Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 65565

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Guest Editor
Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: photosynthesis; photosynthetic membranes; abiotic stress factors; adaptation mechanisms of plants; pigments; exogenous application of protectants; signaling molecules; chlorophyll fluorescence; electron transport; oxygen evolution; heavy metals; phytoremediation
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Guest Editor
Department of Botany, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: plant ecophysiology; biotic stress; abiotic stress; photosynthesis; antioxidative mechanisms; photoprotective mechanisms; mineral nutrition; ROS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Abiotic stress is a major problem for agriculture, affecting growth and productivity of plants. Environmental stress factors such as: drought, salinity, low and high temperature, UV radiation and high light are the main reasons of reduction of crop yields and food production worldwide. Therefore, the study of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant responses to abiotic stress alone or in combination, as well as the searching for tolerant crop varieties is one of the most active research fields in the plant biology. Efforts are focused on the study of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular responses, as well as the mechanisms of plant protection against these stresses. As the photosynthesis is the main driving force for plant growth and crop yields, many studies investigate the stress responses of the photosynthetic apparatus. Photosynthesis is also the primary physiological process affected by abiotic stresses in all its phases. Under most abiotic stresses an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1O2, O2, H2O2, OH) occurs that can lead to oxidative stress. However, these oxidative signals that result from photosynthesis, not only provide cells with tools to monitor electron transport and thus prevent over-reduction or over-oxidation, but also produce redox regulatory networks that facilitate plants to sense and respond to abiotic stress conditions.

Under various stress factors, plants must adapt by adjusting their physiology mechanisms to these adverse conditions. All this requires a selection process and provide a great opportunity to find the appropriate combinations of genes and phenotypes that are tolerant to various environmental factors. Analyzing the effects of abiotic stress factors, alone or in combination, on different crops and/or their tolerant lines is extremely important for studying plant response mechanisms. This knowledge should help to develop sustainable and better adapted plant lines to stress conditions in a global warming and pollution scenario.

Research on all topics related to understanding the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress responses of crop plants, different cultivars, hybrids and genotypes will be welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Anelia Dobrikova
Prof. Dr. Michael Moustakas
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress responses
  • drought
  • salinity
  • temperature stress
  • UV and light stress
  • heavy metals
  • ROS
  • acclimation mechanisms
  • stress tolerance
  • photosynthesis

Published Papers (24 papers)

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20 pages, 3897 KiB  
Article
Nitric Oxide and Strigolactone Alleviate Mercury-Induced Oxidative Stress in Lens culinaris L. by Modulating Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense System
by Riti Thapar Kapoor, Ajaz Ahmad, Awais Shakoor, Bilal Ahamad Paray and Parvaiz Ahmad
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091894 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Developmental activities have escalated mercury (Hg) content in the environment and caused food security problems. The present investigation describes mercury-incited stress in Lens culinaris (lentil) and its mitigation by supplementation of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and strigolactone (GR24). Lentil exposure to Hg decreased root [...] Read more.
Developmental activities have escalated mercury (Hg) content in the environment and caused food security problems. The present investigation describes mercury-incited stress in Lens culinaris (lentil) and its mitigation by supplementation of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and strigolactone (GR24). Lentil exposure to Hg decreased root and shoot length, relative water content and biochemical variables. Exogenous application of SNP and GR24 alone or in combination enhanced all of the aforementioned growth parameters. Hg treatment increased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content, but this significantly decreased with combined application (Hg + SNP + GR24). SNP and GR24 boosted mineral uptake and reduced Hg accumulation, thus minimizing the adverse impacts of Hg. An increase in mineral accretion was recorded in lentil roots and shoots in the presence of SNP and GR24, which might support the growth of lentil plants under Hg stress. Hg accumulation was decreased in lentil roots and shoots by supplementation of SNP and GR24. The methylglyoxal level was reduced in lentil plants with increase in glyoxalase enzymes. Antioxidant and glyoxylase enzyme activities were increased by the presence of SNP and GR24. Therefore, synergistic application of nitric oxide and strigolactone protected lentil plants against Hg-incited oxidative pressure by boosting antioxidant defense and the glyoxalase system, which assisted in biochemical processes regulation. Full article
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18 pages, 800 KiB  
Article
Gibberellic Acid and Silicon Ameliorate NaCl Toxicity in Brassica juncea: Possible Involvement of Antioxidant System and Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle
by Pravej Alam, Thamer Al Balawi, Sami Ullah Qadir and Parvaiz Ahmad
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061210 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
This work was carried out to observe the combined impact of exogenous applications of Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Silicon (Si) on Brassica juncea under salt (NaCl) stress. Application of GA3 and Si enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities of (APX, CAT, [...] Read more.
This work was carried out to observe the combined impact of exogenous applications of Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Silicon (Si) on Brassica juncea under salt (NaCl) stress. Application of GA3 and Si enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities of (APX, CAT, GR, SOD) in B. juncea seedlings under NaCl toxicity. The exogenous Si application decreased Na+ uptake and enhanced the K+ and Ca2+ in salt stressed B. juncea. Moreover, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Chlorophyll-b (Chl-b), total chlorophyll (T-Chl), carotenoids and relative water content (RWC) in the leaves declined under salt stress, which were ameorialated after GA3 and Si supplementation individually and in combination. Further, the introduction of Si to NaCl treated B. juncea help in alleviating the negative effects of NaCl toxicity on biomass and biochemical activities. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increase significantly with NaCl treatments, subsequently resulting in enhanced peroxidation of membrane lipids (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL). The reduced levels of H2O2 and enhanced antioxidantactivities in Si and GA3 supplemented plants demonstrated the stress mitigating efficiency. In conclusion, it was observed that Si and GA3 application alleviated NaCl toxicity in B. juncea plants through enhanced production of different osmolytes and an antioxidant defence mechanism. Full article
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11 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Water Deficit-Induced Changes in Phenolic Acid Content in Maize Leaves Is Associated with Altered Expression of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase and p-Coumaric Acid 3-Hydroxylase
by Zintle Kolo, Anelisa Majola, Kyle Phillips, Ali Elnaeim Elbasheir Ali, Robert E. Sharp and Ndiko Ludidi
Plants 2023, 12(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010101 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
The amino acid phenylalanine is a precursor to phenolic acids that constitute the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Although there is evidence of a role of some phenolic acids in plant responses to pathogens and salinity, characterization of the involvement of phenolic acids in plant [...] Read more.
