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Logistics, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 33 articles

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30 pages, 3539 KiB  
Article
Designing an Intelligent Scoring System for Crediting Manufacturers and Importers of Goods in Industry 4.0
by Mohsin Ali, Abdul Razaque, Joon Yoo, Uskenbayeva Raissa Kabievna, Aiman Moldagulova, Satybaldiyeva Ryskhan, Kalpeyeva Zhuldyz and Aizhan Kassymova
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010033 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Background: The modern credit card system is critical, but it has not been fully examined to meet the unique financial needs of a constantly changing number of manufacturers and importers. Methods: An intelligent credit card system integrates the features of artificial [...] Read more.
Background: The modern credit card system is critical, but it has not been fully examined to meet the unique financial needs of a constantly changing number of manufacturers and importers. Methods: An intelligent credit card system integrates the features of artificial intelligence and blockchain technology. The decentralized and unchangeable ledger of the Blockchain technology significantly reduces the risk of fraud while maintaining real-time transaction recording. On the other hand, the capabilities of AI-driven credit assessment algorithms enable more precise, effective, and customized credit choices that are specifically tailored to meet the unique financial profiles of manufacturers and importers. Results: Several metrics, including predictive credit risk, fraud detection, credit assessment accuracy, default rate comparison, loan approval rate comparison, and other important metrics affecting the credit card system, have been investigated to determine the effectiveness of modern credit card systems when using Blockchain technology and AI. Conclusion: The study of developing an intelligent scoring system for crediting manufacturers and importers of goods in Industry 4.0 can be enhanced by incorporating user adoption. The changing legislation and increasing security threats necessitate ongoing monitoring. Scalability difficulties can be handled by detailed planning that focuses on integration, data migration, and change management. The research may potentially increase operational efficiency in the manufacturing and importing industries. Full article
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21 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Modelling a Logistics and Financial Supply Chain Network during the COVID-19 Era
by Sina Abbasi, Ilias Vlachos, Ali Samadzadeh, Shayan Etemadifar, Mohamad Afshar and Mohsen Amra
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010032 - 19 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Background: Supply chain networks (SCNs) have been interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, leaving them open to financial losses. SCs have been impacted by the pandemic, necessitating the adoption of sustainable practices and dynamic capacities to ensure resilience and performance. Several studies have [...] Read more.
Background: Supply chain networks (SCNs) have been interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, leaving them open to financial losses. SCs have been impacted by the pandemic, necessitating the adoption of sustainable practices and dynamic capacities to ensure resilience and performance. Several studies have focused on this subject, offering insights into the importance of sustainable supply-chain management, corporate governance, big data management activities, and digital technology in minimising the consequences of the pandemic and fostering sustainability. Methods: This study suggests an analytical framework for assessing environmentally friendly procedures and dynamic capacities to assure performance in a disruptive environment. Results: The following are some of the important details and contributions in this article: (1) developed a conceptual framework for assessing dynamic capacities and sustainable behaviours considering COVID-19, (2) concentrates on financial ratios during COVID-19, and (3) established drivers for sustainable practices and competencies during disruption and unpredictable business settings. Conclusions: The suggested model can assist practitioners in creating and implementing sustainable supply chain (SC) activities and tracking and assessing their effects on the sustainability of businesses. So, the proposed model can assist managers in creating and implementing sustainable supply-chain activities and tracking and analysing their effects on the sustainability of businesses. Full article
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22 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Crash Protection Performance of a Medical Carrier Bag for Drone Transport
by Fraser McLeod, Tom Cherrett, Andy Oakey, Katherine Theobald, Tim Waters, Matt Grote, John Armstrong, Jack Denny and Alex Murray
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010031 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Background: Drone transport regulations in Europe require a crash-protected container (CPC) to be used for the carriage of dangerous goods. With increasing interest in the use of drones for medical logistics, the motivation behind this research was to investigate whether the existing approved [...] Read more.
Background: Drone transport regulations in Europe require a crash-protected container (CPC) to be used for the carriage of dangerous goods. With increasing interest in the use of drones for medical logistics, the motivation behind this research was to investigate whether the existing approved medical carriers could also pass as CPCs. To date, there has been little practical experimentation on or theoretical research into the crash protection performance of medical containers. Methods: Addressing this gap, this paper reports findings from a series of drop test experiments to investigate the crashworthiness of a standard medical carrier bag used by the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. Th drop tests were performed from heights of up to 122 m using standard medical carriers containing bags of dyed saline to examine the robustness of the carrier and whether it could contain any leakages, a key requirement for transporting dangerous goods. Results: The tests found that the medical carrier failed on some drops, with the zipped lid being identified as the main weakness. Conclusions: A new understanding of the carrier’s terminal velocity, impact acceleration, and failure mechanisms were gained and subsequent strengthening and waterproofing remedial measures recommended. New insights and practical recommendations are provided relating to performing formal drop tests and how to conduct these using a drone. Full article
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21 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Implementation Challenges of the Electronic Freight Transport Information (eFTI) Regulation: An Empirical Perspective from Greece
by Thomas K. Dasaklis, Evangelia Kopanaki, Panos T. Chountalas, Nikolaos P. Rachaniotis, Theodore G. Voutsinas, Kyriakos Giannakis and Gregory Chondrokoukis
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010030 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Background: The electronic Freight Transport Information (eFTI) regulation is critical in modernizing freight transport (FT) within the European Union by establishing a framework for the electronic exchange of information. Despite its importance, there is a notable gap in the literature regarding the [...] Read more.
