Next Issue
Volume 11, February-1
Previous Issue
Volume 11, January-1
 
 

Plants, Volume 11, Issue 2 (January-2 2022) – 91 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Unique features of duckweeds, including rapid growth and high productivity, reflect adaptations to freshwater environments. Additionally, duckweed accumulates exceptionally high levels of quality protein and antioxidant micronutrients essential for human health, including zeaxanthin, a carotenoid with unique inflammation-fighting properties. This desirable combination of fast growth with exceptional micronutrient content is not seen in land plants. Moreover, Lemna is an attractive crop for changing climatic conditions—showing promise for the production of high-quality biomass under elevated atmospheric CO2 levels in combination with other stresses, especially when supported by its microbiome. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
28 pages, 5342 KiB  
Article
Maximizing Leaves, Inflorescences, and Chemical Composition Production of Moringa oleifera Trees under Calcareous Soil Conditions
by Amira K. G. Atteya, Aishah N. Albalawi, Hala M. Bayomy, Eman S. Alamri and Esmail A. E. Genaidy
Plants 2022, 11(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020234 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
One of the main issues limiting plant productivity is a lack of soil nutrient resources, especially in calcareous soil, which covers more than one third of the world’s land surface area. On the other hand, despite rising demand for all parts of the [...] Read more.
One of the main issues limiting plant productivity is a lack of soil nutrient resources, especially in calcareous soil, which covers more than one third of the world’s land surface area. On the other hand, despite rising demand for all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree, several studies have focused on its leaf production as an herbaceous plant, rather than as a tree, and no extensive research has been carried out on leaf and inflorescence production in the mature tree. As a result, the influence of vermicompost and NPK (minerals and nanoparticles), as well as their combination, under calcareous soil conditions, was investigated in this study. The experiment was set up as a split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. In both seasons considered in this study, it was discovered that increasing the quantity of vermicompost and employing NPK fertilization, as well as their combination treatments, greatly enhanced all parameters and yield of distinct Moringa oleifera tree parts. Furthermore, the combination treatment T21 yielded the highest mean values of growth, leaves, and chemical composition parameters, as well as the highest yield from the Moringa oleifera tree. In both seasons, the highest number of inflorescences per tree, as well as the yield of fresh and dry inflorescences, was measured using combination treatment T18. In both seasons, however, increasing the level of vermicompost, NPK, and their combination treatments significantly reduced the total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of dry Moringa oleifera leaves. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3254 KiB  
Article
Novel Perceptions on Chemical Profile and Biopharmaceutical Properties of Mentha spicata Extracts: Adding Missing Pieces to the Scientific Puzzle
by Gokhan Zengin, Gunes Ak, Ramazan Ceylan, Sengul Uysal, Eulogio Llorent-Martínez, Simonetta Cristina Di Simone, Monica Rapino, Alessandra Acquaviva, Maria Loreta Libero, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Luigi Brunetti, Amelia Cataldi, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Menghini, Claudio Ferrante, Marwa Balaha and Viviana di Giacomo
Plants 2022, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020233 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
Mentha spicata is one of the most popular species in the genus, and it is of great interest as a gastrointestinal and sedative agent in the folk medicine system. In this study, different M. spicata extracts, obtained by the use of four solvents [...] Read more.
Mentha spicata is one of the most popular species in the genus, and it is of great interest as a gastrointestinal and sedative agent in the folk medicine system. In this study, different M. spicata extracts, obtained by the use of four solvents (hexane, chloroform, acetone and acetone/water) were chemically characterized using HPLC-ESI-MS n, which allowed for identification of 27 phenolic compounds. The extracts’ antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties were investigated. In addition, neuroprotective effects were evaluated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells, and the ability of the extracts to prevent the hydrogen peroxide-induced degradation of dopamine and serotonin was observed. The best antioxidant effect was achieved for all the extraction methods using acetone/water as a solvent. These extracts were the richest in acacetin, eriodictyol, hesperidin, sagerinic acid, naringenin, luteolin, chlorogenic acid, chrysoeriol and apigenin. The intrinsic antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties of the acetone/water extract could also explain, albeit partially, its efficacy in preventing prostaglandin E2 overproduction and dopamine depletion (82.9% turnover reduction) in HypoE22 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Thus, our observations can provide a scientific confirmation of the neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects of M. spicata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Profiling and Biological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
HPLC-MS Profiling, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antidiabetic, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq. Extracts
by Hafedh Hajlaoui, Soumaya Arraouadi, Hedi Mighri, Siwar Ghannay, Kaïss Aouadi, Mohd Adnan, Abdelbaset Mohamed Elasbali, Emira Noumi, Mejdi Snoussi and Adel Kadri
Plants 2022, 11(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020232 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3058
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate for the first time the phytochemical constituents and biological properties of three (ethanol, acetone, and hexane) Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq. (A. indicum) extracts. Quantitative analysis revealed the significantly (p < 0.05) dominance [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate for the first time the phytochemical constituents and biological properties of three (ethanol, acetone, and hexane) Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq. (A. indicum) extracts. Quantitative analysis revealed the significantly (p < 0.05) dominance of ethanolic extract on total polyphenol (TPC; 303.67 ± 4.16 mg GAE/g DR) and flavonoid (TFC; 55.33 ± 2.52 mg CE/g DR) contents than the other extracts, also displaying high and equipotent condensed tannin (TCTC) contents as the acetone extract. The qualitative HPLC-MS analysis elucidates 19 and 18 compounds in ethanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively, belonging to the phenolics and flavonoids chemical classes. The extracts were also screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion, and ferric ion (Fe3+) reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), demonstrating the potent antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract, due to its stronger scavenging DPPH (IC50 = 7.17 ± 1.26 μg/mL) which is not significantly (p > 0.05) different from the positive control, BHT (IC50 = 10.70 ± 0.61 μg/mL), however moderate activity through FRAP and superoxide anion radicals have been observed. Four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria, and four pathogenic fungi were used for the antimicrobial activity. In addition, S. epidermidis, M. luteus, E. faecalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei were found to be the most susceptible strains towards ethanolic extract. Cytotoxicity values against human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29) and human epidermoid cancer cells (Hep2), and one continuous cell lineage control (Vero) revealed that the HT29 cancer cell line was the most responsive to A. indicum shoot extract treatment and significantly (p < 0.05) different from the other cancer cells. Moreover, when tested for their antidiabetic inhibitory effect, ethanol extract recorded the highest antidiabetic effect with IC50 = 13.17 ± 1.04 mg/mL, which is 8.4-fold higher than acetone extract. Therefore, the present study provides new findings on the use of A. indicum shoot ethanolic extract to cure many incurable diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6499 KiB  
Article
Comparative Genomics, Phylogenetics, Biogeography, and Effects of Climate Change on Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) from Africa and Asia
by Elizabeth Syowai Mutinda, Elijah Mbandi Mkala, Xiang Dong, Jia-Xin Yang, Emmanuel Nyongesa Waswa, Consolata Nanjala, Wyclif Ochieng Odago, Guang-Wan Hu and Qing-Feng Wang
Plants 2022, 11(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020231 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
In the present study, two samples of Toddalia asiatica species, both collected from Kenya, were sequenced and comparison of their genome structures carried out with T. asiatica species from China, available in the NCBI database. The genome size of both species from Africa [...] Read more.