The amino acid phenylalanine is a precursor to phenolic acids that constitute the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Although there is evidence of a role of some phenolic acids in plant responses to pathogens and salinity, characterization of the involvement of phenolic acids in plant responses to drought is limited. Drought reduces water content in plant tissue and can lead to decreased cell viability and increased cell death. We thus subjected maize seedlings to water deficit and evaluated relative water content and cell viability together with p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid contents in the leaves. Furthermore, we measured the enzymatic activity of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.11) and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.2) and associated these with the expression of genes encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate-3 hydroxylase in response to water deficit. Water deficit reduced relative water content and cell viability in maize leaves. This corresponded with decreased p-coumaric acid but increased caffeic and ferulic acid content in the leaves. Changes in the phenolic acid content of the maize leaves were associated with increased enzymatic activities of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate hydroxylase. The increased enzymatic activity of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase was associated with increased expression of a gene encoding p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase. We thus conclude that metabolic pathways involving phenolic acids may contribute to the regulation of drought responses in maize, and we propose that further work to elucidate this regulation may contribute to the development of new maize varieties with improved drought tolerance. This can be achieved by marker-assisted selection to select maize lines with high levels of expression of genes encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and/or p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase for use in breeding programs aimed and improving drought tolerance, or by overexpression of these genes via genetic engineering to confer drought tolerance. Full article
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11 pages, 1581 KiB  
Article
Effect of Salt Stress on the Activity, Expression, and Promoter Methylation of Succinate Dehydrogenase and Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves
by Dmitry N. Fedorin, Alexander T. Eprintsev, Orlando J. Florez Caro and Abir U. Igamberdiev
Plants 2023, 12(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010068 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
The effect of salt stress on the expression of genes, the methylation of their promoters, and the enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) was investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). The incubation of maize seedlings in a [...] Read more.
The effect of salt stress on the expression of genes, the methylation of their promoters, and the enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) was investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). The incubation of maize seedlings in a 150 mM NaCl solution for 24 h led to a several-fold increase in the activity of SSADH that peaked at 6 h of NaCl treatment, which was preceded by an increase in the Ssadh1 gene expression and a decrease in its promoter methylation observed at 3 h of salt stress. The increase in SDH activity and succinate oxidation by mitochondria was slower, developing by 24 h of NaCl treatment, which corresponded to the increase in expression of the genes Sdh1-2 and Sdh2-3 encoding SDH catalytic subunits and of the gene Sdh3-1 encoding the anchoring SDH subunit. The increase in the Sdh2-3 expression was accompanied by the decrease in promoter methylation. It is concluded that salt stress results in the rapid increase in succinate production via SSADH operating in the GABA shunt, which leads to the activation of SDH, the process partially regulated via epigenetic mechanisms. The role of succinate metabolism under the conditions of salt stress is discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 2470 KiB  
Article
Drought Stress Priming Improved the Drought Tolerance of Soybean
by Mariz Sintaha, Chun-Kuen Man, Wai-Shing Yung, Shaowei Duan, Man-Wah Li and Hon-Ming Lam
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212954 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
The capability of a plant to protect itself from stress-related damages is termed “adaptability” and the phenomenon of showing better performance in subsequent stress is termed “stress memory”. While drought is one of the most serious disasters to result from climate change, the [...] Read more.
The capability of a plant to protect itself from stress-related damages is termed “adaptability” and the phenomenon of showing better performance in subsequent stress is termed “stress memory”. While drought is one of the most serious disasters to result from climate change, the current understanding of drought stress priming in soybean is still inadequate for effective crop improvement. To fill this gap, in this study, the drought memory response was evaluated in cultivated soybean (Glycine max). To determine if a priming stress prior to a drought stress would be beneficial to the survival of soybean, plants were divided into three treatment groups: the unprimed group receiving one cycle of stress (1S), the primed group receiving two cycles of stress (2S), and the unstressed control group not subjected to any stress (US). When compared with the unprimed plants, priming led to a reduction of drought stress index (DSI) by 3, resulting in more than 14% increase in surviving leaves, more than 13% increase in leaf water content, slight increase in shoot water content and a slower rate of loss of water from the detached leaves. Primed plants had less than 60% the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance compared to the unprimed plants, accompanied by a slight drop in photosynthesis rate, and about a 30% increase in water usage efficiency (WUE). Priming also increased the root-to-shoot ratio, potentially improving water uptake. Selected genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and MYB, NAC and PP2C domain-containing transcription factors were shown to be highly induced in primed plants compared to the unprimed group. In conclusion, priming significantly improved the drought stress response in soybean during recurrent drought, partially through the maintenance of water status and stronger expression of stress related genes. In sum, we have identified key physiological parameters for soybean which may be used as indicators for future genetic study to identify the genetic element controlling the drought stress priming. Full article
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17 pages, 3244 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Natural Pigments Production in Response to Various Stress Signals in Cell Lines of Stenocereus queretaroensis
by Jaime Abelardo Ceja-López, Javier Morales-Morales, Jorge Araujo-Sánchez, Wilma González Kantún, Angela Ku, María de Lourdes Miranda-Ham, Luis Carlos Rodriguez-Zapata and Enrique Castaño
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2948; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212948 - 1 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Stenocereus queretaroensis (F.A.C. Weber ex Mathes.) Buxb is a cactus that has long been used as a source food in central and northern México. Its fruits, commonly called pitayas, biosynthesize high amounts of betalains. These molecules are water-soluble nitrogenous compounds; that compared to [...] Read more.