Background: The electronic Freight Transport Information (eFTI) regulation is critical in modernizing freight transport (FT) within the European Union by establishing a framework for the electronic exchange of information. Despite its importance, there is a notable gap in the literature regarding the practical implementation challenges, especially from an empirical perspective. Methods: To address this gap, our study utilized a grounded theory approach, conducting interviews with a diverse group of logistics experts from Greece. The selection of experts was strategic to ensure a comprehensive range of knowledge and expertise, including insights at the policy level as well as practical experiences. Results: Our findings highlight several significant challenges in the implementation of eFTI, including the digital skill gap among the workforce, issues with system interoperability, and diverse capacities and resources of companies of different sizes. Economic factors, regulatory frameworks and the necessity for targeted training and leadership support were also identified as crucial for the digital transition. Conclusions: The study shows that uniform eFTI implementation may not work for all organizations, highlighting the necessity for customized strategies that address specific challenges in the FT chain. Our research deepens the understanding of these issues, providing actionable insights for successful eFTI adoption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Agile, Sustainable & Integrated: The Logistics of the Future)
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25 pages, 2427 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Objective Model for Designing a Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Logistics Network
by Mojtaba Arab Momeni, Vipul Jain and Mehdi Bagheri
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010029 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Background: The growing concern for environmental and social issues has led to a focus on designing sustainable supply chains and increasing industrial responsibility towards society. In this paper, a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model is presented for designing a sustainable closed-loop supply chain. [...] Read more.
Background: The growing concern for environmental and social issues has led to a focus on designing sustainable supply chains and increasing industrial responsibility towards society. In this paper, a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model is presented for designing a sustainable closed-loop supply chain. The model is aimed at the minimization of the total cost with the total used facilities, the negative environmental impacts, and the maximization of the positive social impacts. Methods: The epsilon-constraint method is utilized for solving the model and further extracting the Pareto solutions. Results: The result of the research clearly shows an optimal trade-off between the conflicting objectives, where, by paying more attention to the social and environmental aspects of sustainability, the total costs are increased or by optimizing the number of facilities, a better balance between the dynamics associated with the short-term and long-term goals is reached. The results of the sensitivity analysis also show that increasing the demand of the supply chain has the greatest impact on the supply chain costs compared to other objectives. Conclusions: Consequently, investigating such comprehensive sustainable objectives provides better insights into the impact of design variables on the expectations of stakeholders. Full article
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29 pages, 3045 KiB  
Review
Smart Ports in Industry 4.0: A Systematic Literature Review
by Antonios Paraskevas, Michael Madas, Vasileios Zeimpekis and Konstantinos Fouskas
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010028 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Background: Information and communication technologies (ICT) have introduced “smart” concepts across industries, including ports. Smart ports, leveraging IoT, cybersecurity, and cloud computing, are trending in maritime operations. They optimize data for informed decision-making, cutting costs, enhancing efficiency, mitigating risks, and fostering growth. [...] Read more.
Background: Information and communication technologies (ICT) have introduced “smart” concepts across industries, including ports. Smart ports, leveraging IoT, cybersecurity, and cloud computing, are trending in maritime operations. They optimize data for informed decision-making, cutting costs, enhancing efficiency, mitigating risks, and fostering growth. Methods: To consolidate knowledge in this area, we are conducting a systematic literature review and meta-analysis using the PRISMA framework. Our goal is to synthesize existing insights, minimize biases, increase reliability, and effectively communicate our findings. To address the research needs mentioned, the current study focuses on implementing a systematic literature review (SLR). Results: The goals of this review are: (i) to present and describe the main categories and themes within the research topic, and (ii) to identify research gaps that will aid future research. Key findings include the identification and classification of current literature trends in the smart port performance evaluation framework and the examination of fundamental themes discussed within this area of research. Conclusions: In our review, we emphasize the smart port concept, clarifying its common interpretations amid the industry 4.0 revolution. We discuss recent advancements in emerging technologies and identify key challenges driving researchers’ exploration of the evolving smart port landscape. Full article
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28 pages, 2105 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Challenges of Industry 4.0 Adoption in the FMCG Sector: Implications for Resilient Supply Chain in Emerging Economy
by Md Shihab Shakur, Maishat Lubaba, Binoy Debnath, A. B. M. Mainul Bari and M. Azizur Rahman
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010027 - 5 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Background: Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) supply chains are experiencing various challenges due to the interactions between consumers and decision-makers during physical distribution, manufacturing, wholesale and retail. One possible strategy to address these challenges for smoothing the supply chain (SC) and logistics operations is [...] Read more.
Background: Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) supply chains are experiencing various challenges due to the interactions between consumers and decision-makers during physical distribution, manufacturing, wholesale and retail. One possible strategy to address these challenges for smoothing the supply chain (SC) and logistics operations is to adopt Industry 4.0 (I4.0) based technologies in the FMCG business processes. In this regard, digitalization and automation of the FMCG supply chain can be strengthened by the alluring properties of I4.0 technologies. Methods: This study identified nine significant challenges through a literature review and expert validation. Later, the challenges were evaluated using a novel multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) framework, the Bayesian best worst method (BWM). Results: The findings indicated that “requirement for substantial investment and resources”, “incompatible technological infrastructure” and “poorly structured value chain” are the most significant challenges to implementing I4.0 in the FMCG industry. Conclusions: The study is expected to significantly contribute to improving the FMCG supply chain’s resilience, sustainability, visibility, traceability and responsiveness. Additionally, the research can provide industrial practitioners valuable insights into implementing I4.0 in FMCG and similar sectors and thus promote SC sustainability and resilience in those industries. Full article
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38 pages, 10153 KiB  
Article
A Closed Queueing Networks Approach for an Optimal Heterogeneous Fleet Size of an Inter-Facility Bulk Material Transfer System
by Mohamed Amjath, Laoucine Kerbache and James MacGregor Smith
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010026 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Background: This study addresses optimising fleet size in a system with a heterogeneous truck fleet, aiming to minimise transportation costs in interfacility material transfer operations. Methods: The material transfer process is modelled using a closed queueing network (CQN) that considers heterogeneous nodes and [...] Read more.