In the present study, two samples of Toddalia asiatica species, both collected from Kenya, were sequenced and comparison of their genome structures carried out with T. asiatica species from China, available in the NCBI database. The genome size of both species from Africa was 158, 508 base pairs, which was slightly larger, compared to the reference genome of T. asiatica from Asia (158, 434 bp). The number of genes was 113 for both species from Africa, consisting of 79 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Toddalia asiatica from Asia had 115 genes with 81 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Both species compared displayed high similarity in gene arrangement. The gene number, orientation, and order were highly conserved. The IR/SC boundary structures were the same in all chloroplast genomes. A comparison of pairwise sequences indicated that the three regions (trnH-psbA, rpoB, and ycf1) were more divergent and can be useful in developing effective genetic markers. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete cp genomes and 79 protein-coding genes indicated that the Toddalia species collected from Africa were sister to T. asiatica collected from Asia. Both species formed a sister clade to the Southwest Pacific and East Asian species of Zanthoxylum. These results supported the previous studies of merging the genus Toddalia with Zanthoxylum and taxonomic change of Toddalia asiatica to Zanthoxylum asiaticum, which should also apply for the African species of Toddalia. Biogeographic results demonstrated that the two samples of Toddalia species from Africa diverged from T. asiatica from Asia (3.422 Mya, 95% HPD). These results supported an Asian origin of Toddalia species and later dispersal to Africa and Madagascar. The maxent model analysis showed that Asia would have an expansion of favorable areas for Toddalia species in the future. In Africa, there will be contraction and expansion of the favorable areas for the species. The availability of these cp genomes will provide valuable genetic resources for further population genetics and biogeographic studies of these species. However, more T. asiatica species collected from a wide geographical range are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Molecular Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1181 KiB  
Article
Phyto-Beneficial Traits of Rhizosphere Bacteria: In Vitro Exploration of Plant Growth Promoting and Phytopathogen Biocontrol Ability of Selected Strains Isolated from Harsh Environments
by Gianluigi Giannelli, Franco Bisceglie, Giorgio Pelosi, Beatrice Bonati, Maura Cardarelli, Maria Luisa Antenozio, Francesca Degola and Giovanna Visioli
Plants 2022, 11(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020230 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
Beneficial interactions between plants and some bacterial species have been long recognized, as they proved to exert various growth-promoting and health-protective activities on economically relevant crops. In this study, the growth promoting and antifungal activity of six bacterial strains, Paenarthrobacter ureafaciens, Beijerinckia [...] Read more.
Beneficial interactions between plants and some bacterial species have been long recognized, as they proved to exert various growth-promoting and health-protective activities on economically relevant crops. In this study, the growth promoting and antifungal activity of six bacterial strains, Paenarthrobacter ureafaciens, Beijerinckia fluminensis, Pseudomonas protegens, Arthrobacter sp., Arthrobacter defluii, and Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, were investigated. The tested strains resulted positive for some plant growth promoting (PGP) traits, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase (ACC-deaminase), siderophore production, and solubilization of phosphates. The effect of the selected bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings growth was assessed using different morphological parameters. Bacterial activity against the phytopathogenic fungal species Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides was also assessed, since these cause major yield losses in cereal crops and are well-known mycotoxin producers. Strains Pvr_9 (B. fluminensis) and PHA_1 (P. protegens) showed an important growth-promoting effect on A. thaliana coupled with a high antifungal activity on all the three fungal species. The analysis of bacterial broths through ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS) and liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS) confirmed the presence of potential PGP-compounds, among these are desferrioxamine B, aminochelin, asperchrome B, quinolobactin siderophores, and salicylic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weaponizing Plants: Biocontrol and Biosecurity in Plant Protection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2557 KiB  
Article
Effect of Photoconversion Coatings for Greenhouses on Electrical Signal-Induced Resistance to Heat Stress of Tomato Plants
by Marina Grinberg, Ekaterina Gromova, Alyona Grishina, Ekaterina Berezina, Maria Ladeynova, Alexander V. Simakin, Vladimir Sukhov, Sergey V. Gudkov and Vladimir Vodeneev
Plants 2022, 11(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020229 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
The use of photoconversion coatings is a promising approach to improving the quality of light when growing plants in greenhouses in low light conditions. In this work, we studied the effect of fluoropolymer coatings, which produce photoconversion of UV-A radiation and violet light [...] Read more.
The use of photoconversion coatings is a promising approach to improving the quality of light when growing plants in greenhouses in low light conditions. In this work, we studied the effect of fluoropolymer coatings, which produce photoconversion of UV-A radiation and violet light into blue and red light, on the growth and resistance to heat stress of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The stimulating effect of the spectrum obtained as a result of photoconversion on plant growth and the activity of the photosynthesis process are shown. At the same time, the ability to withstand heat stress is reduced in plants grown under a photoconversion coating. Stress electrical signals, which normally increase resistance, in such plants have a much weaker protective effect on the photosynthetic apparatus. The observed effects are apparently explained by a decrease in the concentration of H2O2 in plants grown using photoconversion technologies, which leads to a shift in the development program towards increased productivity to the detriment of the protective function. Thus, when using photoconversion technologies in agricultural practice, it is necessary to pay increased attention to maintaining stable conditions during plant cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulations by Light Quantity and Quality and Their Effects on Crops)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2105 KiB  
Article
Effect of Organic Amendments in Soil on Physiological and Biochemical Attributes of Vachellia nilotica and Dalbergia sissoo under Saline Stress
by Muhammad Talha Bin Yousaf, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz, Ghulam Yasin, Irfan Ahmad, Sadaf Gul, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Xuebin Qi and Shafeeq Ur Rahman
Plants 2022, 11(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020228 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H. Hurther & Mabb. and Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. are two of the most important multipurpose agroforestry tree species of the Indian sub-continent, but their growth in saline soils is greatly reduced. Recently, organic amendments have showed the potential to increase [...] Read more.
Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H. Hurther & Mabb. and Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. are two of the most important multipurpose agroforestry tree species of the Indian sub-continent, but their growth in saline soils is greatly reduced. Recently, organic amendments have showed the potential to increase plant growth in salt-affected soils; however, the influence of using these amendments for growing the above-mentioned tree species under saline conditions is not yet quantified. Therefore, an experiment was devised to analyze the interactive effects of organic amendments in saline soils on the growth of V. nilotica and D. sissoo. Under controlled conditions, a pot experiment was conducted in sandy loam saline soils (EC = 20.5 dSm−1). Organic amendments from four diverse sources: farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM), slurry (SL), and farmyard manure biochar (FYMB) were employed in this study. At the harvesting time, data regarding morphological, physiological, ionic, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The current study results indicated that both tree species reacted differently, but positively, to diverse applied amendments. The maximum increment in total above-ground biomass, total below-ground biomass, and shoot length for V. nilotica (163.8%, 116.3%, and 68.2%, respectively) was observed in FYM amended soils, while the maximum increment for D. sissoo (128%, 86%, and 107%, respectively) was observed in FYMB amended soils, as compared to control. Minimum plant growth of both species was observed in untreated soils (saline soils). Likewise, the maximum potassium ion and minimum sodium ion concentrations were present in the root and shoots of plants (both species) treated with FYMB. The use of organic amendments resulted in decreased concentrations of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, and increased concentrations of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD, and CAT. Moreover, higher photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were observed in the plants grown in amended soils. The findings of this study can be used to include the above-mentioned high-value tree species for future afforestation programs under saline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinity Stress in Plants and Molecular Responses 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4110 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Enriched Vermicomposts, Humic Acid Extract and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Amendments on the Growth of Brassica napus
by Arash Hemati, Hossein Ali Alikhani, Ladan Ajdanian, Mehdi Babaei, Behnam Asgari Lajayer and Eric D. van Hullebusch
Plants 2022, 11(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020227 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Humic acid (HA) is a specific and stable component of humus materials that behaves similarly to growth stimulants, esp. auxin hormones, contributing to improving growth indices and performance of plants. As a rich source of HA, vermicompost (VC) is also a plant growth [...] Read more.
Humic acid (HA) is a specific and stable component of humus materials that behaves similarly to growth stimulants, esp. auxin hormones, contributing to improving growth indices and performance of plants. As a rich source of HA, vermicompost (VC) is also a plant growth stimulating bio-fertilizer that can enhance growth indices and performance in plants. The purpose of the present study is to compare the influence of VC enriched with bacterial and/or fertilizer, commercial humic acid (CHA) extract, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on improving growth characteristics and performance of rapeseed under greenhouse conditions. The results showed the complete superiority of VC over the CHA and IAA (approximately 8% increase in the dry weights of root and aerial organ and nearly three times increase in seed weight). The highest values of these indices were obtained with VC enriched with Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus, Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens; the lowest value was obtained with VC enriched with urea. Additionally, the application of 3% VC and the control involved the highest and lowest values in all traits, respectively. The SPAD (chlorophyll index) value and stem diameter were not significantly affected by different application levels of VC. Overall, the applications of IAA and the CHA were not found to be suitable and therefore not recommended. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1141 KiB  
Article
Detection of Banana Mild Mosaic Virus in Musa In Vitro Plants: High-Throughput Sequencing Presents Higher Diagnostic Sensitivity Than (IC)-RT-PCR and Identifies a New Betaflexiviridae Species
by Marwa Hanafi, Wei Rong, Lucie Tamisier, Chadi Berhal, Nicolas Roux and Sebastien Massart
Plants 2022, 11(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020226 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
The banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) (Betaflexiviridae, Quinvirinae, unassigned species) is a filamentous virus that infects Musa spp. and has a very wide geographical distribution. The current BanMMV indexing process for an accession requires the testing of no less than four plants cultivated [...] Read more.
The banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) (Betaflexiviridae, Quinvirinae, unassigned species) is a filamentous virus that infects Musa spp. and has a very wide geographical distribution. The current BanMMV indexing process for an accession requires the testing of no less than four plants cultivated in a greenhouse for at least 6 months and causes a significant delay for the distribution of the germplasm. We evaluated the sensitivity of different protocols for BanMMV detection from in vitro plants to accelerate the testing process. We first used corm tissues from 137 in vitro plants and obtained a diagnostic sensitivity (DSE) of only 61% when testing four plants per accession. After thermotherapy was carried out to eliminate BanMMV infection, the meristem was recovered and further grown in vitro. The same protocol was evaluated in parallel on the corm tissue surrounding the meristem, as a rapid screening to evaluate virus therapy success, and was compared to the results obtained following the standard protocol. The obtained results showed 28% false negatives when conducting testing from corm tissues, making this protocol unsuitable in routine processes. Furthermore, RT-PCR and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) tests were applied on tissues from the base (n = 39) and the leaves (n = 36). For RT-PCR, the average DSE per sample reached 65% from either the base or leaves. HTS was applied on 36 samples and yielded 100% diagnostic specificity (DSP) and 100% DSE, whatever the sampled tissue, allowing the identification of a new Betaflexiviridae species infecting Musa. These results suggest that a reliable diagnostic of BanMMV from in vitro plants using RT-PCR or HTS technologies might represent an efficient alternative for testing after greenhouse cultivation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 492 KiB  
Communication
Potential Use of Colored LED Lights to Increase the Production of Bioactive Metabolites Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam
by Anh Tuan Le, Ju-Kyung Yu, Gyung-Deok Han, Thuong Kiet Do and Yong-Suk Chung
Plants 2022, 11(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020225 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam is a wild herb that is used in traditional Indian, Chinese, and African medicine. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is paving the way to enhance crop production and inducing targeted photomorphogenic, biochemical, or physiological responses in plants. This study examines [...] Read more.
Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam is a wild herb that is used in traditional Indian, Chinese, and African medicine. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is paving the way to enhance crop production and inducing targeted photomorphogenic, biochemical, or physiological responses in plants. This study examines the efficiency of H. corymbosa (L.) Lam production under blue 450 nm and red 660 nm LED lights for overall plant growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and the contents of metabolite compounds. Our research showed that blue LED lights provided a positive effect on enhancing plant growth and overall biomass. In addition, blue LED lights are more effective in controlling the production of sucrose, starch, total phenolic compounds, and total flavonoid compared to red LED lights. However, blue and red LED lights played essential but different roles in photosynthetic characteristics. Our results showed the potential of colored LED light applications in improving farming methods and increasing metabolite production in herbs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 782 KiB  
Article
Identification and Characterization of a Garlic Virus E Genome in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Using High-Throughput Sequencing from India
by Malyaj R. Prajapati, Aakansha Manav, Jitender Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kumar, Ravindra Kumar, Satya Prakash and Virendra Kumar Baranwal
Plants 2022, 11(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020224 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants exhibiting mosaics, deformation, and yellow stripes symptoms were identified in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. To investigate the viruses in the garlic samples, the method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used. Complete genome of the garlic virus [...] Read more.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants exhibiting mosaics, deformation, and yellow stripes symptoms were identified in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. To investigate the viruses in the garlic samples, the method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used. Complete genome of the garlic virus E (GarV-E) isolate (NCBI accession No. MW925710) was retrieved. The virus complete genome comprises 8450 nucleotides (nts), excluding the poly (A) tail at the 3′ terminus, with 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of 99 and 384 nts, respectively, and ORFs encoding replicase with a conserved motif for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), TGB1, TGB2, TGB3, serine-rich protein, coat protein, and nucleic acid binding protein (NABP). The sequence homology shared 83.49–90.40% and 87.48–92.87% with those of GarV-E isolates available in NCBI at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship of this isolate from India (MW925710) with GarV-E isolate YH (AJ292230) from Zhejiang, China. The presence of GarV-E was also confirmed by RT-PCR. The present study is the first report of GarV-E in garlic cultivar Yamuna Safed-3 grown in northern India. However, further studies are needed to confirm its role in symptom development, nationwide distribution, genetic diversity, and potential yield loss to the garlic in India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Viroid/Viruses: Insight into Genome and Epidemiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 7617 KiB  
Article
Role of Sulfate Transporters in Chromium Tolerance in Scenedesmus acutus M. (Sphaeropleales)
by Michele Ferrari, Radiana Cozza, Matteo Marieschi and Anna Torelli
Plants 2022, 11(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020223 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
Sulfur (S) is essential for the synthesis of important defense compounds and in the scavenging potential of oxidative stress, conferring increased capacity to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Chromate can induce a sort of S-starvation by competing for uptake with SO4 [...] Read more.
Sulfur (S) is essential for the synthesis of important defense compounds and in the scavenging potential of oxidative stress, conferring increased capacity to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Chromate can induce a sort of S-starvation by competing for uptake with SO42− and causing a depletion of cellular reduced compounds, thus emphasizing the role of S-transporters in heavy-metal tolerance. In this work we analyzed the sulfate transporter system in the freshwater green algae Scenedesmus acutus, that proved to possess both H+/SO42− (SULTRs) and Na+/SO42− (SLTs) plasma membrane sulfate transporters and a chloroplast-envelope localized ABC-type holocomplex. We discuss the sulfate uptake system of S. acutus in comparison with other taxa, enlightening differences among the clade Sphaeropleales and Volvocales/Chlamydomonadales. To define the role of S transporters in chromium tolerance, we analyzed the expression of SULTRs and SULPs components of the chloroplast ABC transporter in two strains of S. acutus with different Cr(VI) sensitivity. Their differential expression in response to Cr(VI) exposure and S availability seems directly linked to Cr(VI) tolerance, confirming the role of sulfate uptake/assimilation pathways in the metal stress response. The SULTRs up-regulation, observed in both strains after S-starvation, may directly contribute to enhancing Cr-tolerance by limiting Cr(VI) uptake and increasing sulfur availability for the synthesis of sulfur-containing defense molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Sulfur Deficiency on Algae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 969 KiB  
Review
Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Flora Ten Years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Disaster
by Gian Marco Ludovici, Andrea Chierici, Susana Oliveira de Souza, Francesco d’Errico, Alba Iannotti and Andrea Malizia
Plants 2022, 11(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020222 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 9146
Abstract
The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides (like 137Cs) in several higher plants located around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), evaluating both their adaptive processes and evolution. After the FNPP accident in [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides (like 137Cs) in several higher plants located around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), evaluating both their adaptive processes and evolution. After the FNPP accident in March 2011 much attention was focused to the biological consequences of ionizing radiation and radionuclides released in the area surrounding the nuclear plant. This unexpected mishap led to the emission of radionuclides in aerosol and gaseous forms from the power plant, which contaminated a large area, including wild forest, cities, farmlands, mountains, and the sea, causing serious problems. Large quantities of 131I, 137Cs, and 134Cs were detected in the fallout. People were evacuated but the flora continued to be affected by the radiation exposure and by the radioactive dusts’ fallout. The response of biota to FNPP irradiation was a complex interaction among radiation dose, dose rate, temporal and spatial variation, varying radiation sensitivities of the different plants’ species, and indirect effects from other events. The repeated ionizing radiations, acute or chronic, guarantee an adaptation of the plant species, demonstrating a radio-resistance. Consequently, ionizing radiation affects the genetic structure, especially during chronic irradiation, reducing genetic variability. This reduction is associated with the different susceptibility of plant species to chronic stress. This would confirm the adaptive theory associated with this phenomenon. The effects that ionizing radiation has on different life forms are examined in this review using the FNPP disaster as a case study focusing the attention ten years after the accident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Chronic Irradiation in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4016 KiB  
Article
Drought Stress Induces Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Changes of Pandanus amaryllifolius
by Muhammad Asyraf Mohd Amnan, Wan Mohd Aizat, Fiqri Dizar Khaidizar and Boon Chin Tan
Plants 2022, 11(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020221 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
Drought is one of the significant threats to the agricultural sector. However, there is limited knowledge on plant response to drought stress and post-drought recovery. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a moderate drought-tolerant plant, is well-known for its ability to survive in low-level soil moisture [...] Read more.
Drought is one of the significant threats to the agricultural sector. However, there is limited knowledge on plant response to drought stress and post-drought recovery. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a moderate drought-tolerant plant, is well-known for its ability to survive in low-level soil moisture conditions. Understanding the molecular regulation of drought stress signaling in this plant could help guide the rational design of crop plants to counter this environmental challenge. This study aimed to determine the morpho-physiological, biochemical, and protein changes of P. amaryllifolius in response to drought stress and during recovery. Drought significantly reduced the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content of P. amaryllifolius. In contrast, relative electrolyte leakage, proline and malondialdehyde contents, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the drought-treated and recovered samples were relatively higher than the well-watered sample. The protein changes between drought-stressed, well-watered, and recovered plants were evaluated using tandem mass tags (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics. Of the 1415 differentially abundant proteins, 74 were significantly altered. The majority of proteins differing between them were related to carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, stress response, and antioxidant activity. This is the first study that reports the protein changes in response to drought stress in Pandanus. The data generated provide an insight into the drought-responsive mechanisms in P. amaryllifolius. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Stress and Desiccation Tolerance in Plants Ⅱ)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1244 KiB  
Review
Plant Secondary Metabolites against Skin Photodamage: Mexican Plants, a Potential Source of UV-Radiation Protectant Molecules
by Ana Mariel Torres-Contreras, Antoni Garcia-Baeza, Heriberto Rafael Vidal-Limon, Isaias Balderas-Renteria, Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera and Karla Ramirez-Estrada
Plants 2022, 11(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020220 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5667
Abstract
Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR [...] Read more.
Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR constitutes the major etiological factor in the development of cutaneous malignancy. However, more than 90% of skin cancer cases could be avoided with appropriate preventive measures such as regular sunscreen use. Plants, constantly irradiated by sunlight, are able to synthesize specialized molecules to fight against UVR damage. Phenolic compounds, alkaloids and carotenoids constitute the major plant secondary metabolism compounds with relevant UVR protection activities. Hence, plants are an important source of molecules used to avoid UVR damage, reduce photoaging and prevent skin cancers and related illnesses. Due to its significance, we reviewed the main plant secondary metabolites related to UVR protection and its reported mechanisms. In addition, we summarized the research in Mexican plants related to UV protection. We presented the most studied Mexican plants and the photoprotective molecules found in them. Additionally, we analyzed the studies conducted to elucidate the mechanism of photoprotection of those molecules and their potential use as ingredients in sunscreen formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Resources of Medicinal and Cosmetic Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3793 KiB  
Article
Viability of Embryo Sacs and Fruit Set in Different Plum (Prunus domestica L.) Cultivars Grown under Norwegian Climatic Conditions
by Radosav Cerović, Milica Fotirić Akšić, Milena Đorđević and Mekjell Meland
Plants 2022, 11(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020219 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Compatibility and synchrony between specialized tissues of the pistil, female gametophytes and male gametophytes, are necessary for successful pollination, fertilization, and fruit set in angiosperms. The aim of the present work was to study the development and viability of embryo sacs, as well [...] Read more.
Compatibility and synchrony between specialized tissues of the pistil, female gametophytes and male gametophytes, are necessary for successful pollination, fertilization, and fruit set in angiosperms. The aim of the present work was to study the development and viability of embryo sacs, as well as fertilization success, in relation to the fruit set of the cultivars ‘Mallard’, ‘Edda’, ‘Jubileum’, and ‘Reeves’, under specific Norwegian climatic conditions. Emasculated, unpollinated, and open-pollinated flowers were collected at the beginning of flowering, and on the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th days after flowering, from all four plum cultivars over two years (2018/2019). Ovaries were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned, stained, and observed under a light microscope. Results showed the existence of synchronization between successive phases in the development of the embryo sac and individual phases of flowering. All plum cultivars had higher percentages of viable embryo sacs, fertilized embryo sacs, and fruit set in 2018 than in 2019. These differences may be related to the very low temperatures during the post-full-flowering period in 2019, and to the low adaptation of some studied cultivars to unfavorable conditions. In our study, the cultivar ‘Jubileum’ showed the highest percentage of viable embryo sacs, fertilized embryo sacs, and fruit set compared to other cultivars, i.e., the best low-temperature adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvements/Innovations Related to Fruit Varieties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 35650 KiB  
Article
Oral and Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Jatropha integerrima Leaves Extract in Relation to Its Metabolite Profile
by Engy A. Mahrous, Ahmed H. Elosaily, Abeer A. A. Salama, Ahmed M. Salama and Soheir M. El-Zalabani
Plants 2022, 11(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020218 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
Jatropha integerrima Jacq., family: Euphorbiaceae, is used in India and subtropical Africa to treat different skin conditions. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of J. integerrima leaves extract (JILE) using rat paw edema model. The extract was administered orally (200 and [...] Read more.
Jatropha integerrima Jacq., family: Euphorbiaceae, is used in India and subtropical Africa to treat different skin conditions. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of J. integerrima leaves extract (JILE) using rat paw edema model. The extract was administered orally (200 and 400 mg/kg) or applied topically as creams at 2.5, 5, and 10% strength. Four hours post-treatment, maximum reduction of edema volume by 63.09% was observed after oral administration of JILE (400 mg/kg) as compared to indomethacin with 60.43%. The extract anti-inflammatory effect was accompanied by a decrease in NO, prostaglandin PGE2, TNF-α and PKC levels by 19, 29.35, 16.9, and 47.83%, respectively. Additionally, topical applications of JILE showed dose dependent reduction in paw edema and resulted in normalized levels of PGE2, TNF-α, and PKC when used as 10% cream. Signs of inflammations were reduced or absent from paw tissue of animals receiving JILE either orally or topically. Finally, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of JILE resulted in the annotation of 133 metabolites including 24 diterpenoids, 19 flavonoids, 10 phenolic acid conjugates, 8 cyclic peptides, 6 phytosterols, 4 sesquiterpenes, and 4 coumarins. Several of the annotated metabolites have known anti-inflammatory activity including vitexin, isovitexin, fraxitin, scopeltin, stigmasterol, and many diterpenoidal derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Toxicological Study of Medicinal Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1738 KiB  
Review
Current Status and Future Prospective for Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
by Anamaria Mălinaş, Roxana Vidican, Ioan Rotar, Cristian Mălinaş, Cristina Maria Moldovan and Marian Proorocu
Plants 2022, 11(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020217 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4920
Abstract
Although essential for achieving high crop yields required for the growing population worldwide, nitrogen, (N) in large amounts, along with its inefficient use, results in environmental pollution and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has a significant role [...] Read more.
Although essential for achieving high crop yields required for the growing population worldwide, nitrogen, (N) in large amounts, along with its inefficient use, results in environmental pollution and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has a significant role to play in the development of more sustainable crop production systems. Considering that wheat is one of the major crops cultivated in the world and contributes in high amounts to the large N footprint, designing sustainable wheat crop patterns, briefly defined by us in this review as the 3 Qs (high quantity, good quality and the quintessence of natural environment health) is urgently required. There are numerous indices used to benchmark N management for a specific crop, including wheat, but the misunderstanding of their specific functions could result in an under/overestimation of crop NUE. Thus, a better understanding of N dynamics in relation to wheat N cycling can enhance a higher efficiency of N use. In this sense, the aim of our review is to provide a critical analysis on the current knowledge with respect to wheat NUE. Further, considering the key traits involved in N uptake, assimilation, distribution and utilization efficiency, as well as genetics (G), environment (E) and management (M) interactions, we suggest a series of future perspectives that can enhance a better efficiency of N in wheat. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7001 KiB  
Article
How Does Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Respond to Phosphorus Fertilization and Irrigation Water Salinity?
by Hamza Bouras, Redouane Choukr-Allah, Younes Amouaouch, Ahmed Bouaziz, Krishna Prasad Devkota, Ayoub El Mouttaqi, Bassou Bouazzama and Abdelaziz Hirich
Plants 2022, 11(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020216 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Soil salinity is a major problem in arid and semi-arid regions, causing land degradation, desertification, and subsequently, food insecurity. Salt-affected soils and phosphorus (P) deficiency are the common problems in the sub-Sahara, including the Southern region of Morocco. Soil salinity limits plant growth [...] Read more.