Stenocereus queretaroensis (F.A.C. Weber ex Mathes.) Buxb is a cactus that has long been used as a source food in central and northern México. Its fruits, commonly called pitayas, biosynthesize high amounts of betalains. These molecules are water-soluble nitrogenous compounds; that compared to other pigments, such as anthocyanins or carotenoids, stand out for their physicochemical stability in industrial processes. Due to genetic and environmental factors involved in the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants, we tested different stress-inducing agents (elicitor, osmotic, salt, and temperature) to induce betalains accumulation in cell culture from fruits of Stenocereus queretaroensis. This work aimed to understand stress conditions that induce the metabolic pathways required for the accumulation of betalains. The results show how betacyanin concentration increases under high sugar conditions, thus affecting the expression of L-DOPA 4, 5 dioxygenase resulting in a strong dark red coloration. This suggests this enzyme is part of a rate-limiting step in betalain production. In addition, we found that betalains accumulation occurs under particular stress conditions. Cells that have a high level of betacyanins show better resistance to stress in the cell culture, as well as an overall different behavior including cell aggregation and alterations in nuclear size. Together the results shown here may provide new strategies to manipulate and mass produce the pigments from Stenocereus queretaroensis in cell culture. Full article
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20 pages, 3254 KiB  
Article
The Barley Heavy Metal Associated Isoprenylated Plant Protein HvFP1 Is Involved in a Crosstalk between the Leaf Development and Abscisic Acid-Related Drought Stress Responses
by Athina Parasyri, Olaf Barth, Wiebke Zschiesche and Klaus Humbeck
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2851; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212851 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
The heavy metal associated isoprenylated plant proteins (HIPPs) are characterized by at least one heavy metal associated (HMA) domain and a C-terminal isoprenylation motif. Hordeum vulgare farnesylated protein 1 (HvFP1), a barley HIPP, is upregulated during drought stress, in response to abscisic acid [...] Read more.
The heavy metal associated isoprenylated plant proteins (HIPPs) are characterized by at least one heavy metal associated (HMA) domain and a C-terminal isoprenylation motif. Hordeum vulgare farnesylated protein 1 (HvFP1), a barley HIPP, is upregulated during drought stress, in response to abscisic acid (ABA) and during leaf senescence. To investigate the role of HvFP1, two independent gain-of-function lines were generated. In a physiological level, the overexpression of HvFP1 results in the delay of normal leaf senescence, but not in the delay of rapid, drought-induced leaf senescence. In addition, the overexpression of HvFP1 suppresses the induction of the ABA-related genes during drought and senescence, e.g., HvNCED, HvS40, HvDhn1. Even though HvFP1 is induced during drought, senescence and the ABA treatment, its overexpression suppresses the ABA regulated genes. This indicates that HvFP1 is acting in a negative feedback loop connected to the ABA signaling. The genome-wide transcriptomic analysis via RNA sequencing revealed that the gain-of-function of HvFP1 positively alters the expression of the genes related to leaf development, photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Interestingly, many of those genes encode proteins with zinc binding domains, implying that HvFP1 may act as zinc supplier via its HMA domain. The results show that HvFP1 is involved in a crosstalk between stress responses and growth control pathways. Full article
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15 pages, 2996 KiB  
Article
UV-B Irradiation to Amino Acids and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rhododendron chrysanthum Leaves by Coupling Deep Transcriptome and Metabolome Analysis
by Qi Sun, Meiqi Liu, Kun Cao, Hongwei Xu and Xiaofu Zhou
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202730 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Under natural environmental conditions, excess UV-B stress can cause serious injuries to plants. However, domestication conditions may allow the plant to better cope with the upcoming UV-B stress. The leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum are an evergreen plant that grows at low temperatures and [...] Read more.
Under natural environmental conditions, excess UV-B stress can cause serious injuries to plants. However, domestication conditions may allow the plant to better cope with the upcoming UV-B stress. The leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum are an evergreen plant that grows at low temperatures and high altitudes in the Changbai Mountains, where the harsh ecological environment gives it different UV resistance properties. Metabolites in R. chrysanthum have a significant impact on UV-B resistance, but there are few studies on the dynamics of their material composition and gene expression levels. We used a combination of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and transcriptomics to analyze domesticated and undomesticated R. chrysanthum under UV-B radiation. A total of 404 metabolites were identified, of which amino acids were significantly higher and carbohydrates were significantly lower in domesticated R. chrysanthum. Transcript profiles throughout R. chrysanthum under UV-B were constructed and analyzed, with an emphasis on sugar and amino acid metabolism. The transcript levels of genes associated with sucrose and starch metabolism during UV-B resistance in R. chrysanthum showed a consistent trend with metabolite content, while amino acid metabolism was the opposite. We used metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches to obtain dynamic changes in metabolite and gene levels during UV-B resistance in R. chrysanthum. These results will provide some insights to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of UV tolerance in plants. Full article
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19 pages, 2545 KiB  
Article
Combined Impact of Excess Zinc and Cadmium on Elemental Uptake, Leaf Anatomy and Pigments, Antioxidant Capacity, and Function of Photosynthetic Apparatus in Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L.)
by Anelia Dobrikova, Emilia Apostolova, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. Adamakis, Anetta Hanć, Ilektra Sperdouli and Michael Moustakas
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2407; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182407 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) is a medicinal plant that has the potential to be used for phytoextraction of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils by accumulating these metals in its tissues. Additionally, it has been found to be more [...] Read more.
Clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) is a medicinal plant that has the potential to be used for phytoextraction of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils by accumulating these metals in its tissues. Additionally, it has been found to be more tolerant to excess Zn than to Cd stress alone; however, the interactive effects of the combined treatment with Zn and Cd on this medicinal herb, and the protective strategies of Zn to alleviate Cd toxicity have not yet been established in detail. In this study, clary sage plants grown hydroponically were simultaneously exposed to Zn (900 µM) and Cd (100 μM) for 8 days to obtain more detailed information about the plant responses and the role of excess Zn in mitigating Cd toxicity symptoms. The leaf anatomy, photosynthetic pigments, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity (by DPPH and FRAP analyses), and the uptake and distribution of essential elements were investigated. The results showed that co-exposure to Zn and Cd leads to an increased leaf content of Fe and Mg compared to the control, and to increased leaf Ca, Mn, and Cu contents compared to plants treated with Cd only. This is most likely involved in the defense mechanisms of excess Zn against Cd toxicity to protect the chlorophyll content and the functions of both photosystems and the oxygen-evolving complex. The data also revealed that the leaves of clary sage plants subjected to the combined treatment have an increased antioxidant capacity attributed to the higher content of polyphenolic compounds. Furthermore, light microscopy indicated more alterations in the leaf morphology after Cd-only treatment than after the combined treatment. The present study shows that excess Zn could mitigate Cd toxicity in clary sage plants. Full article
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16 pages, 3221 KiB  
Article
Folic Acid Confers Tolerance against Salt Stress-Induced Oxidative Damages in Snap Beans through Regulation Growth, Metabolites, Antioxidant Machinery and Gene Expression
by Hameed Alsamadany, Hassan Mansour, Amr Elkelish and Mohamed F. M. Ibrahim
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111459 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5610
Abstract
Although the effect of folic acid (FA) and its derivatives (folates) have been extensively studied in humans and animals, their effects are still unclear in most plant species, specifically under various abiotic stress conditions. Here, the impact of FA as a foliar application [...] Read more.