Background: This study addresses optimising fleet size in a system with a heterogeneous truck fleet, aiming to minimise transportation costs in interfacility material transfer operations. Methods: The material transfer process is modelled using a closed queueing network (CQN) that considers heterogeneous nodes and customised service times tailored to the unique characteristics of various truck types and their transported materials. The optimisation problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), falling into the NP-Hard, making exact solution computation challenging. A numerical approximation method, a modified sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method coupled with a mean value analysis (MVA) algorithm, is employed to overcome this challenge. Validation is conducted using a discrete event simulation (DES) model. Results: The proposed analytical model tested within a steel manufacturing plant’s material transfer process. The results showed that the analytical model achieved comparable optimisation of the heterogeneous truck fleet size with significantly reduced response times compared to the simulation method. Furthermore, evaluating performance metrics, encompassing response time, utilisation rate, and cycle time, revealed minimal discrepancies between the analytical and the simulation results, approximately ±8%, ±8%, and ±7%, respectively. Conclusions: These findings affirm the presented analytical approach’s robustness in optimising interfacility material transfer operations with heterogeneous truck fleets, demonstrating real-world applications. Full article
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16 pages, 2730 KiB  
Article
Leveraging the Potential of the African Continental Free Trade Area: Logistics Challenges and Development Paths for Future Value Chains in Africa
by Benjamin Nitsche, Henry Kofi Mensah, Frank Straube and Vianney Barigye
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010025 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Background: With a rapidly growing young population, the African continent provides a high but barely exploited economic potential. Creating an African free trade zone is one of the African Union’s major initiatives to increase prosperity. Even though the AfCFTA has already come [...] Read more.
Background: With a rapidly growing young population, the African continent provides a high but barely exploited economic potential. Creating an African free trade zone is one of the African Union’s major initiatives to increase prosperity. Even though the AfCFTA has already come into force, its potential has not yet been fully exploited. This study investigates the logistics challenges associated with the AfCFTA and potential solutions and development paths for future value chains. Methods: The study builds upon a two-stage research process. First, applying the Nominal Group Technique with a group of 19 industry experts, current challenges and strategies to deal with them are conducted, and statements about potential development paths emerging from the AfCFTA are synthesized. Second, a questionnaire among additional industry experts is done to assess the results of the first stage. Results: The article sheds light on the barely untapped field of logistics challenges hindering the AfCFTA to leverage its potential. Strategy fields to address current challenges are explained, and the first indications of how the AfCFTA will shape supply chains in the mid-term are outlined. Conclusions: The article underlines the importance of logistics in the development of pan-African value chains and highlights potential development paths that may arise in the medium term. It also emphasizes the growing need for cooperation between politics, business, and research to overcome current logistics challenges and leverage the potential of the AfCFTA. Full article
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22 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Critical Factors Affecting Trust in the Wine Supply Chain in Greece: A Grey DEMATEL Approach
by Eleni-Efthymia Psychogiou and Giannis T. Tsoulfas
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010024 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Background: Although trust is a well-studied topic in supply chain management, the case of the wine supply chain has not been adequately investigated. Methods: A hybrid approach combining qualitative and quantitative data analysis was adopted. The research was divided into two [...] Read more.
Background: Although trust is a well-studied topic in supply chain management, the case of the wine supply chain has not been adequately investigated. Methods: A hybrid approach combining qualitative and quantitative data analysis was adopted. The research was divided into two phases: (i) identification of critical factors based on the literature, and (ii) analysis of eight experts’ insights on those factors by employing the grey DEMATEL approach. Results: Fourteen factors that affect trust in the wine supply chain were identified based on the academic literature. From the analysis of the experts’ views, with the use of the grey DEMATEL approach, the factors were classified into two groups. The first group (nine factors) concerns the factors that affect the rest and the second group (five factors) concerns those which are affected by the former factors. Conclusions: The study of trust in the supply chain can be further improved by monitoring the trends in the sector and by engaging a wider audience of stakeholders. This approach can be applied to various regions in order to examine whether the situation is different from country to country. Stakeholders will have the necessary information to support their decisions and prioritize their objectives, aiming at improving the whole supply chain. Full article
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15 pages, 2586 KiB  
Article
Identifying Key Issues in Integration of Autonomous Ships in Container Ports: A Machine-Learning-Based Systematic Literature Review
by Enna Hirata and Annette Skovsted Hansen
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010023 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Background: Autonomous ships have the potential to increase operational efficiency and reduce carbon footprints through technology and innovation. However, there is no comprehensive literature review of all the different types of papers related to autonomous ships, especially with regard to their integration with [...] Read more.
Background: Autonomous ships have the potential to increase operational efficiency and reduce carbon footprints through technology and innovation. However, there is no comprehensive literature review of all the different types of papers related to autonomous ships, especially with regard to their integration with ports. This paper takes a systematic review approach to extract and summarize the main topics related to autonomous ships in the fields of container shipping and port management. Methods: A machine learning method is used to extract the main topics from more than 2000 journal publications indexed in WoS and Scopus. Results: The research findings highlight key issues related to technology, cybersecurity, data governance, regulations, and legal frameworks, providing a different perspective compared to human manual reviews of papers. Conclusions: Our search results confirm several recommendations. First, from a technological perspective, it is advised to increase support for the research and development of autonomous underwater vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles, establish safety standards, mandate testing of wave model evaluation systems, and promote international standardization. Second, from a cyber–physical systems perspective, efforts should be made to strengthen logistics and supply chains for autonomous ships, establish data governance protocols, enforce strict control over IoT device data, and strengthen cybersecurity measures. Third, from an environmental perspective, measures should be implemented to address the environmental impact of autonomous ships. This can be achieved by promoting international agreements from a global societal standpoint and clarifying the legal framework regarding liability in the event of accidents. Full article
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17 pages, 1462 KiB  
Article
Functional Model of Supply Chain Waste Reduction and Control Strategies for Retailers—The USA Retail Industry
by Victory Ikpe and Mohammad Shamsuddoha
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010022 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Background: The US retail sector grapples with persistent challenges related to supply chain waste, including inefficiencies, overstocking, and logistical barriers, necessitating targeted reduction strategies to mitigate escalating costs, environmental impacts, and diminished profitability. Methods: This study adopts a qualitative research method that [...] Read more.
