Topic Editors

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China
School of Animal Science and Nutritional Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China

Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement

Abstract submission deadline
30 March 2025
Manuscript submission deadline
30 May 2025
Viewed by
13745

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Livestock health has always been the most important issue in animal production. The highly concentrated and intensive development of the livestock industry causes animals to suffer from various stresses and makes them more susceptible to diseases. At present, antibiotics are banned and restricted in animal feed globally, making livestock health problems more serious. Ensuring livestock health guarantees livestock productivity, product quality, and animal welfare. Several feeding and nutritional strategies, including, but not limited to, feed structure, nutrient composition, bio-active compounds, feeding mode, etc., aim to promote anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation capacities, regulate immune response, and enhance intestinal health to improve livestock health.

The goal of this Topic is to collect potential solutions for health improvement in livestock. Basic and practical studies investigating such solutions in livestock and animal models are welcome.

Dr. Hui Yan
Dr. Xiao Xu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • livestock health
  • nutrition
  • diseases
  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation
  • gut microbiota
  • immunity

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Antioxidants
antioxidants
7.0 8.8 2012 13.9 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Veterinary Sciences
vetsci
2.4 2.3 2014 19.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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19 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Effect of Simultaneous Dietary Supplementation of Betaine, Selenomethionine, and Vitamins E and C under Summer Conditions in Growing–Finishing Pigs
by Lotte De Prekel, Dominiek Maes, Alice Van den Broeke, Bart Ampe and Marijke Aluwé
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030110 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1857
Abstract
Heat stress in pigs negatively affects welfare, health, and performance. Osmoprotectants and antioxidants may alleviate oxidative damage during hot periods. We investigated whether an additive-enriched feed can reduce negative effects in pigs during summer conditions. Sixty growing–finishing pigs were allocated into two groups: [...] Read more.
Heat stress in pigs negatively affects welfare, health, and performance. Osmoprotectants and antioxidants may alleviate oxidative damage during hot periods. We investigated whether an additive-enriched feed can reduce negative effects in pigs during summer conditions. Sixty growing–finishing pigs were allocated into two groups: the control (CF) and summer feed (SF) group. The CF group contained 0.4 mg/kg inorganic selenium and 100 ppm vitamin E, while the SF group contained 0.3 mg/kg inorganic selenium, 0.1 mg/kg selenomethionine, 200 ppm vitamins E and C, and 0.2% betaine. Feed was offered ad libitum. Respiration rate, rectal and skin temperature, behaviour, and weight gain were assessed weekly. Daily measurements of these parameters were performed during a 3-day heat wave (temperature humidity index (THI) ≥ 75) and during an artificial heating period. Individual average daily water intake (ADWI) and feed intake were measured using RFID systems. The ADWI of the SF group did not change during heat load while it increased for the CF group. Independent of dietary treatment, increases in ∆THI or the THI were accompanied by significant increases in both respiration rate and skin temperature. In conclusion, the SF may induce a reduced need to increase ADWI during hot periods. In addition, mainly skin temperatures and especially respiration rates revealed the sensitivity of pigs to heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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13 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Influence of a Mixture of Protein Hydrolysate from Black Soldier Fly Larvae and Schizochytrium on Palatability, Plasma Biochemistry, and Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Capacity in Cat Diets
by You Li, Mingkang Liu, Yu Wei, Luyang Li, Deying Ma, Yuxiao Weng, Haifeng Wang and Xiao Xu
Animals 2024, 14(5), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14050751 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate palatability, plasma biochemistry, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity, and immune levels in cats by feeding supplementing inclusion of different levels of a mixture of protein hydrolysate from black soldier fly larvae and schizochytrium (BSFPs) in diets. [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate palatability, plasma biochemistry, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity, and immune levels in cats by feeding supplementing inclusion of different levels of a mixture of protein hydrolysate from black soldier fly larvae and schizochytrium (BSFPs) in diets. In the feed experiment, a total of 24 adult cats (12 females and 12 males; BW: 3.02 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) diet with chicken and fish meal as primary protein resource (CON); (2) diet with 5% BSFPs