Although the effect of folic acid (FA) and its derivatives (folates) have been extensively studied in humans and animals, their effects are still unclear in most plant species, specifically under various abiotic stress conditions. Here, the impact of FA as a foliar application at 0, 0.1, and 0.2 mM was studied on snap bean seedlings grown under non-saline and salinity stress (50 mM NaCl) conditions. The results indicated that under salinity stress, FA-treated plants revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in growth parameters (fresh and dry weight of shoot and root). A similar trend was observed in chlorophyll (Chl b), total chlorophyll, carotenoids, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline, free amino acids (FAA), soluble sugars, cell membrane stability index (CMSI), and K, Ca, and K/Na ratio compared to the untreated plants. In contrast, a significant decrease was observed in Na and salinity-induced oxidative damage as indicated by reduced H2O2 production (using biochemical and histochemical detection methods) and rate of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA). This enhancement was correlated by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Gene expression analyses conducted using qRT-PCR demonstrated that genes coding for the Na+/H+ antiporter protein Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1), the tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ antiporter protein (NHX1), and the multifunctional osmotic protective protein (Osmotin) were significantly up-regulated in the FA-treated plants under both saline and non-saline treatments. Generally, treatment with 0.2 mM FA was more potent than 0.1 mM and can be recommended to improve snap bean tolerance to salinity stress. Full article
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20 pages, 2856 KiB  
Article
Role of Spermidine in Photosynthesis and Polyamine Metabolism in Lettuce Seedlings under High-Temperature Stress
by Xin He, Jinghong Hao, Shuangxi Fan, Chaojie Liu and Yingyan Han
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101385 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
High temperature is a huge threat to lettuce production in the world, and spermidine (Spd) has been shown to improve heat tolerance in lettuce, but the action mechanism of Spd and the role of polyamine metabolism are still unclear. The effects of Spd [...] Read more.
High temperature is a huge threat to lettuce production in the world, and spermidine (Spd) has been shown to improve heat tolerance in lettuce, but the action mechanism of Spd and the role of polyamine metabolism are still unclear. The effects of Spd and D-arginine (D-arg) on hydroponic lettuce seedlings under high-temperature stress by foliar spraying of Spd and D-arg were investigated. The results showed that high-temperature stress significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce seedlings, with a 33% decrease in total fresh weight and total dry weight; photosynthesis of lettuce seedlings was inhibited by high-temperature stress, and the inhibition was greater in the D-arg treatment, while the Spd recovery treatment increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal limit value (Ls), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). High-temperature stress significantly reduced the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), electron transport rate (ETR), and photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), increased the non-photochemical burst coefficient (NPQ) and reduced the use of light energy, which was alleviated by exogenous Spd. The increase in polyamine content may be due to an increase in polyamine synthase activity and a decrease in polyamine oxidase activity, as evidenced by changes in the expression levels of genes related to polyamine synthesis and metabolism enzymes. This evidence suggested that D-arg suppressed endogenous polyamine levels in lettuce and reduced its tolerance, whereas exogenous Spd promoted the synthesis and accumulation of polyamines in lettuce and increased its photosynthetic and oxidative stress levels, which had an impact on the tolerance of lettuce seedlings. Full article
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16 pages, 3643 KiB  
Article
Melatonin Mitigates Drought Induced Oxidative Stress in Potato Plants through Modulation of Osmolytes, Sugar Metabolism, ABA Homeostasis and Antioxidant Enzymes
by Ahmed Abou El-Yazied, Mohamed F. M. Ibrahim, Mervat A. R. Ibrahim, Ibrahim N. Nasef, Salem Mesfir Al-Qahtani, Nadi Awad Al-Harbi, Fahad Mohammed Alzuaibr, Abdullah Alaklabi, Eldessoky S. Dessoky, Nadiyah M. Alabdallah, Mohamed M. A. Omar, Mariam T. S. Ibrahim, Amr A. Metwally, Karim. M. Hassan and Said A. Shehata
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091151 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 3358
Abstract
The effect of melatonin (MT) on potato plants under drought stress is still unclear in the available literature. Here, we studied the effect of MT as a foliar application at 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mM on potato plants grown under well-watered and [...] Read more.
The effect of melatonin (MT) on potato plants under drought stress is still unclear in the available literature. Here, we studied the effect of MT as a foliar application at 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mM on potato plants grown under well-watered and drought stressed conditions during the most critical period of early tuberization stage. The results indicated that under drought stress conditions, exogenous MT significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, chlorophyll (Chl; a, b and a + b), leaf relative water content (RWC), free amino acids (FAA), non-reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, cell membrane stability index, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared to the untreated plants. Meanwhile, carotenoids, proline, methylglyoxal (MG), H2O2, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were significantly decreased compared to the untreated plants. These responses may reveal the protective role of MT against drought induced carbonyl/oxidative stress and enhancing the antioxidative defense systems. Furthermore, tuber yield was differentially responded to MT treatments under well-watered and drought stressed conditions. Since, applied-MT led to an obvious decrease in tuber yield under well-watered conditions. In contrast, under drought conditions, tuber yield was substantially increased by MT-treatments up to 0.1 mM. These results may imply that under water deficiency, MT can regulate the tuberization process in potato plants by hindering ABA transport from the root to shoot system, on the one hand, and by increasing the non-reducing sugars on the other hand. Full article
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25 pages, 4594 KiB  
Article
SNP Based Trait Characterization Detects Genetically Important and Stable Multiple Stress Tolerance Rice Genotypes in Salt-Stress Environments
by Sanjoy K. Debsharma, Mohammad Akhlasur Rahman, Mohammad Ruhul Quddus, Hasina Khatun, Ribed F. Disha, Popy R. Roy, Sharif Ahmed, Mohamed El-Sharnouby, Khandakar Md. Iftekharuddaula, Salman Aloufi, Fahad M. Alzuaibr, Mohammed Alqurashi, Mohamed I. Sakran and Mohammad Shahjahan Kabir
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091150 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Soil salinity is a major constraint to rice production in coastal areas around the globe, and modern high-yielding rice cultivars are more sensitive to high salt stress, which limits rice productivity. Traditional breeding programs find it challenging to develop stable salt-tolerant rice cultivars [...] Read more.