Background: The US retail sector grapples with persistent challenges related to supply chain waste, including inefficiencies, overstocking, and logistical barriers, necessitating targeted reduction strategies to mitigate escalating costs, environmental impacts, and diminished profitability. Methods: This study adopts a qualitative research method that draws on secondary data sources such as books, journals, articles, and websites to explore supply chain waste reduction strategies within the US retail industry. The study delineates various supply chain waste types, examines associated challenges and drivers, and proposes a simplified model tailored to the US retail landscape to enhance efficiency and sustainability through waste reduction and control. Results: The findings of this paper underscore the necessity for proactive measures within the US retail sector to minimize supply chain waste, optimize operations, and bolster environmental stewardship. Conclusions: By offering a comprehensive overview actionable insights and proposed reverse logistics model, this study aims to equip US retailers with strategies conducive to sustainable growth and heightened competitiveness while advancing the broader discourse on supply chain efficiency and waste reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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36 pages, 1919 KiB  
Review
Digital Technology 4.0 on Halal Supply Chain: A Systematic Review
by Budi Harsanto, Joval Ifghaniyafi Farras, Egi Arvian Firmansyah, Mahir Pradana and Ardi Apriliadi
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010021 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Background: The halal supply chain is a focused type of supply chain that ensures halal products throughout the entire process, from upstream to downstream. This paper aims to identify the innovative digital technology 4.0 utilized within the halal supply chain and understand [...] Read more.
Background: The halal supply chain is a focused type of supply chain that ensures halal products throughout the entire process, from upstream to downstream. This paper aims to identify the innovative digital technology 4.0 utilized within the halal supply chain and understand its impact on firm performance, both financial and non-financial. Methods: A systematic review methodology was employed on the academic database of Scopus, resulting in 70 articles. We analyze the included articles with two main aspects that are of concern in this research, namely what technology is used in certain parts of the supply chain (procurement, manufacturing, distribution, and/or logistics), as well as the impact on firm performance (financial and/or non-financial); Results: Our findings reveal that the technologies widely used include blockchain technology, halal financial technology, and halal traceability system (RFID, IoT). Conclusions: Innovative digital technology has been implemented in the halal supply chain and has affected the firm’s performance both financially and non-financially. Future research is suggested to focus on investigations regarding holistic technology integration, quantitative analysis to measure the specific financial performance of firms adopting digital technologies, and the feasibility and importance of technology adoption for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the halal industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Digital Supply Chain 4.0 Transformation)
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19 pages, 539 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management on Circular Economy Performance: The Mediating Roles of Green Innovations
by Ayman Bahjat Abdallah, Wafaa Shihadeh Al-Ghwayeen, Esra’a M. Al-Amayreh and Rateb J. Sweis
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010020 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Background: This study investigated the impact of green supply chain management (GSCM) on circular economy (CE) performance. The mediating roles of three green innovation types, namely green product innovation, green process innovation, and green management innovation, are also examined. Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated the impact of green supply chain management (GSCM) on circular economy (CE) performance. The mediating roles of three green innovation types, namely green product innovation, green process innovation, and green management innovation, are also examined. Methods: This study’s population comprised all companies in the manufacturing sector in Jordan. A simple random method was applied to gather data from 278 companies. The research model was evaluated in terms of validity and reliability, which were found to be satisfactory. Hayes’s PROCESS macro in IBM SPSS was applied for hypothesis testing. Results: The findings showed that GSCM directly and positively affected CE performance. Moreover, GSCM showed positive impacts on the three types of green innovation. In addition, the three innovation types demonstrated positive impacts on CE performance and proved to positively mediate the GSCM–CE performance relationship. Conclusions: The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to examine the mediating effect of green innovations on the GSCM–CE performance relationship. It is also among the first to examine the impact of GSCM on three different types of green innovation that represent technological and non-technological innovations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability and Reverse Logistics)
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21 pages, 1724 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Strategic Supply Chain Challenges and Teaching Strategies
by Jérémie Katembo Kavota, Luc Cassivi and Pierre-Majorique Léger
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010019 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Background: This study provides a comprehensive overview of current supply chain challenges and how they are taught within university circles or among supply chain professionals to simulate reality. Methods: The study applied a systematic literature review, using bibliometric co-citation and concept-centered [...] Read more.
Background: This study provides a comprehensive overview of current supply chain challenges and how they are taught within university circles or among supply chain professionals to simulate reality. Methods: The study applied a systematic literature review, using bibliometric co-citation and concept-centered content analysis for a comprehensive review of 118 relevant articles, leading to the identification of critical challenges in modern supply chain management. Results: These challenges include supplier selection and quality, supply chain networks, and sustainable supply chains. Supply chain educators are encouraged to use games that mirror real-world scenarios to teach these challenges. Results from this review underscore that existing games covered supply chain concepts such as the bullwhip effect, collaboration, networks, supplier selection, quality management, humanitarian logistics, sustainability, lean supply chain, Supply Chain 4.0, and perishable goods supply. Conclusions: The study’s contribution is to assist in selecting games tailored to the supply chain specific aspects and to guide developers in creating realistic games that address recent challenges in supply chain management. It recommends a holistic approach to enhance new supply chain game development, drawing from methodologies such as problem-based learning and Lego Serious Play. This multifaceted approach imparts practical knowledge and comprehensive skills for addressing supply chain intricacies in modern business settings. Full article
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28 pages, 1648 KiB  
Article
The Existence and Uniqueness Conditions for Solving Neutrosophic Differential Equations and Its Consequence on Optimal Order Quantity Strategy
by Alaa Fouad Momena, Rakibul Haque, Mostafijur Rahaman, Soheil Salahshour and Sankar Prasad Mondal
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010018 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Background: Neutrosophic logic explicitly quantifies indeterminacy while also maintaining the independence of truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership functions. This characteristic assumes an imperative part in circumstances, where dealing with contradictory or insufficient data is a necessity. The exploration of differential equations within [...] Read more.