replacing chicken meal, fish meal, chicken oil, and fish oil (5% BSFPs); (3) 10% BSFPs; and (4) 15% BSFPs. The body weight and feed intake were recorded, and a blood sample was collected for analysis. In the palatability experiment, three diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% BSFPs were evaluated by comparing with CON. These results suggested that different levels of BSFPs could improve palatability in cat diets by enhancing the first sniff, the first bite, and feed intake (p < 0.05). However, no significant influence existed in body weight and average daily feed intake (p > 0.05). In comparison to the CON group, 5% and 15% BSFPs significantly increased the total protein content, and all treatment groups decreased the triglyceride content and enhanced the calcium concentration in plasma; in addition, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the content of creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly reduced by the supplementation inclusion of BSFPs in the diets (p < 0.05). The enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase was dramatically enhanced by the supplementation of 10% and 15% BSFPs in diets compared with the CON diet, and the activity of superoxide dismutase was increased and the malondialdehyde concentration was remarkably reduced in all three treatments (p < 0.05). Compared with the CON group, different levels of BSFPs in the diets significantly increased the immunoglobulin A content in plasma; similarly, the immunoglobulin G concentration was significantly enhanced by the supplementation of 10% and 15% BSFPs in the diets (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the interleukin-1β content was significantly reduced in the inclusion of 10% and 15% BSFPs in the diets, and 15% BSFPs remarkably decreased the content of interleukin-8 in plasma compared with the CON diet (p < 0.05). To sum up, the supplementation of different levels of BSFPs exhibited a positive effect on palatability and enhanced the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune capacity. Particularly, the addition levels of 10% and 15% BSFPs were more effective in antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
18 pages, 5042 KiB  
Article
Selenomethionine Supplementation Mitigates Liver Dysfunction, Oxidative Injury and Apoptosis through Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibiting JNK MAPK Pathway in Piglets Fed Deoxynivalenol-Contaminated Diets
by Haopeng Zhong, Zhouyin Huang, Lin Li, Xingping Chen, Tiande Zou, Jun Chen and Jinming You
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030295 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 744
Abstract
This research evaluated the impacts of selenomethionine (Se-Met) on hepatic functions, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis of piglets fed deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diets. Twenty-four piglets were allocated four dietary treatments (n = 6) in a 28-day feeding trial. The four treatments included the [...] Read more.
This research evaluated the impacts of selenomethionine (Se-Met) on hepatic functions, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis of piglets fed deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diets. Twenty-four piglets were allocated four dietary treatments (n = 6) in a 28-day feeding trial. The four treatments included the control group, which received 0.3 mg/kg of Se (as Se-Met) without DON treatment, and the DON treatment groups received 0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg Se as Se-Met. A dietary addition of 0.5 mg/kg Se improved liver pathology and reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in piglets fed DON-contaminated diets. Furthermore, 0.5 mg/kg Se mitigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis of piglets fed DON-contaminated diets, as indicated by the decreased reactive oxygen species level, and the down-regulated mRNA levels of NRF-1, Bax, and CASP9 in the liver. Importantly, 0.5 mg/kg Se enhanced the hepatic antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by increased hepatic total antioxidant capacity, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total superoxide dismutase activities, as well as the up-regulated mRNA levels of Nrf2, Gclm, NQO1, SOD1, and GPX1 in the liver. Moreover, 0.5 mg/kg Se down-regulated the p-JNK protein level in the liver of piglets fed DON-contaminated diets. Collectively, Se-Met supplementation mitigated liver dysfunction, oxidative injury, and apoptosis through enhancing antioxidant capacity and inhibiting the JNK MAPK pathway in piglets fed DON-contaminated diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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23 pages, 5298 KiB  
Article
Intrauterine Growth Restriction Affects Colonic Barrier Function via Regulating the Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4-NF-κB/ERK Pathways and Altering Colonic Microbiome and Metabolome Homeostasis in Growing–Finishing Pigs
by Liang Xiong, Md. Abul Kalam Azad, Yang Liu, Wanghong Zhang, Qian Zhu, Chengjun Hu, Jinming You and Xiangfeng Kong