Soil salinity is a major constraint to rice production in coastal areas around the globe, and modern high-yielding rice cultivars are more sensitive to high salt stress, which limits rice productivity. Traditional breeding programs find it challenging to develop stable salt-tolerant rice cultivars with other stress-tolerant for the saline environment in Bangladesh due to large yield variations caused by excessive salinity fluctuations during the dry (boro) season. We examined trait characterization of 18 advanced breeding lines using SNP genotyping and among them, we found line G6 (BR9621-B-1-2-11) (single breeding line with multiple-stress-tolerant QTL/genes) possessed 9 useful QTLs/genes, and two lines (G4:BR9620-2-7-1-1 and G14: IR 103854-8-3-AJY1) carried 7 QTLs/genes that control the desirable traits. To evaluate yield efficiency and stability of 18 rice breeding lines, two years of field experiment data were analyzed using AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) and GGE (Genotype, Genotype Environment) biplot analysis. The AMMI analysis of variance demonstrated significant genotype, environment, and their interaction, accounting for 14.48%, 62.38%, and 19.70% of the total variation, respectively, and revealed that among the genotypes G1, G13, G14, G17, and G18 were shown to some extent promising. Genotype G13 (IR 104002-CMU 28-CMU 1-CMU 3) was the most stable yield based on the AMMI stability value. The GGE biplot analysis indicates 76% of the total variation (PC1 48.5% and PC2 27.5%) which is performed for revealing genotype × environment interactions. In the GGE biplot analysis, genotypes were checked thoroughly in two mega-environments (ME). Genotype G14 (IR103854-8-3-AJY1) was the winning genotype in ME I, whereas G1 (BR9627-1-3-1-10) in ME II. Because of the salinity and stability factors, as well as the highest averages of grain yield, the GGE and AMMI biplot model can explain that G1 and G13 are the best genotypes. These (G1, G6, G13, G14, G17, and G18) improved multiple-stress-tolerant breeding lines with stable grain yield could be included in the variety release system in Bangladesh and be used as elite donor parents for the future breeding program as well as for commercial purposes with sustainable production. Full article
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16 pages, 10310 KiB  
Article
Alpha Lipoic Acid as a Protective Mediator for Regulating the Defensive Responses of Wheat Plants against Sodic Alkaline Stress: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Aspects
by Khaled M. A. Ramadan, Maha Mohammed Alharbi, Asma Massad Alenzi, Hossam S. El-Beltagi, Doaa Bahaa Eldin Darwish, Mohammed I. Aldaej, Tarek A. Shalaby, Abdallah Tageldein Mansour, Yasser Abd El-Gawad El-Gabry and Mohamed F. M. Ibrahim
Plants 2022, 11(6), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060787 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
Recently, exogenous α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been suggested to improve the tolerance of plants to a wide array of abiotic stresses. However, there is currently no definitive data on the role of ALA in wheat plants exposed to sodic alkaline stress. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Recently, exogenous α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been suggested to improve the tolerance of plants to a wide array of abiotic stresses. However, there is currently no definitive data on the role of ALA in wheat plants exposed to sodic alkaline stress. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of foliar application by ALA at 0 (distilled water as control) and 20 µM on wheat seedlings grown under sodic alkaline stress (50 mM 1:1 NaHCO3 & Na2CO3; pH 9.7. Under sodic alkaline stress, exogenous ALA significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved growth (shoot fresh and dry weight), chlorophyll (Chl) a, b and Chl a + b, while Chl a/b ratio was not affected. Moreover, leaf relative water content (RWC), total soluble sugars, carotenoids, total soluble phenols, ascorbic acid, K and Ca were significantly increased in the ALA-treated plants compared to the ALA-untreated plants. This improvement was concomitant with reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and H2O2. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) demonstrated greater activity in the ALA-treated plants compared to the non-treated ones. Conversely, proline, catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POX), Na and Na/K ratio were significantly decreased in the ALA-treated plants. Under sodic alkaline stress, the relative expression of photosystem II (D2 protein; PsbD) was significantly up-regulated in the ALA treatment (67% increase over the ALA-untreated plants); while Δ pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter protein of salt overly sensitive gene (SOS1) and tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ antiporter protein (NHX1) were down-regulated by 21, 37 and 53%, respectively, lower than the ALA-untreated plants. These results reveal that ALA may be involved in several possible mechanisms of alkalinity tolerance in wheat plants. Full article
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24 pages, 3435 KiB  
Article
Molecular Genetic Diversity and Combining Ability for Some Physiological and Agronomic Traits in Rice under Well-Watered and Water-Deficit Conditions
by Raghda M. Sakran, Mohamed I. Ghazy, Medhat Rehan, Abdullah S. Alsohim and Elsayed Mansour
Plants 2022, 11(5), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050702 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3140
Abstract
Water deficit is a pivotal abiotic stress that detrimentally constrains rice growth and production. Thereupon, the development of high-yielding and drought-tolerant rice genotypes is imperative in order to sustain rice production and ensure global food security. The present study aimed to evaluate diverse [...] Read more.