Background: Neutrosophic logic explicitly quantifies indeterminacy while also maintaining the independence of truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership functions. This characteristic assumes an imperative part in circumstances, where dealing with contradictory or insufficient data is a necessity. The exploration of differential equations within the context of uncertainty has emerged as an evolving area of research. Methods: the solvability conditions for the first-order linear neutrosophic differential equation are proposed in this study. This study also demonstrates both the existence and uniqueness of a solution to the neutrosophic differential equation, followed by a concise expression of the solution using generalized neutrosophic derivative. As an application of the first-order neutrosophic differential equation, we discussed an economic lot sizing model in a neutrosophic environment. Results: This study finds the conditions for the existing solution of a first-order neutrosophic differential equation. Through the numerical simulation, this study also finds that the neutrosophic differential equation approach is much better for handling uncertainty involved in inventory control problems. Conclusions: This article serves as an introductory exploration of differential equation principles and their application within a neutrosophic environment. This approach can be used in any operation research or decision-making scenarios to remove uncertainty and attain better outcomes. Full article
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25 pages, 1393 KiB  
Article
Key Factors Shaping Green Logistics in Thailand’s Auto Industry: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling
by Wuttichai Youngswaing, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Ekkapong Cheunkamon and Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010017 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Background: Environmental responsibility is a critical focus in business and production. International partners have urged Thai businesses to adhere to global standards in environmental and social accountability. Green logistics management focuses on minimizing costs and boosting competitive efficiency in the industrial sector, [...] Read more.
Background: Environmental responsibility is a critical focus in business and production. International partners have urged Thai businesses to adhere to global standards in environmental and social accountability. Green logistics management focuses on minimizing costs and boosting competitive efficiency in the industrial sector, while also promoting environmental protection. This study investigates the factors influencing green logistics in the motor vehicle industry. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection from 1638 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were employed to identify causal links impacting green logistics effectiveness. Results: Findings indicate that government and organizational environmental policies, a company’s financial ability to implement green initiatives, commitment to eco-friendly investment, and public environmental attitudes significantly and directly affect the efficiency of green logistics. Conclusions: This research provides valuable insights for car manufacturers into key factors in green logistics management. These insights can help in developing strategic plans to achieve environmental sustainability in the context of future market competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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23 pages, 1239 KiB  
Review
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Other Industry 4.0 Technologies in Spare Parts Warehousing in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Systematic Literature Review
by Natalia Khan, Wei Deng Solvang and Hao Yu
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010016 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Background: Spare parts warehousing in the oil and gas industry is essential for offshore production. With the introduction of Industry 4.0 and its subsequent technological tools, new functions are enabled in industrial logistics activities. Efficiency, visibility, optimization, and productivity are often mentioned as [...] Read more.
Background: Spare parts warehousing in the oil and gas industry is essential for offshore production. With the introduction of Industry 4.0 and its subsequent technological tools, new functions are enabled in industrial logistics activities. Efficiency, visibility, optimization, and productivity are often mentioned as benefits of successful Industry 4.0 technology implementation in logistics activities. In this paper, the implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) in spare parts warehousing in the oil and gas industry is studied. Method: 133 peer-reviewed journal publications indexed in Scopus and Web of Science are analyzed in a systematic literature review. The review is structured as frequency and content analysis. Aim: As there is limited research on this specific topic, the aim is for this paper to be a theoretical foundation that assists the industry with future solutions. Results: The list of benefits of implementation gathered from the literature is comprehensive. However, the list of challenges is particularly pertinent to the oil and gas industry and indicates a strong inclination towards limited and controlled implementation of some technologies. The safety demands of the industry mean there are many limitations to implementation currently. Conclusions: This paper reflects on the results, identifies research gaps, and gives proposals for future research. Full article
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20 pages, 873 KiB  
Review
Social Network Analysis: Applications and New Metrics for Supply Chain Management—A Literature Review
by Ana Isabel Bento, Carla Cruz, Gabriela Fernandes and Luís Miguel D. F. Ferreira
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010015 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Background: Supply chains, characterized by complexity and sensitivity, require continuous mapping to address challenges, particularly disruptions like the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, Social Network Analysis (SNA) has proven valuable in analyzing how actors in a network connect and create interdependencies. However, [...] Read more.
Background: Supply chains, characterized by complexity and sensitivity, require continuous mapping to address challenges, particularly disruptions like the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, Social Network Analysis (SNA) has proven valuable in analyzing how actors in a network connect and create interdependencies. However, some studies suggest that the SNA literature needs to embrace new fields of application and develop innovative metrics. Methods: The aim of this study is to clarify the role and contribution of SNA when characterizing and understanding the challenges of contemporary supply chains. A literature review was conducted to achieve this. Results: The results reveal that SNA has been applied in a wide variety of areas (e.g., manufacturing and construction sectors), with an emerging application in the tertiary sector. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that metrics related to the network and to nodes have been used repeatedly, highlighting the need for new supply-chain-related metrics, such as the novel concept of semi-directedness. Conclusions: Despite the versatility of SNA, some aspects may limit its application to supply chain management, including shortcomings in data acquisition and the fact that SNA only allows for the visualization of network configurations, thus preventing the capture of nuances that characterize the relationships between the actors involved. Full article
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26 pages, 4283 KiB  
Article
A Bayesian Optimization Approach for Tuning a Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Solving Practically Oriented Pickup and Delivery Problems
by Cornelius Rüther and Julia Rieck
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010014 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Background: The Multi Depot Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and Heterogeneous Vehicle Fleets (MDPDPTWHV) is a strongly practically oriented routing problem with many real-world constraints. Due to its complexity, solution approaches with sufficiently good quality ideally contain several operators with [...] Read more.