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030283 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pigs are characterized by long-term growth failure, metabolic disorders, and intestinal microbiota imbalance. The characteristics of the negative effects of IUGR at different growth stages of pigs are still unclear. Therefore, this study explored through multi-omics analyses whether the [...] Read more.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pigs are characterized by long-term growth failure, metabolic disorders, and intestinal microbiota imbalance. The characteristics of the negative effects of IUGR at different growth stages of pigs are still unclear. Therefore, this study explored through multi-omics analyses whether the IUGR damages the intestinal barrier function and alters the colonization and metabolic profiles of the colonic microbiota in growing-finishing pigs. Seventy-two piglets (36 IUGR and 36 NBW) were allocated for this trial to analyze physiological and plasma biochemical parameters, as well as oxidative damage and inflammatory response in the colon. Moreover, the colonic microbiota communities and metabolome were examined using 16s rRNA sequencing and metabolomics technologies to reveal the intestinal characteristics of IUGR pigs at different growth stages (25, 50, and 100 kg). IUGR altered the concentrations of plasma glucose, total protein, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Colonic tight junction proteins were markedly inhibited by IUGR. IUGR decreased plasma T-AOC, SOD, and GSH levels and colonic SOD-1, SOD-2, and GPX-4 expressions by restraining the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway. Moreover, IUGR increased colonic IL-1β and TNF-α levels while reducing IL-10, possibly through activating the TLR4-NF-κB/ERK pathway. Notably, IUGR pigs had lower colonic Streptococcus abundance and Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio at the 25 kg BW stage while having higher Firmicutes abundance at the 100 kg BW stage; moreover, IUGR pigs had lower SCFA concentrations. Metabolomics analysis showed that IUGR increased colonic lipids and lipid-like molecules, organic acids and derivatives, and organoheterocyclic compounds concentrations and enriched three differential metabolic pathways, including linoleic acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolisms throughout the trial. Collectively, IUGR altered the nutrient metabolism, redox status, and colonic microbiota community and metabolite profiles of pigs and continued to disrupt colonic barrier function by reducing antioxidant capacity via the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway and activating inflammation via the TLR4-NF-κB/ERK pathway during the growing-finishing stage. Moreover, colonic Firmicutes and Streptococcus could be potential regulatory targets for modulating the metabolism and health of IUGR pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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14 pages, 3307 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus johnsonii Improves Intestinal Barrier Function and Reduces Post-Weaning Diarrhea in Piglets: Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System
by Zhangzheng Yin, Kaijun Wang, Yun Liu, Yunxia Li, Fang He, Jie Yin and Wenjie Tang
Animals 2024, 14(3), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14030493 - 02 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Probiotic intervention is a well-established approach for replacing antibiotics in the management of weaning piglet diarrhea, which involves a large number of complex systems interacting with the gut microbiota, including the endocannabinoid system; nevertheless, the specific role of the endocannabinoid system mediated by [...] Read more.
Probiotic intervention is a well-established approach for replacing antibiotics in the management of weaning piglet diarrhea, which involves a large number of complex systems interacting with the gut microbiota, including the endocannabinoid system; nevertheless, the specific role of the endocannabinoid system mediated by probiotics in the piglet intestine has rarely been studied. In this study, we used antibiotics (ampicillin) to perturb the intestinal microbiota of piglets. This resulted in that the gene expression of the intestinal endocannabinoid system was reprogrammed and the abundance of probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii in the colon was lowered. Moreover, the abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii was positively correlated with colonic endocannabinoid system components (chiefly diacylglycerol lipase beta) via correlation analysis. Subsequently, we administered another batch of piglets with Lactobacillus johnsonii. Interestingly, dietary Lactobacillus johnsonii effectively alleviated the diarrhea ratio in weaning piglets, accompanied by improvements in intestinal development and motility. Notably, Lactobacillus johnsonii administration enhanced the intestinal barrier function of piglets as evidenced by a higher expression of tight junction protein ZO-1, which might be associated with the increased level in colonic diacylglycerol lipase beta. Taken together, the dietary Lactobacillus johnsonii-mediated reprogramming of the endocannabinoid system might function as a promising target for improving the intestinal health of piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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18 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Tannic Acid Promotes Performance of Beef Cattle via Alleviating Liver Lipid Peroxidation and Improving Glucose Metabolism and Rumen Fermentation
by Tengfei He, Guang Yi, Jiangong Li, Zhenlong Wu, Yao Guo, Fang Sun, Jijun Liu, Chunjuan Tang, Shenfei Long and Zhaohui Chen