Soil salinity is a major problem in arid and semi-arid regions, causing land degradation, desertification, and subsequently, food insecurity. Salt-affected soils and phosphorus (P) deficiency are the common problems in the sub-Sahara, including the Southern region of Morocco. Soil salinity limits plant growth by limiting water availability, causing a nutritional imbalance, and imparting osmotic stress in the plants. The objective of this study was to determine the positive effects of P on growth and productivity and understand the major leaf mineral nutrient content of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cv. “ICBA Q5” irrigated with saline water. A field experiment applying three salinity (Electrical Conductivity, EC) levels of irrigation water (ECw = 5, 12, and 17 dS·m−1) and three P fertilizer rates (0, 60, and 70 kg of P2O5 ha−1) were evaluated in a split-plot design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in Foum El Oued, South of Morocco on sandy loam soil during the period of March–July 2020. The results showed that irrigation with saline water significantly reduced the final dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index, and crop water productivity of quinoa; however, P application under saline conditions minimized the effect of salinity and improved the yield. The application of 60 and 70 kg of P2O5 ha−1 increased (p < 0.05) the seed yield by 29 and 51% at low salinity (5 dS·m−1), by 16 and 2% at medium salinity (12 dS·m−1), and by 13 and 8% at high salinity (17 dS·m−1), respectively. The leaf Na+ and K+ content and Na+/K+ ratio increased with irrigation water salinity. However, the leaf content of Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe decreased under high salinity. It was also found that increasing P fertilization improved the essential nutrient content and nutrient uptake. Our finding suggests that P application minimizes the adverse effects of high soil salinity and can be adopted as a coping strategy under saline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biosaline Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2892 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Characterization of Sedum plumbizincicola HMA Gene Family Provides Functional Implications in Cadmium Response
by Qingyu Huang, Wenmin Qiu, Miao Yu, Shaocui Li, Zhuchou Lu, Yue Zhu, Xianzhao Kan and Renying Zhuo
Plants 2022, 11(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020215 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
Heavy-metal ATPase (HMA), an ancient family of transition metal pumps, plays important roles in the transmembrane transport of transition metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, and Co. Although characterization of HMAs has been conducted in several plants, scarcely knowledge was revealed [...] Read more.
Heavy-metal ATPase (HMA), an ancient family of transition metal pumps, plays important roles in the transmembrane transport of transition metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, and Co. Although characterization of HMAs has been conducted in several plants, scarcely knowledge was revealed in Sedum plumbizincicola, a type of cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator found in Zhejiang, China. In this study, we first carried out research on genome-wide analysis of the HMA gene family in S. plumbizincicola and finally identified 8 SpHMA genes and divided them into two subfamilies according to sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In addition, a structural analysis showed that SpHMAs were relatively conserved during evolution. All of the SpHMAs contained the HMA domain and the highly conserved motifs, such as DKTGT, GDGxNDxP, PxxK S/TGE, HP, and CPx/SPC. A promoter analysis showed that the majority of the SpHMA genes had cis-acting elements related to the abiotic stress response. The expression profiles showed that most SpHMAs exhibited tissue expression specificity and their expression can be regulated by different heavy metal stress. The members of Zn/Co/Cd/Pb subgroup (SpHMA1-3) were verified to be upregulated in various tissues when exposed to CdCl2. Here we also found that the expression of SpHMA7, which belonged to the Cu/Ag subgroup, had an upregulated trend in Cd stress. Overexpression of SpHMA7 in transgenic yeast indicated an improved sensitivity to Cd. These results provide insights into the evolutionary processes and potential functions of the HMA gene family in S. plumbizincicola, laying a theoretical basis for further studies on figuring out their roles in regulating plant responses to biotic/abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2739 KiB  
Article
QTL Mapping Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn10 DH Population
by Qinghui Han, Qingxiang Zhu, Yao Shen, Michael Lee, Thomas Lübberstedt and Guangwu Zhao
Plants 2022, 11(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020214 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
Chilling injury poses a serious threat to seed emergence of spring-sowing maize in China, which has become one of the main climatic limiting factors affecting maize production in China. It is of great significance to mine the key genes controlling low-temperature tolerance during [...] Read more.
Chilling injury poses a serious threat to seed emergence of spring-sowing maize in China, which has become one of the main climatic limiting factors affecting maize production in China. It is of great significance to mine the key genes controlling low-temperature tolerance during seed germination and study their functions for breeding new maize varieties with strong low-temperature tolerance during germination. In this study, 176 lines of the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population, which comprised 6618 bin markers, were used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. The results showed significant differences in germination related traits under optimum-temperature condition (25 °C) and low-temperature condition (10 °C) between two parental lines. In total, 13 QTLs were detected on all chromosomes, except for chromosome 5, 7, 10. Among them, seven QTLs formed five QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 9 under the low-temperature condition, which suggested that there may be some genes regulating multiple germination traits at the same time. A total of 39 candidate genes were extracted from five QTL clusters based on the maize GDB under the low-temperature condition. To further screen candidate genes controlling low-temperature germination, RNA-Seq, in which RNA was extracted from the germination seeds of B73 and Mo17 at 10 °C, was conducted, and three B73 upregulated genes and five Mo17 upregulated genes were found by combined analysis of RNA-Seq and QTL located genes. Additionally, the variations of Zm00001d027976 (GLABRA2), Zm00001d007311 (bHLH transcription factor), and Zm00001d053703 (bZIP transcription factor) were found by comparison of amino sequence between B73 and Mo17. This study will provide a theoretical basis for marker-assisted breeding and lay a foundation for further revealing molecular mechanism of low-temperature germination tolerance in maize. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Value and Bioactive Compounds of Leaves and Grains from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)
by Elena Villacrés, María Quelal, Susana Galarza, Diana Iza and Edmundo Silva
Plants 2022, 11(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020213 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4481
Abstract
Quinoa is an important crop for food security and food sovereignty in Ecuador. In this study, we evaluated the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and antinutrient compounds of leaves and grains of the Ecuadorian quinoa variety Tunkahuan, and we identified significant differences between the [...] Read more.
Quinoa is an important crop for food security and food sovereignty in Ecuador. In this study, we evaluated the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and antinutrient compounds of leaves and grains of the Ecuadorian quinoa variety Tunkahuan, and we identified significant differences between the nutrient content in the leaves and grains. The quinoa leaves presented a higher protein content than the grains, as well as inorganic nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. Both the grains and leaves had an appreciable phenolic content. In addition, the quinoa grains presented a higher content of the antinutrient saponin than the leaves, while the leaves contained more nitrates and oxalates than the grains. Thus, quinoa leaves and grains exhibit excellent potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Food Products Derived from Plant)
27 pages, 1329 KiB  
Article
Genome Editing in Crop Plant Research—Alignment of Expectations and Current Developments
by Meike Hüdig, Natalie Laibach and Anke-Christiane Hein
Plants 2022, 11(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020212 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4778
Abstract
The rapid development of genome editing and other new genomic techniques (NGT) has evoked manifold expectations on purposes of the application of these techniques to crop plants. In this study, we identify and align these expectations with current scientific development. We apply a [...] Read more.