Water deficit is a pivotal abiotic stress that detrimentally constrains rice growth and production. Thereupon, the development of high-yielding and drought-tolerant rice genotypes is imperative in order to sustain rice production and ensure global food security. The present study aimed to evaluate diverse exotic and local parental rice genotypes and their corresponding cross combinations under water-deficit versus well-watered conditions, determining general and specific combining ability effects, heterosis, and the gene action controlling important traits through half-diallel analysis. In addition, the research aimed to assess parental genetic distance (GD) employing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and to determine its association with hybrid performance, heterosis, and specific combining ability (SCA) effects. Six diverse rice genotypes (exotic and local) and their 15 F1 hybrids were assessed for two years under water-deficit and well-watered conditions. The results revealed that water-deficit stress substantially declined days to heading, plant height, chlorophyll content, relative water content, grain yield, and yield attributes. Contrarily, leaf rolling and the sterility percentage were considerably increased compared to well-watered conditions. Genotypes differed significantly for all the studied characteristics under water-deficit and well-watered conditions. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in governing the inheritance of all the studied traits; however, additive gene action was predominant for most traits. The parental genotypes P1 and P2 were identified as excellent combiners for earliness and the breeding of short stature genotypes. Moreover, P3, P4, and P6 were identified as excellent combiners to increase grain yield and its attributes under water-deficit conditions. The hybrid combinations; P1 × P4, P2 × P5, P3 × P4, and P4 × P6 were found to be good specific combiners for grain yield and its contributed traits under water-deficit conditions. The parental genetic distance (GD) ranged from 0.38 to 0.89, with an average of 0.70. It showed lower association with hybrid performance, heterosis, and combining ability effects for all the studied traits. Nevertheless, SCA revealed a significant association with hybrid performance and heterosis, which suggests that SCA is a good predictor for hybrid performance and heterosis under water-deficit conditions. Strong positive relationships were identified between grain yield and each of relative water content, chlorophyll content, number of panicles/plant, number of filled grains/panicle, and 1000-grain weight. This suggests that these traits could be exploited as important indirect selection criteria for improving rice grain yield under water-deficit conditions. Full article
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12 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Impact of Exogenously Sprayed Antioxidants on Physio-Biochemical, Agronomic, and Quality Parameters of Potato in Salt-Affected Soil
by Eman Selem, Asem A. S. A. Hassan, Mohamed F. Awad, Elsayed Mansour and El-Sayed M. Desoky
Plants 2022, 11(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020210 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Salinity is one of the harsh environmental stresses that destructively impact potato growth and production, particularly in arid regions. Exogenously applied safe–efficient materials is a vital approach for ameliorating plant growth, productivity, and quality under salinity stress. This study aimed at investigating the [...] Read more.
Salinity is one of the harsh environmental stresses that destructively impact potato growth and production, particularly in arid regions. Exogenously applied safe–efficient materials is a vital approach for ameliorating plant growth, productivity, and quality under salinity stress. This study aimed at investigating the impact of foliar spray using folic acid (FA), ascorbic acid (AA), and salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (100, 150, or 200 mg/L) on plant growth, physiochemical ingredients, antioxidant defense system, tuber yield, and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Spunta) grown in salt-affected soil (EC = 7.14 dS/m) during two growing seasons. The exogenously applied antioxidant materials (FA, AA, and SA) significantly enhanced growth attributes (plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, and leaves area), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), gas exchange (net photosynthetic rate, Pn; transpiration rate, Tr; and stomatal conductance, gs), nutrient content (N, P, and K), K+/ Na+ ratio, nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds (proline and soluble sugar content), enzymatic antioxidants (catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) tuber yield traits, and tuber quality (dry matter, protein, starch percentage, total carbohydrates, and sugars percentage) compared with untreated plants in both seasons. Otherwise, exogenous application significantly decreased Na+ and Cl compared to the untreated control under salt stress conditions. Among the assessed treatments, the applied foliar of AA at a rate of 200 mg/L was more effective in promoting salt tolerance, which can be employed in reducing the losses caused by salinity stress in potato grown in salt-affected soils. Full article
16 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Defense during Recovery of Resurrection Plant Haberlea rhodopensis from Drought- and Freezing-Induced Desiccation
by Gergana Mihailova, Ivanina Vasileva, Liliana Gigova, Emiliya Gesheva, Lyudmila Simova-Stoilova and Katya Georgieva
Plants 2022, 11(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020175 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
In this study, the contribution of nonenzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase) in the first hours of recovery of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis from drought- and freezing-induced desiccation was assessed. The initial stage of recovery [...] Read more.
In this study, the contribution of nonenzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase) in the first hours of recovery of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis from drought- and freezing-induced desiccation was assessed. The initial stage of recovery after desiccation is critical for plants, but less investigated. To better understand the alterations in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, their isoenzyme patterns were determined. Our results showed that ascorbate content remained high during the first 9 h of rehydration of desiccated plants and declined when the leaves′ water content significantly increased. The glutathione content remained high at the first hour of rehydration and then strongly decreased. The changes in ascorbate and glutathione content during recovery from drought- and freezing-induced desiccation showed great similarity. At the beginning of rehydration (1–5 h), the activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased or remained as in dry plants. During 7–24 h of rehydration, certain differences in the enzymatic responses between the two plant groups were registered. The maintenance of a high antioxidant activity and upregulation of individual enzyme isoforms indicated their essential role in protecting plants from oxidative damage during the onset of recovery. Full article
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25 pages, 9262 KiB  
Article
Soil Amendment Using Biochar and Application of K-Humate Enhance the Growth, Productivity, and Nutritional Value of Onion (Allium cepa L.) under Deficit Irrigation Conditions
by Khaled G. Abdelrasheed, Yasser Mazrou, Alaa El-Dein Omara, Hany S. Osman, Yasser Nehela, Emad M. Hafez, Asmaa M. S. Rady, Diaa Abd El-Moneim, Bassam F. Alowaiesh and Salah M. Gowayed
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122598 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3516
Abstract
Water scarcity, due to physical shortage or inadequate access, is a major global challenge that severely affects agricultural productivity and sustainability. Deficit irrigation is a promising strategy to overcome water scarcity, particularly in arid and semiarid regions with limited freshwater resources. However, precise [...] Read more.