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091774 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary tannic acid (TAN) on the gas production, growth performance, antioxidant capacity, rumen microflora, and fermentation function of beef cattle through in vitro and in vivo experiments. TAN was evaluated at 0.15% (dry matter basis, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary tannic acid (TAN) on the gas production, growth performance, antioxidant capacity, rumen microflora, and fermentation function of beef cattle through in vitro and in vivo experiments. TAN was evaluated at 0.15% (dry matter basis, DM) in the in vitro experiment and 0.20% (DM basis) in the animal feeding experiment. The in vitro results revealed that compared with control (CON, basal diet without TAN), the addition of TAN significantly increased the cumulative gas production and asymptotic gas production per 0.20 g dry matter substrate (p < 0.01), with a tendency to reduce methane concentration after 96 h of fermentation (p = 0.10). Furthermore, TAN supplementation significantly suppressed the relative abundance of Methanosphaera and Methanobacteriaceae in the fermentation fluid (LDA > 2.50, p < 0.05). The in vivo experiment showed that compared with CON, the dietary TAN significantly improved average daily gain (+0.15 kg/d), dressing percent (+1.30%), net meat percentage (+1.60%), and serum glucose concentration (+23.35%) of beef cattle (p < 0.05), while it also significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde contents by 25.69% (p = 0.02). Moreover, the TAN group showed significantly higher alpha diversity (p < 0.05) and increased relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Saccharomonas (LDA > 2.50, p < 0.05), while the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae in rumen microbial community was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) as compared to that of the CON group. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of TAN could improve the growth and slaughter performance and health status of beef cattle, and these favorable effects might be attributed to its ability to alleviate liver lipid peroxidation, enhance glucose metabolism, and promote a balanced rumen microbiota for optimal fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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11 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Proportions of Amaranthus hypochondriacus Stem and Leaf Powder Inclusions on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Broilers
by Ying Ren, Lingyu Liu, Shilong Zhou, Yantao Li, Yan Wang, Kang Yang, Wenxun Chen and Shengjun Zhao
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182818 - 05 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
This experiment aimed to study the effects of different proportions of Amaranthus hypochondriacus stem and leaf powder (AHSL) on the growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, meat quality, and blood biochemical parameters of broilers from day 1 to day 42. The experiment [...] Read more.
This experiment aimed to study the effects of different proportions of Amaranthus hypochondriacus stem and leaf powder (AHSL) on the growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, meat quality, and blood biochemical parameters of broilers from day 1 to day 42. The experiment utilized a single-factor experimental design, with a total of 216 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups (eight replicate cages of nine birds per cage). The dietary treatments included a control diet, a 3% AHSL diet and a 6% AHSL diet for days 0–21. Then, the 3% and 6% AHSL diets were changed to 5% and 10% AHSL for days 22–42. The results showed that the inclusion levels of AHSL did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, or meat quality on days 21 and 42 (p > 0.05). However, the inclusion levels of AHSL decreased the apparent nutrient digestibility (AND) of dry matter (DM) (p ˂ 0.001) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p ˂ 0.001) and increased the serum concentration of phosphorus (p ˂ 0.001) on day 21. On day 42, the inclusion levels of AHSL decreased the AND of DM (p = 0.025) and NDF content (p ˂ 0.001), but increased the AND of crude protein (CP) (p = 0.004). In particular, the diet containing 10% AHSL significantly increased the serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p = 0.046) and the serum concentration of total protein (TP) (p ˂ 0.001) on day 42. Overall, AHSL can be used as a new and effective feed ingredient in broiler diets. It can replace part of the corn–soybean meal diet without any adverse effects, which is beneficial for conserving feed resources. Additionally, AHSL can be included at a level of up to 10% during the broiler growth period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
16 pages, 2162 KiB  
Review
Research Progress of Biological Feed in Beef Cattle
by Longteng Ma, Lifen Wang, Zixi Zhang and Dingfu Xiao
Animals 2023, 13(16), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13162662 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Biological feed is a feed product developed through bioengineering technologies such as fermentation engineering, enzyme engineering, protein engineering, and genetic engineering. It possesses functional characteristics of high nutritional value and good palatability that can improve feed utilization, replace antibiotics, enhance the health level [...] Read more.
