic amino acids; however, Phenylalanine increased. In faecal samples, Cystine was greater whereas Phenylalanine was lesser in sick dogs compared to control. Leucine correlated negatively with faecal humidity (r = −0.66), and Leucine and Phenylalanine with faecal fat (r = −0.57 and r = −0.62, respectively). Faecal Phenylalanine (r = 0.80), Isoleucine (r = 0.75), and Leucine (r = 0.92) also correlated positively with total short-chain fatty acids, whereas a negative correlation was found with Glycine (r = −0.85) and Cystine (r = −0.61). This study demonstrates the importance of Leucine and Phenylalanine amino acids as indicators of the disease severity in FRE dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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18 pages, 4784 KiB  
Article
Synbiotic-IgY Therapy Modulates the Mucosal Microbiome and Inflammatory Indices in Dogs with Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
by Dipak Kumar Sahoo, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Valerie Parker, Adam Joseph Rudinsky, Jenessa A. Winston, Agnes Bourgois-Mochel, Mark Ackermann, Romy M. Heilmann, Gabor Köller, Lingnan Yuan, Tracey Stewart, Shannon Morgan, Kaitlyn R Scheunemann, Chelsea A. Iennarella-Servantez, Vojtech Gabriel, Christopher Zdyrski, Rachel Pilla, Jan S Suchodolski and Albert E. Jergens
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010025 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CE) is a common cause of persistent gastrointestinal signs and intestinal inflammation in dogs. Since evidence links dysbiosis to mucosal inflammation, probiotics, prebiotics, or their combination (synbiotics) may reduce intestinal inflammation and ameliorate dysbiosis in affected dogs. This study’s aim [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CE) is a common cause of persistent gastrointestinal signs and intestinal inflammation in dogs. Since evidence links dysbiosis to mucosal inflammation, probiotics, prebiotics, or their combination (synbiotics) may reduce intestinal inflammation and ameliorate dysbiosis in affected dogs. This study’s aim was to investigate the effects of the synbiotic-IgY supplement on clinical signs, inflammatory indices, and mucosal microbiota in dogs with CE. Dogs with CE were enrolled in a randomized prospective trial. Twenty-four client-owned dogs were fed a hydrolyzed diet and administered supplement or placebo (diet) for 6 weeks. Dogs were evaluated at diagnosis and 2- and 6-week post-treatment. Outcome measures included clinical activity, endoscopic and histologic scores, inflammatory markers (fecal calprotectin, C-reactive protein), and composition of the mucosal microbiota via FISH. Eleven supplement- and nine placebo-treated dogs completed the trial. After 6 weeks of therapy, clinical activity and endoscopic scores decreased in both groups. Compared to placebo-treated dogs, dogs administered supplement showed decreased calprotectin at 2-week post-treatment, decreased CRP at 2- and 6-week post-treatment increased mucosal Clostridia and Bacteroides and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in colonic biopsies at trial completion. Results suggest a beneficial effect of diet and supplements on host responses and mucosal microbiota in dogs with CE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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Review

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40 pages, 2703 KiB  
Review
Collaborative Metabolism: Gut Microbes Play a Key Role in Canine and Feline Bile Acid Metabolism
by John C. Rowe and Jenessa A. Winston
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11020094 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Bile acids, produced by the liver and secreted into the gastrointestinal tract, are dynamic molecules capable of impacting the overall health of dogs and cats in many contexts. Importantly, the gut microbiota metabolizes host primary bile acids into chemically distinct secondary bile acids. [...] Read more.
Bile acids, produced by the liver and secreted into the gastrointestinal tract, are dynamic molecules capable of impacting the overall health of dogs and cats in many contexts. Importantly, the gut microbiota metabolizes host primary bile acids into chemically distinct secondary bile acids. This review explores the emergence of new literature connecting microbial-derived bile acid metabolism to canine and feline health and disease. Moreover, this review highlights multi-omic methodologies for translational research as an area for continued growth in veterinary medicine aimed at accelerating microbiome science and medicine as it pertains to bile acid metabolism in dogs and cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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20 pages, 3537 KiB  
Review
Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Dogs and Cats: Classification, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
by Alexandros O. Konstantinidis, Michail N. Patsikas, Lysimachos G. Papazoglou and Katerina K. Adamama-Moraitou
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020160 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8430
Abstract
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are abnormal vascular communications between the portal and the systemic circulation, bypassing the hepatic parenchyma and resulting in liver hypoplasia and hepatic insufficiency. Such connections develop in utero and persist postnatally. CPSS are among the two most common congenital [...] Read more.
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are abnormal vascular communications between the portal and the systemic circulation, bypassing the hepatic parenchyma and resulting in liver hypoplasia and hepatic insufficiency. Such connections develop in utero and persist postnatally. CPSS are among the two most common congenital vascular anomalies of the liver in small animals, along with primary hypoplasia of the portal vein without portal hypertension (PHPV without PH). CPSS can be extrahepatic (ECPSS), most commonly diagnosed in small and toy breed dogs and cats, or intrahepatic (ICPSS), most commonly seen in large breed dogs. Single ECPSS is the most common type encountered in both dogs and cats. Clinical signs of CPSS are non-specific and may wax and wane, while laboratory findings can raise clinical suspicion for CPSS, but they are also not specific. Definitive diagnosis will be established by evaluation of liver function tests, such as determination of fasting plasma ammonia (FA) levels, and pre- and postprandial serum bile acids concentrations, and diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this article is to review the definition, classification, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of CPSS in dogs and cats, highlighted by the authors’ clinical experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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Other

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8 pages, 2138 KiB  
Case Report
Unusual Case of Biliary Peritonitis in a Dog Secondary to a Gastric Perforation
by Giovanni Pavone, Barbara Castellucci, Silvia Pavone, Valentina Stefanetti, Chiara Vitolo and Sara Mangiaterra
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10060384 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Biliary peritonitis is a pathological condition representing a medical emergency with a high risk of mortality. This condition is reported in both human and veterinary medicine following biliary tract rupture, extrahepatic biliary obstructions, gallbladder rupture, trauma, or duodenal perforation. In this report, the [...] Read more.
Biliary peritonitis is a pathological condition representing a medical emergency with a high risk of mortality. This condition is reported in both human and veterinary medicine following biliary tract rupture, extrahepatic biliary obstructions, gallbladder rupture, trauma, or duodenal perforation. In this report, the first-ever case of biliary peritonitis due to gastric perforation in a Bobtail purebred dog is described, which was probably induced by the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). After an elective splenectomy and castration, the dog was referred to our hospital for medical management for inappetence, mental depression, and multiple episodes of gastric vomits with traces of blood. Clinical diagnostic tests showed the presence of biliary peritonitis. Due to worsening clinical conditions, the patient was subjected to euthanasia. Macroscopic examination showed a free brownish abdominal effusion and the presence of perforating ulcer of the stomach pylorus region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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