Water scarcity, due to physical shortage or inadequate access, is a major global challenge that severely affects agricultural productivity and sustainability. Deficit irrigation is a promising strategy to overcome water scarcity, particularly in arid and semiarid regions with limited freshwater resources. However, precise application of deficit irrigation requires a better understanding of the plant response to water/drought stress. In the current study, we investigated the potential impacts of biochar-based soil amendment and foliar potassium-humate application (separately or their combination) on the growth, productivity, and nutritional value of onion (Allium cepa L.) under deficient irrigation conditions in two separate field trials during the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons. Our findings showed that deficit irrigation negatively affected onion resilience to drought stress. However, these harmful effects were diminished after soil amendment using biochar, K-humate foliar application, or their combination. Briefly, integrated biochar and K-humate application increased onion growth, boosted the content of the photosynthetic pigments, enhanced the water relations, and increased the yield traits of deficient irrigation onion plants. Moreover, it improved the biochemical response, enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and enriched the nutrient value of deficiently irrigated onion plants. Collectively, these findings highlight the potential utilization of biochar and K-humate as sustainable eco-friendly strategies to improve onion resilience to deficit irrigation. Full article
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21 pages, 31326 KiB  
Article
Modification of Growth and Physiological Response of Coastal Dune Species Anthyllis maritima to Sand Burial by Rhizobial Symbiosis and Salinity
by Laura Gaile, Una Andersone-Ozola, Ineta Samsone, Didzis Elferts and Gederts Ievinsh
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122584 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to establish an experimental system in controlled conditions to study the physiological effect of abiotic/biotic interaction using a rare wild leguminous plant species from coastal sand dunes, Anthyllis maritima. The particular hypothesis tested was that [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to establish an experimental system in controlled conditions to study the physiological effect of abiotic/biotic interaction using a rare wild leguminous plant species from coastal sand dunes, Anthyllis maritima. The particular hypothesis tested was that there is an interaction between sand burial, rhizobial symbiosis and salt treatment at the level of physiological responses. Experiment in controlled conditions included 18 treatment combinations of experimental factors, with two intensities of sand burial, rhizobial inoculation and two types of NaCl treatment (soil irrigation and foliar spray). Shoot biomass was significantly affected both by burial and by inoculation, and by interaction between burial and NaCl in the case of shoot dry mass. For plants sprayed with NaCl, burial had a strong significant positive effect on shoot growth irrespective of inoculation. General effect of inoculation with rhizobia on shoot growth of plants without NaCl treatment was negative except for the plants buried 2 cm with sand, where significant stimulation of shoot dry mass by inoculant was found. The positive effect of burial on shoot growth was mainly associated with an increase in leaf petiole height and number of leaves. Performance index significantly increased in buried plants in all treatment combinations, and leaf chlorophyll concentration increased in buried plants independently on burial depth, and only in plants not treated with NaCl. Inoculation led to significant increase of leaf peroxidase activity in all treatment combinations except NaCl-irrigated plants buried for 2 cm by sand. Sand burial stimulated peroxidase activity, mostly in non-inoculated plants, as inoculation itself led to increased enzyme activity. In conclusion, strong interaction between sand burial and NaCl treatment was evident, as the latter significantly affected the effect of burial on growth and physiological indices. Moreover, rhizobial symbiosis had a significant effect on physiological processes through interaction with both sand burial and NaCl treatment, but the effect was rather controversial; it was positive for photosynthesis-related parameters but negative for growth and tissue integrity indices. Full article
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16 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Application of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Mitigates Salt-Induced Oxidative Damage in Sorghum Plants through Regulation Growth, Leaf Pigments, Ionic Homeostasis, Antioxidant Enzymes, and Expression of Salt Stress Responsive Genes
by Montaser H. M. Youssef, Aly Raafat, Ahmed Abou El-Yazied, Samy Selim, Ehab Azab, Ebtihal Khojah, Nihal El Nahhas and Mohamed F. M. Ibrahim
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112519 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
In plants, α-Lipoic acid (ALA) is considered a dithiol short-chain fatty acid with several strong antioxidative properties. To date, no data are conclusive regarding its effects as an exogenous application on salt stressed sorghum plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of [...] Read more.
In plants, α-Lipoic acid (ALA) is considered a dithiol short-chain fatty acid with several strong antioxidative properties. To date, no data are conclusive regarding its effects as an exogenous application on salt stressed sorghum plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of 20 µM ALA as a foliar application on salt-stressed sorghum plants (0, 75 and 150 mM as NaCl). Under saline conditions, the applied-ALA significantly (p ≤ 0.05) stimulated plant growth, indicated by improving both fresh and dry shoot weights. A similar trend was observed in the photosynthetic pigments, including Chl a, Chl b and carotenoids. This improvement was associated with an obvious increase in the membrane stability index (MSI). At the same time, an obvious decrease in the salt induced oxidative damages was seen when the concentration of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in the salt stressed leaf tissues. Generally, ALA-treated plants demonstrated higher antioxidant enzyme activity than in the ALA-untreated plants. A moderate level of salinity (75 mM) induced the highest activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Meanwhile, the highest activity of catalase (CAT) was seen with 150 mM NaCl. Interestingly, applied-ALA led to a substantial decrease in the concentration of both Na and the Na/K ratio. In contrast, K and Ca exhibited a considerable increase in this respect. The role of ALA in the regulation of K+/Na+ selectivity under saline condition was confirmed through a molecular study (RT-PCR). It was found that ALA treatment downregulated the relative gene expression of plasma membrane (SOS1) and vacuolar (NHX1) Na+/H+ antiporters. In contrast, the high-affinity potassium transporter protein (HKT1) was upregulated. Full article
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21 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
The Integrated Amendment of Sodic-Saline Soils Using Biochar and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhances Maize (Zea mays L.) Resilience to Water Salinity
by Yasser Nehela, Yasser S. A. Mazrou, Tarek Alshaal, Asmaa M. S. Rady, Ahmed M. A. El-Sherif, Alaa El-Dein Omara, Ahmed M. Abd El-Monem and Emad M. Hafez
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091960 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3915
Abstract
The utilization of low-quality water or slightly saline water in sodic-saline soil is a major global conundrum that severely impacts agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions with limited freshwater resources. Herein, we proposed an integrated amendment strategy for sodic-saline [...] Read more.