Background: The Multi Depot Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and Heterogeneous Vehicle Fleets (MDPDPTWHV) is a strongly practically oriented routing problem with many real-world constraints. Due to its complexity, solution approaches with sufficiently good quality ideally contain several operators with certain probabilities.Thus, automatically selecting the best parameter configurations enhances the overall solution quality. Methods: To solve the MDPDPTWHV, we present a Grouping Genetic Algorithm (GGA) framework with several operators and population management variants. A Bayesian Optimization (BO) approach is introduced to optimize the GGA’s parameter configuration. The parameter tuning is evaluated on five data sets which differ in several structural characteristics and contain 1200 problem instances. The outcomes of the parameter-tuned GGA are compared to both the initial GGA parameter configuration and a state-of-the-art Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS). Results: The presented GGA framework achieves a better solution quality than the ALNS, even for the initial parameter configuration used. The mean value of the relative error is less than 0.9% and its standard deviation is less than 1.31% for every problem class. For the ALNS, these values are up to three times higher and the GGA is up to 38% faster than the ALNS. Conclusions: It is shown that the BO, as a parameter tuning approach, is a good choice in improving the performance of the considered meta-heuristic over all instances in each data set. In addition, the best parameter configuration per problem class with the same characteristics is able to improve both the frequency of finding the best solution, as well as the relative error to this solution, significantly. Full article
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15 pages, 3151 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Impact of Completion Time and Perceived Workload in Pickers-to-Parts Order-Picking Technologies: Evidence from Laboratory Experiments
by Nikolaos Chondromatidis, Anastasios Gialos, Vasileios Zeimpekis and Michael Madas
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010013 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Background: Despite the general impression that digital order-picking supportive technologies can manage a series of emerging challenges, there is still a very limited amount of research concerning the implementation and evaluation of such technologies in manual picker-to-goods order-picking systems. Therefore, this paper aims [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the general impression that digital order-picking supportive technologies can manage a series of emerging challenges, there is still a very limited amount of research concerning the implementation and evaluation of such technologies in manual picker-to-goods order-picking systems. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the performance of three alternative picker-to-goods technologies (i.e., Pick-by-Radio Frequency (RF) Scanner, Pick-to-light, and Pick-by-vision) in terms of completion time and perceived workload. Methods: The Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology is adopted to investigate order-picking technologies in terms of completion time. More specifically, a full factorial design has been used (23 × 3 full factorial design) for the assessment of the aforementioned order-picking technologies via laboratory testing. Furthermore, for the comparative assessment of the reviewed order-picking technologies in terms of workload, the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is embraced by system users. Results: The results reveal that the best picker-to-goods technology in terms of order-picking completion time and perceived workload under certain laboratory setup is light picking when combined with few items per order line and many order lines per order. Conclusion: The paper successfully identified the best picker-to-goods technology, however it is important to mention that the adoption of such order-picking technology implies certain managerial implications that include training programs for employees to ensure they are proficient in using such technologies, upfront costs for purchasing and implementing the order picking system, and adjustments to existing workflows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Agile, Sustainable & Integrated: The Logistics of the Future)
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18 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Selecting Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of Urban Freight Transport Using a Multi-Criteria Analysis
by Hana Ayadi, Mounir Benaissa, Nadia Hamani and Lyes Kermad
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010012 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
Background: Urban freight transport has recently garnered significant attention from both professionals and academics due to its pivotal role in fostering economic and social development. Despite notable progress, this sector faces challenges that hinder its long-term sustainability. Addressing these issues and ensuring the [...] Read more.
Background: Urban freight transport has recently garnered significant attention from both professionals and academics due to its pivotal role in fostering economic and social development. Despite notable progress, this sector faces challenges that hinder its long-term sustainability. Addressing these issues and ensuring the lasting sustainability of urban freight transport require a thorough assessment and monitoring process utilizing specific indicators. Methods: This paper introduces a set of indicators developed using a three-step methodology aimed at assessing the sustainability progress of urban freight transport. Initially, we present a long list of indicators drawn from the existing literature. Subsequently, we consider five essential properties: achievability, data availability, predictability, relevance, and comprehensibility. Lastly, we apply a multi-criteria analysis methodology that utilizes these properties to assess the long lists encountered during the selection process. The chosen indicators are those that do not register a value of “0” for any of the specified properties. To enhance reliability, the indicators are collaboratively identified by a minimum of two experts. Results: By carefully selecting 18 indicators based on five sustainability dimensions (economic, environmental, social/societal, political, and spatial), our approach ensures a robust evaluation framework. Conclusions: These indicators serve as valuable tools for stakeholders in comprehensively evaluating the sustainability aspects of urban freight transport. Full article
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18 pages, 2251 KiB  
Systematic Review
Consumers’ Marketing Channel Choice and the Impact on Logistics and Operations: A Systematic Literature Review of the Fresh Food and Grocery Sector
by Hassan Alkhiyami, Laoucine Kerbache and Majed Hadid
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010011 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Background: Diverse marketing channels have been developed with the advent of digitalization. In the fresh food and grocery retail sector, consumers may have a large choice of channels to shop from. In this case, an analysis of their behavior is crucial for [...] Read more.