Biological feed is a feed product developed through bioengineering technologies such as fermentation engineering, enzyme engineering, protein engineering, and genetic engineering. It possesses functional characteristics of high nutritional value and good palatability that can improve feed utilization, replace antibiotics, enhance the health level of livestock and poultry, improve the quality of livestock products, and promote a better breeding environment. A comprehensive review is provided on the types of biological feed, their mechanism of action, fermenting strains, fermenting raw material resources, and their current status in animal production to facilitate in-depth research and development of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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19 pages, 6170 KiB  
Article
Heating Drinking Water in Cold Season Improves Growth Performance via Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity and Rumen Fermentation Function of Beef Cattle
by Tengfei He, Shenfei Long, Guang Yi, Xilin Wang, Jiangong Li, Zhenlong Wu, Yao Guo, Fang Sun, Jijun Liu and Zhaohui Chen
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081492 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
The research aimed to investigate the suitable drinking water temperature in winter and its effect on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and rumen fermentation function of beef cattle. A total of 40 beef cattle (640 ± 19.2 kg) were randomly divided into five [...] Read more.
The research aimed to investigate the suitable drinking water temperature in winter and its effect on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and rumen fermentation function of beef cattle. A total of 40 beef cattle (640 ± 19.2 kg) were randomly divided into five treatments with eight cattle in each treatment raised in one pen according to initial body weight. Each treatment differed only in the temperature of drinking water, including the room-temperature water and four different heat water groups named RTW, HW_1, HW_2, HW_3, and HW_4. The measured water temperatures were 4.39 ± 2.546 °C, 10.6 ± 1.29 °C, 18.6 ± 1.52 °C, 26.3 ± 1.70 °C, and 32.5 ± 2.62 °C, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG) showed a significant linear increase during d 0 to 60 and a quadratic increase during d 31 to 60 with rising water temperature (p < 0.05), and the highest ADG of 1.1911 kg/d was calculated at a water temperature of 23.98 °C (R2 = 0.898). The average rectal temperature on d 30 (p = 0.01) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing water temperature. Additionally, HW_2 reduced serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and malondialdehyde (p < 0.05), and increased serum total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05) compared with RTW. Compared with HW_2, RTW had unfavorable effects on ruminal propionate, total volatile fatty acids, and cellulase concentrations (p < 0.05), and lower relative mRNA expression levels of claudin-4 (p < 0.01), occludin (p = 0.02), and zonula occludens-1 (p = 0.01) in the ruminal epithelium. Furthermore, RTW had a higher abundance of Prevotella (p = 0.04), Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 (p = 0.03), and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-004 (p = 0.03), and a lower abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae (p < 0.01) and Marinilabiliaceae (p = 0.05) in rumen compared to HW_2. Taken together, heated drinking water in cold climates could positively impact the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, and rumen fermentation function of beef cattle. The optimal water temperature for maximizing ADG was calculated to be 23.98 °C under our conditions. Ruminal propionate and its producing bacteria including Prevotella, Succinivibrionaceae, and Lachnospiraceae might be important regulators of rumen fermentation of beef cattle drinking RTW under cold conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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17 pages, 1291 KiB  
Review
Pros and Cons of Dietary Vitamin A and Its Precursors in Poultry Health and Production: A Comprehensive Review
by Rifat Ullah Khan, Aamir Khan, Shabana Naz, Qudrat Ullah, Nikola Puvača, Vito Laudadio, Domenico Mazzei, Alireza Seidavi, Tugay Ayasan and Vincenzo Tufarelli
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051131 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained through diet. Despite being one of the earliest vitamins identified, a complete range of biological actions is still unknown. Carotenoids are a category of roughly 600 [...] Read more.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained through diet. Despite being one of the earliest vitamins identified, a complete range of biological actions is still unknown. Carotenoids are a category of roughly 600 chemicals that are structurally related to vitamin A. Vitamin A can be present in the body in the form of retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. Vitamins are required in minute amounts, yet they are critical for health, maintenance, and performing key biological functions in the body, such as growth, embryo development, epithelial cell differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin A deficiency induces a variety of problems, including lack of appetite, decreased development and immunity, and susceptibility to many diseases. Dietary preformed vitamin A, provitamin A, and several classes of carotenoids can be used to meet vitamin A requirements. The aim of this review is to compile the available scientific literature regarding the sources and important functions, such as growth, immunity, antioxidant, and other biological activities of vitamin A in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Feeding Livestock for Health Improvement)
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