The utilization of low-quality water or slightly saline water in sodic-saline soil is a major global conundrum that severely impacts agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions with limited freshwater resources. Herein, we proposed an integrated amendment strategy for sodic-saline soil using biochar and/or plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azotobacter chroococcum SARS 10 and Pseudomonas koreensis MG209738) to alleviate the adverse impacts of saline water on the growth, physiology, and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.), as well as the soil properties and nutrient uptake during two successive seasons (2018 and 2019). Our field experiments revealed that the combined application of PGPR and biochar (PGPR + biochar) significantly improved the soil ecosystem and physicochemical properties and K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents but reduced the soil exchangeable sodium percentage and Na+ content. Likewise, it significantly increased the activity of soil urease (158.14 ± 2.37 and 165.51 ± 3.05 mg NH4+ g−1 dry soil d−1) and dehydrogenase (117.89 ± 1.86 and 121.44 ± 1.00 mg TPF g−1 dry soil d−1) in 2018 and 2019, respectively, upon irrigation with saline water compared with non-treated control. PGPR + biochar supplementation mitigated the hazardous impacts of saline water on maize plants grown in sodic-saline soil better than biochar or PGPR individually (PGPR + biochar > biochar > PGPR). The highest values of leaf area index, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total soluble sugar (TSS), relative water content, K+ and K+/Na+ of maize plants corresponded to PGPR + biochar treatment. These findings could be guidelines for cultivating not only maize but other cereal crops particularly in salt-affected soil and sodic-saline soil. Full article
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12 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Selenium Biofortification of Soybean Seeds Influences Physiological Responses of Seedlings to Osmotic Stress
by Lucija Galić, Marija Špoljarević, Elizabeta Jakovac, Boris Ravnjak, Tihana Teklić, Miroslav Lisjak, Katarina Perić, Franjo Nemet and Zdenko Lončarić
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081498 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Climate change poses a serious threat to agricultural production. Water deficit in agricultural soils is one of the consequences of climate change that has a negative impact on crop growth and yield. Selenium (Se) is known to be involved in plant defense against [...] Read more.
Climate change poses a serious threat to agricultural production. Water deficit in agricultural soils is one of the consequences of climate change that has a negative impact on crop growth and yield. Selenium (Se) is known to be involved in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress through metabolic, structural, and physiological activity in higher plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological response of Se-biofortified soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seedlings under osmotic stress. For this research, we used biofortified soybean grain obtained after foliar Se biofortification in 2020. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber with two cultivars (Lucija and Sonja) grown on filter paper in three replicates. The experiment was carried out with two watering treatments: distilled water (PEG-0) and 2.5% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-2.5) on Se-biofortified seeds (Se) and nonbiofortified seeds (wSe). Contents of lipid peroxidation product (LP), free proline (PRO), total phenolic content (TP), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ascorbic acid (AA) were analyzed in 7-days-old seedlings. Significant differences were detected in the Se content of soybean grains between the two cultivars. A milder reaction to PEG-2.5 was observed in cultivar Lucija in both Se and wSe treatments, which might represent the mitigating effects of Se on osmotic stress in this cultivar. Contrarily, in cultivar Sonja, Se adversely affected all analyzed traits in the PEG-2.5 treatment. Ultimately, Se is a pro-oxidant in Sonja, whereas it represents an anti-oxidant in Lucija. In conclusion, different soybean cultivars show contrasting physiological reactions to both osmotic stress and Se. However, the activation of antioxidant pathways in Sonja can also be interpreted as added value in soybean seedlings as a functional food. Full article
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17 pages, 3041 KiB  
Article
Different Sensitivity Levels of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Zea mays L. and Sorghum bicolor L. under Salt Stress
by Martin A. Stefanov, Georgi D. Rashkov, Ekaterina K. Yotsova, Preslava B. Borisova, Anelia G. Dobrikova and Emilia L. Apostolova
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071469 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
The impacts of different NaCl concentrations (0–250 mM) on the photosynthesis of new hybrid lines of maize (Zea mays L. Kerala) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Shamal) were investigated. Salt-induced changes in the functions of photosynthetic apparatus were assessed using chlorophyll [...] Read more.
The impacts of different NaCl concentrations (0–250 mM) on the photosynthesis of new hybrid lines of maize (Zea mays L. Kerala) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Shamal) were investigated. Salt-induced changes in the functions of photosynthetic apparatus were assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence (PAM and OJIP test) and P700 photooxidation. Greater differences between the studied species in response to salinization were observed at 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl. The data revealed the stronger influence of maize in comparison to sorghum on the amount of closed PSII centers (1-qp) and their efficiency (Φexc), as well as on the effective quantum yield of the photochemical energy conversion of PSII (ΦPSII). Changes in the effective antenna size of PSII (ABS/RC), the electron flux per active reaction center (REo/RC) and the electron transport flux further QA (ETo/RC) were also registered. These changes in primary PSII photochemistry influenced the electron transport rate (ETR) and photosynthetic rate (parameter RFd), with the impacts being stronger in maize than sorghum. Moreover, the lowering of the electron transport rate from QA to the PSI end electron acceptors (REo/RC) and the probability of their reduction (φRo) altered the PSI photochemical activity, which influenced photooxidation of P700 and its decay kinetics. The pigment content and stress markers of oxidative damage were also determined. The data revealed a better salt tolerance of sorghum than maize, associated with the structural alterations in the photosynthetic membranes and the stimulation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI at higher NaCl concentrations. The relationships between the decreased pigment content, increased levels of stress markers and different inhibition levels of the function of both photosystems are discussed. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

16 pages, 628 KiB  
Review
Molecular Insights into Freezing Stress in Peach Based on Multi-Omics and Biotechnology: An Overview
by Pandiyan Muthuramalingam, Hyunsuk Shin, Sivakumar Adarshan, Rajendran Jeyasri, Arumugam Priya, Jen-Tsung Chen and Manikandan Ramesh
Plants 2022, 11(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060812 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
In nature or field conditions, plants are frequently exposed to diverse environmental stressors. Among abiotic stresses, the low temperature of freezing conditions is a critical factor that influences plants, including horticultural crops, decreasing their growth, development, and eventually quality and productivity. Fortunately, plants [...] Read more.
In nature or field conditions, plants are frequently exposed to diverse environmental stressors. Among abiotic stresses, the low temperature of freezing conditions is a critical factor that influences plants, including horticultural crops, decreasing their growth, development, and eventually quality and productivity. Fortunately, plants have developed a mechanism to improve the tolerance to freezing during exposure to a range of low temperatures. In this present review, current findings on freezing stress physiology and genetics in peach (Prunus persica) were refined with an emphasis on adaptive mechanisms for cold acclimation, deacclimation, and reacclimation. In addition, advancements using multi-omics and genetic engineering approaches unravel the molecular physiological mechanisms, including hormonal regulations and their general perceptions of freezing tolerance in peach were comprehensively described. This review might pave the way for future research to the horticulturalists and research scientists to overcome the challenges of freezing temperature and improvement of crop management in these conditions. Full article
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