Background: Diverse marketing channels have been developed with the advent of digitalization. In the fresh food and grocery retail sector, consumers may have a large choice of channels to shop from. In this case, an analysis of their behavior is crucial for retailers. Therefore, the present paper provides a state-of-the-art review of existing papers dealing with consumers’ channel choice when buying groceries. Methods: A systematic literature review (SLR) is performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) procedure, identifying 36 research papers published in the last decade. Results: The results present the principal methodologies adopted by the analyzed research papers to address this topic, along with the various channels available to consumers to date. Other important outcomes of this review include the main variables that can affect consumer choice when deciding between the available channels and the limitations of the analyzed papers, along with suggestions for future research directions to address these limitations. Conclusions: This paper discusses the essential effects of consumers’ channel choice on the logistics and operation services of grocery retailers. It also provides an integrative framework linking the influencing factors of consumer choice with outcomes directly impacting grocery retailers’ logistics services. Full article
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23 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Retail Warehouses: A Combined MCDM Approach Using G-BWM and RATMI
by Abdullah M. Barasin, Ammar Y. Alqahtani and Anas A. Makki
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010010 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Background: The retail sector has experienced significant growth in recent years, necessitating efficient supply chain management and sustainable logistics practices. Evaluating the performance of retail warehouses is crucial for meeting customer expectations and enhancing operational efficiency. Methods: This study employed a [...] Read more.
Background: The retail sector has experienced significant growth in recent years, necessitating efficient supply chain management and sustainable logistics practices. Evaluating the performance of retail warehouses is crucial for meeting customer expectations and enhancing operational efficiency. Methods: This study employed a combined multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach, using the group best–worst method (G-BWM) for weighting criteria and ranking the alternatives based on the trace-to-median index (RATMI) for warehouse ranking. The performance criteria were cost, quality, time, productivity, and safety. Data were collected from four mega retail warehouses in the western region of Saudi Arabia for evaluation and analysis. Results: The evaluation of retail warehouse performance using the MCDM approach provided valuable insights for decision-makers and warehouse experts. The criteria weights were determined using the G-BWM, and the RATMI enabled the ranking of the warehouses based on their weighted performance scores. The results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each warehouse, facilitating strategic planning, resource allocation, and operational improvements. Conclusions: This study presents a novel combined MCDM performance evaluation approach for retail warehouses. The study has implications for effective decision-making processes, resource allocation, and operational efficiency. Furthermore, it serves as a foundation for future research, exploring additional dimensions of warehouse performance and enabling sustainable logistics within the broader supply chain context. Full article
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20 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Efficient Humanitarian Logistics: Multi-Commodity Location–Inventory Model Incorporating Demand Probability and Consumption Coefficients
by Majid Mehrabi Delshad, Adel Pourghader Chobar, Peiman Ghasemi and Davoud Jafari
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010009 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Background: A logistics network plan could be a major key issue due to its effect on supply chain effectiveness and responsiveness. This study aims to investigate the inventory location in the humanitarian logistics response stage using a three-level logistics network to integrate location–allocation [...] Read more.
Background: A logistics network plan could be a major key issue due to its effect on supply chain effectiveness and responsiveness. This study aims to investigate the inventory location in the humanitarian logistics response stage using a three-level logistics network to integrate location–allocation problems such as warehouse location and shelter allocation to each facility, and then determine the inventory level in each warehouse. Methods: In this research, the center and its distribution, as well as the reduction in service-level costs due to inventory deficit, have been considered to increase the level of shelter services. In order to investigate the network, in this study, bi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (BOMILP) is presented. Results: The first objective is to reduce location costs and inventory costs that take into account probable demand, consumption factors, and transportation costs, and the second objective is to raise the level of services offered to victims in the model. The software programs GAMS win32, 25.1.2 and MATLAB have been utilized with numerical examples in various dimensions. Conclusions: To maximize the efficiency and quality of the service, first, the model was numerically solved, and then the location where the most commodities could be transported at the lowest possible cost was identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Humanitarian and Healthcare Logistics)
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21 pages, 1686 KiB  
Article
Quick-Response Model for Pre- and Post-Disaster Evacuation and Aid Distribution: The Case of the Tula River Flood Event
by Francisca Santana-Robles, Eva Selene Hernández-Gress, Ricardo Martínez-López and Isidro Jesús González-Hernández
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010008 - 6 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Background: In the context of humanitarian logistics, efficiently evacuating people from disaster-stricken areas is a complex challenge. This study focuses on the Tula River region in Hidalgo, Mexico, exploring the evacuation and support of individuals in temporary shelters. Despite the fact that [...] Read more.
Background: In the context of humanitarian logistics, efficiently evacuating people from disaster-stricken areas is a complex challenge. This study focuses on the Tula River region in Hidalgo, Mexico, exploring the evacuation and support of individuals in temporary shelters. Despite the fact that the topic has been addressed in the literature, it is necessary to have quick response methods that can be used by decision-makers to adapt and utilize existing spaces as temporary shelters, in addition to knowing how to evacuate people. Methods: Addressing this void, a methodology to minimize evacuation and aid distribution costs is introduced. Leveraging existing algorithms, particularly Integer Linear Programming, the model determines shelter activation and utilizes the Vehicle Routing Problem to assess aid delivery strategies. Results: The research identifies optimal evacuation routes from 13 affected areas to 34 shelters and analyzes aid distribution costs under various demand scenarios: original, increased, and decreased by 10%, based on the number of transport units allocated and Google Maps distances. It also evaluates the costs associated with humanitarian aid distribution under varying collection strategies, involving state and municipal governments. Conclusion: This approach provides a decision-making foundation and can be adapted for similar analyses in other communities during extreme events. Full article
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20 pages, 1281 KiB  
Article
Examination of Logistics Simulation Demand Related to Enterprises: Focusing on a Hungarian County
by Károly Szabó, László Szabó and Richárd Kása
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010007 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Background: Despite the fact that some results can be found for the logistics simulation in the literature, there is a lack of an experiment based on inner company data. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the potential need for this kind of solution [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the fact that some results can be found for the logistics simulation in the literature, there is a lack of an experiment based on inner company data. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the potential need for this kind of solution by Zala County enterprises. Methods: As a first step, the paper presents the existing literature with the help of a literature review. Afterwards, questionnaire sampling was conducted among local enterprises. The paper applies several statistical methods (e.g., descriptive statistics, SPSS, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling) to the sample for the validation of the reorganization demand. Results: The study obtained a total of 147 complete responses from the 1022 invitations. An overwhelming majority of the respondents indicated regular and significant delays in their logistics processes, as well as the need for a new simulation method. Based on the SEM model, it has been observed that IT solutions are being utilized in an inefficient manner, resulting in logistical system issues and operational damages. Conclusion: The paper successfully identified a research gap, the research of which can have not only theoretical but also many practical benefits. Hopefully, the results will generate other academic research in this field. Full article
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39 pages, 1303 KiB  
Article
Global Supply Chains Made Visible through Logistics Security Management
by Pablo Emilio Mora Lozano and Jairo R. Montoya-Torres
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010006 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Background: For several years, two of the major concerns of logistics managers are (i) the visibility of global supply chains and (ii) the uncertainty in deciding which existing logistics security program is the most appropriate according to the security levels for their organization. [...] Read more.
Background: For several years, two of the major concerns of logistics managers are (i) the visibility of global supply chains and (ii) the uncertainty in deciding which existing logistics security program is the most appropriate according to the security levels for their organization. This last decision is needed to ensure traceability and visibility of the supply chain. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the main public and private supply chain security management programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods: A qualitative and quantitative research methodology based on thematic content analysis is followed. The four main existing security programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are systematically compared and a common general framework is developed. Results: The analysis shows a high degree of similarity between the levels of security contained in the selected programs. Conclusions: We found that there is little guidance available for companies interested in managing security risks in their supply chains through these logistics’ security programs. This article contributes to the literature on logistics security programs that is currently gaining momentum in managing security risks in global supply chains and provides academic insights into the choice and/or complementarity of one or more logistics security programs. Full article
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24 pages, 2249 KiB  
Article
Supply Chain Complexity and Its Impact on Knowledge Transfer: Incorporating Sustainable Supply Chain Practices in Food Supply Chain Networks
by Hareer Fatima Ahmed, Amin Hosseinian-Far, Dilshad Sarwar and Rasoul Khandan
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010005 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2453
Abstract
Background: The dynamics of supply chain networks have changed due to increasing complexities. Global expansions and knowledge transfer in supply chain networks bring efficiency and effectiveness to companies. However, the probability of supply chain complexity has also been seen increasing. The barriers [...] Read more.
Background: The dynamics of supply chain networks have changed due to increasing complexities. Global expansions and knowledge transfer in supply chain networks bring efficiency and effectiveness to companies. However, the probability of supply chain complexity has also been seen increasing. The barriers to sustainable supply chain networks need to be tackled in an effective manner as they impact business operations. Therefore, it is essential to eliminate and reduce the supply chain complexities, as it will facilitate the process of knowledge transfer and increase the implementation of sustainable practises in supply chain networks. In the previous research, four supply chain complexity drivers were identified. Previous research identified four supply chain complexity drivers by conducting a systematic review. This study investigates which of the four complexity drivers impacts knowledge transfer in the context of the food supply chain sector. Methods: In this research, knowledge transfer is therefore examined from the perspective of sustainable food supply chains. Thirty exploratory qualitative interviews were conducted in this study and analysed using Nvivo (v12) software. This study utilised thematic analysis techniques for the evaluation of the interviews to gather results. Results: The results illustrated six main factors classified under broad categories: integration of Knowledge Transfer, incorporation of technological advancements in supply chain networks, supply chain complexity solutions, supply chain complexity drivers, sustainable supply chain networks, and capability to reduce supply chain complexity. The findings of this study highlight that process complexity significantly influences the process of knowledge transfer in food supply chain networks. The research findings contribute to both academic and practical domains. This study contributes to the aggregation of supply chain complexity and its impact on Knowledge Transfer. Additionally, the findings support supply chain networks, which strive to achieve efficient Knowledge Transfer to attain sustainable value in business operations. Conclusion: This study has proven that robust knowledge transfer reduces supply chain complexity as it makes supply chain systems more resilient and well-coordinated in many potential ways. Full article
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26 pages, 5631 KiB  
Article
Fertilizer Logistics in Brazil: Application of a Mixed-Integer Programming Mathematical Model for Optimal Mixer Locations
by Fernando Pauli de Bastiani, Thiago Guilherme Péra and José Vicente Caixeta-Filho
Logistics 2024, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8010004 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Background: Brazil is one of the largest consumers of fertilizers and is highly dependent on the international market to meet its demand for agricultural production inputs. The complexity of the fertilizer supply chain motivated us to carry out this study on redesigning the [...] Read more.
Background: Brazil is one of the largest consumers of fertilizers and is highly dependent on the international market to meet its demand for agricultural production inputs. The complexity of the fertilizer supply chain motivated us to carry out this study on redesigning the fertilizer logistics chain and evaluate strategies for reducing logistics costs by redesigning the fertilizer mixing network in Brazil, a country that is heavily dependent on imported fertilizers for agriculture. Methods: We introduce a multi-product mixed-integer linear programming optimization model encompassing the logistics network, from import ports to mixing factories and agricultural fertilizer supply centers. This model includes logistics infrastructure and taxes, accounting for greenhouse gas emissions (specifically carbon dioxide) in fertilizer logistics. Results: The results indicate that expanding the port capacity for fertilizer importation can significantly reduce logistics costs and greenhouse gas emissions by up to 22.5%, decreasing by 23.9% compared to the baseline. We also observed that removing taxes on fertilizer importation can reduce logistics costs by approximately 11%, but it increases greenhouse gas emissions by 2.25% due to increased reliance on road transport. We identified 15 highly resilient regions for establishing mixing factories, evaluated various scenarios and determined the importance of these locations in optimizing the fertilizer supply network in the country. Moreover, the results suggest a significant potential to enhance the role of Brazil’s Northern Arc region in fertilizer import flows. Conclusions: Public policies and private initiatives could be directed toward encouraging the establishment of mixing factories in the identified regions and increasing transport capacity in the Northern Arc region. Improving the logistical conditions of the fertilizer network would contribute to food security by reducing the costs of essential inputs in food production and promoting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Full article
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