The rapid development of genome editing and other new genomic techniques (NGT) has evoked manifold expectations on purposes of the application of these techniques to crop plants. In this study, we identify and align these expectations with current scientific development. We apply a semi-quantitative text analysis approach on political, economic, and scientific opinion papers to disentangle and extract expectations towards the application of NGT-based plants. Using the sustainable development goals (SDG) of the 2030 agenda as categories, we identify contributions to food security or adaptation to climatic changes as the most frequently mentioned expectations, accompanied by the notion of sustainable agriculture and food systems. We then link SDG with relevant plant traits and review existing research and commercial field trials for genome-edited crop plants. For a detailed analysis we pick as representative traits drought tolerance and resistance against fungal pathogens. Diverse genetic setscrews for both traits have been identified, modified, and tested under laboratory conditions, although there are only a few in the field. All in all, NGT-plants that can withstand more than one stressor or different environments are not documented in advanced development states. We further conclude that developing new plants with modified traits will not be sufficient to reach food security or adaption to climatic changes in a short time frame. Further scientific development of sustainable agricultural systems will need to play an important role to tackle SDG challenges, as well. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2930 KiB  
Communication
Comparative Analysis of Proanthocyanidin Metabolism and Genes Regulatory Network in Fresh Leaves of Two Different Ecotypes of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum
by Erkui Yue, Yuqing Huang, Lihua Qian, Qiujun Lu, Xianbo Wang, Haifeng Qian, Jianli Yan and Songlin Ruan
Plants 2022, 11(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020211 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg is a rare and wild medicinal resource. Metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, have an important influence on T. hemsleyanum adaptability and its medicinal quality. The metabolite proanthocyanidin (PA) is a polyphenol compound widely distributed in land plants, which can [...] Read more.
Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg is a rare and wild medicinal resource. Metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, have an important influence on T. hemsleyanum adaptability and its medicinal quality. The metabolite proanthocyanidin (PA) is a polyphenol compound widely distributed in land plants, which can be used as antioxidants and anticancer agents. Here, we discovered that three types of PA accumulated in large amounts in purple leaves (PL), but not in green leaves (RG), based on widely non-targeted metabolomics. In addition, we further found that catechins and their derivatives, which are the structural units of PA, are also enriched in PL. Afterwards, we screened and obtained five key genes, DNR1/2, ANS, ANR and LAR closely related to PA biosynthesis through transcriptome analysis and found they were all highly expressed in PL compared to RG. Therefore, observed the regulatory relationship between the main compounds and genes network, and the PA metabolism regulatory pathway was complicated, which may be different to other species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Frontiers in Phytochemicals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Impact of Exogenously Sprayed Antioxidants on Physio-Biochemical, Agronomic, and Quality Parameters of Potato in Salt-Affected Soil
by Eman Selem, Asem A. S. A. Hassan, Mohamed F. Awad, Elsayed Mansour and El-Sayed M. Desoky
Plants 2022, 11(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020210 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
Salinity is one of the harsh environmental stresses that destructively impact potato growth and production, particularly in arid regions. Exogenously applied safe–efficient materials is a vital approach for ameliorating plant growth, productivity, and quality under salinity stress. This study aimed at investigating the [...] Read more.
Salinity is one of the harsh environmental stresses that destructively impact potato growth and production, particularly in arid regions. Exogenously applied safe–efficient materials is a vital approach for ameliorating plant growth, productivity, and quality under salinity stress. This study aimed at investigating the impact of foliar spray using folic acid (FA), ascorbic acid (AA), and salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (100, 150, or 200 mg/L) on plant growth, physiochemical ingredients, antioxidant defense system, tuber yield, and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Spunta) grown in salt-affected soil (EC = 7.14 dS/m) during two growing seasons. The exogenously applied antioxidant materials (FA, AA, and SA) significantly enhanced growth attributes (plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, and leaves area), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), gas exchange (net photosynthetic rate, Pn; transpiration rate, Tr; and stomatal conductance, gs), nutrient content (N, P, and K), K+/ Na+ ratio, nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds (proline and soluble sugar content), enzymatic antioxidants (catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) tuber yield traits, and tuber quality (dry matter, protein, starch percentage, total carbohydrates, and sugars percentage) compared with untreated plants in both seasons. Otherwise, exogenous application significantly decreased Na+ and Cl compared to the untreated control under salt stress conditions. Among the assessed treatments, the applied foliar of AA at a rate of 200 mg/L was more effective in promoting salt tolerance, which can be employed in reducing the losses caused by salinity stress in potato grown in salt-affected soils. Full article
20 pages, 45479 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome and Metabolite Insights into Domestication Process of Cultivated Barley in China
by Yu Zhou, Guang Lu, Genlou Sun, Daokun Sun and Xifeng Ren
Plants 2022, 11(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020209 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
The domestication process of cultivated barley in China remains under debate because of the controversial origins of barley. Here, we analyzed transcriptomic and non-targeted metabolic data from 29 accessions together with public resequencing data from 124 accessions to explore the domestication process of [...] Read more.
The domestication process of cultivated barley in China remains under debate because of the controversial origins of barley. Here, we analyzed transcriptomic and non-targeted metabolic data from 29 accessions together with public resequencing data from 124 accessions to explore the domestication process of cultivated barley in China (Cb-C). These analyses revealed that both Cb-C and Tibetan wild barley (Wb-T) were the descendants of wild barley from the Near East Fertile Crescent (Wb-NE), yielding little support for a local origin of Wb-T. Wb-T was more likely an intermediate in the domestication process from Wb-NE to Cb-C. Wb-T contributed more genetically to Cb-C than Wb-NE, and was domesticated into Cb-C about 3300 years ago. These results together seem to support that Wb-T may be a feralized or hybrid form of cultivated barley from the Near East Fertile Crescent or central Asia. Additionally, the metabolite analysis revealed divergent metabolites of alkaloids and phenylpropanoids and these metabolites were specifically targeted for selection in the evolutionary stages from Wb-NE to Wb-T and from Wb-T to Cb-C. The key missense SNPs in the genes HORVU6Hr1G027650 and HORVU4Hr1G072150 might be responsible for the divergence of metabolites of alkaloids and phenylpropanoids during domestication. Our findings allow for a better understanding of the domestication process of cultivated barley in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetic Resources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Possible α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Trigonella stellata Extract Using LC–MS and In Silico Molecular Docking
by Ahlam Elwekeel, Dalia El Amir, Enas I. A. Mohamed, Elham Amin, Marwa H. A. Hassan and Mohamed A. Zaki
Plants 2022, 11(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020208 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
The current study accentuates the significance of performing the multiplex approach of LC-HRESIMS, biological activity, and docking studies in drug discovery, taking into consideration a review of the literature. In this regard, the investigation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Trigonella stellata collected [...] Read more.
The current study accentuates the significance of performing the multiplex approach of LC-HRESIMS, biological activity, and docking studies in drug discovery, taking into consideration a review of the literature. In this regard, the investigation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Trigonella stellata collected from the Egyptian desert revealed a significant antioxidant capacity using DPPH with IC50 = 656.9 µg/mL and a moderate cytotoxicity against HepG2, MCF7, and CACO2, with IC50 values of 53.3, 48.3, and 55.8 µg/mL, respectively. The evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents resulted in 32.8 mg GAE/g calculated as gallic acid equivalent and 5.6 mg RE/g calculated as rutin equivalent, respectively. Chemical profiling of T. stellata extract, using LC-HRESIMS analysis, revealed the presence of 15 metabolites, among which eleven compounds were detected for the first time in this species. Interestingly, in vitro testing of the antidiabetic activity of the alcoholic extract noted an α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 = 559.4 µg/mL) better than that of the standard Acarbose (IC50 = 799.9 µg/mL), in addition to a moderate inhibition of the α-amylase enzyme (IC50 = 0.77 µg/mL) compared to Acarbose (IC50 = 0.21 µg/mL). α-Glucosidase inhibition was also virtualized by binding interactions through the molecular docking study, presenting a high binding activity of six flavonoid glycosides, as well as the diterpenoid compound graecumoside A and the alkaloid fenugreekine. Taken together, the conglomeration of LC-HRESIMS, antidiabetic activity, and molecular docking studies shed light on T. stellata as a promising antidiabetic herb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Effects of Application of Pig Manure on the Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Rice
by Wenchong Lan, Chunxia Yao, Fan Luo, Zhi Jin, Siwen Lu, Jun Li, Xindong Wang and Xuefeng Hu
Plants 2022, 11(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020207 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Pig manure (PM) is often highly enriched in heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, due to the wide use of feed additives. To study the potential risks of heavy metal accumulation in the soil and rice grains by the application of PM [...] Read more.
Pig manure (PM) is often highly enriched in heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, due to the wide use of feed additives. To study the potential risks of heavy metal accumulation in the soil and rice grains by the application of PM and other organic manure, a four-year field experiment was conducted in the suburb of Shanghai, southeast China. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the soils and rice plants by the treatments of PM and fungal culturing residues (FCR) show a trend of annual increase. Those in the soils and rice by the PM treatment are raised even more significantly. Cu and Zn contents in the soil and rice roots by the PM are significantly higher than those by the non-fertilizer control (CK) during the four years, and Pb and Cd also significantly higher than CK in the latter two years. Heavy metals taken up by the rice plants are mostly retained in the roots. Cu and Zn contents in the rice plants are in the decreasing order of roots > grains > stems > leaves, and Pb and Cd in the order of roots > stems > leaves > grains. Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd contents in the soils by the PM treatment increase by 73%, 32%, 106%, and 127% on annual average, and those in the brown rice by 104%, 98%, 275%, and 199%, respectively. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the brown rice of the treatments are significantly correlated with those in the soils and rice roots (p < 0.05), suggesting the heavy metals accumulated in the rice grains come from the application of PM and FCR. Though the contents of heavy metals in the brown rice during the four experimental years are still within the safe levels, the risks of their accumulative increments, especially by long-term application of PM, can never be neglected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1501 KiB  
Article
Natural Variation of Seed Tocopherol Composition in Diverse World Soybean Accessions from Maturity Group 0 to VI Grown in China
by Suprio Ghosh, Shengrui Zhang, Muhammad Azam, Berhane S. Gebregziabher, Ahmed M. Abdelghany, Abdulwahab S. Shaibu, Jie Qi, Yue Feng, Kwadwo Gyapong Agyenim-Boateng, Yitian Liu, Huoyi Feng, Yecheng Li, Jing Li, Bin Li and Junming Sun
Plants 2022, 11(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020206 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of fat-containing foods and are well known for their health benefits. To investigate the variation in seed tocopherol composition of soybeans from different origins, 493 soybean accessions from different countries (China, USA, Japan, and Russia) [...] Read more.
Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of fat-containing foods and are well known for their health benefits. To investigate the variation in seed tocopherol composition of soybeans from different origins, 493 soybean accessions from different countries (China, USA, Japan, and Russia) belonging to 7 maturity groups (MG 0–VI) were grown in 2 locations (Beijing and Hainan Provinces of China) for 2 years (2017 and 2018). The results showed that significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed among the accessions and origins for individual and total tocopherol contents. The total tocopherol content ranged from 118.92 μg g−1 to 344.02 μg g−1. Accessions from the USA had the highest average concentration of γ- and total tocopherols (152.92 and 238.21 μg g−1, respectively), whereas a higher level of α-tocopherol (12.82 μg g−1) was observed in the Russian accessions. The maturity group of the accession significantly (p < 0.001) influenced all tocopherol components, and higher levels of α-, γ-, and total tocopherols were observed in early maturing accessions, while late-maturing accessions exhibited higher levels of δ-tocopherol. The inclination of tocopherol concentrations with various MGs provided further evidence of the significance of MG in soybean breeding for seed tocopherol components. Furthermore, the correlation between the seed tocopherol components and geographical factors revealed that α-, γ-, and total tocopherols had significant positive correlations with latitude, while δ-tocopherol showed an opposite trend. The elite accessions with high and stable tocopherol concentrations determined could be used to develop functional foods, industrial materials, and breeding lines to improve tocopherol composition in soybean seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Germplasm Resources and Soybean Breeding)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 1739 KiB  
Review
Try or Die: Dynamics of Plant Respiration and How to Survive Low Oxygen Conditions
by Jay Jethva, Romy R. Schmidt, Margret Sauter and Jennifer Selinski
Plants 2022, 11(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020205 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7117
Abstract
Fluctuations in oxygen (O2) availability occur as a result of flooding, which is periodically encountered by terrestrial plants. Plant respiration and mitochondrial energy generation rely on O2 availability. Therefore, decreased O2 concentrations severely affect mitochondrial function. Low O2 [...] Read more.
Fluctuations in oxygen (O2) availability occur as a result of flooding, which is periodically encountered by terrestrial plants. Plant respiration and mitochondrial energy generation rely on O2 availability. Therefore, decreased O2 concentrations severely affect mitochondrial function. Low O2 concentrations (hypoxia) induce cellular stress due to decreased ATP production, depletion of energy reserves and accumulation of metabolic intermediates. In addition, the transition from low to high O2 in combination with light changes—as experienced during re-oxygenation—leads to the excess formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this review, we will update our current knowledge about the mechanisms enabling plants to adapt to low-O2 environments, and how to survive re-oxygenation. New insights into the role of mitochondrial retrograde signaling, chromatin modification, as well as moonlighting proteins and mitochondrial alternative electron transport pathways (and their contribution to low O2 tolerance and survival of re-oxygenation), are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Redox-Dependent Adjustment and Signaling in Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop