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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 18 (September-2 2022) – 119 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Leaf and stem rusts caused by Melampsora spp. fungi are the greatest threats to sustainable production of willow bioenergy crops. We collected isolates of stem rust and conducted DNA sequence analysis to confirm that the isolates of Melampsora paradoxa collected over multiple years were of the same clonal lineage, indicating asexual persistence, a novel discovery for this species. We recovered M. paradoxa isolates of the same clonal lineage from stem cankers after overwintering, providing a likely mechanism for this asexual persistence. We also isolated Colletotrichum salicis, which may play a role in stem canker development. Using disease severity data, we mapped host resistance loci in Salix F1 mapping populations. This work provides a foundation for breeding resistance to stem rust. View this paper
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16 pages, 4397 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Morphological Investigations of Two Giant Diatom Cymbella Species from the Transbaikal Area (Russia, Siberia) with Comments on Their Distributions
by Anton M. Glushchenko, Yevhen I. Maltsev, John Patrick Kociolek, Irina V. Kuznetsova and Maxim S. Kulikovskiy
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182445 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
For the first time, a giant diatom species of the genus Cymbella from Lake Baikal was studied using molecular methods. Molecular and morphological investigations allowed to us to described one new species, Cymbella baicalaspera Glushchenko, Kulikovskiy and Kociolek sp. nov. This species is [...] Read more.
For the first time, a giant diatom species of the genus Cymbella from Lake Baikal was studied using molecular methods. Molecular and morphological investigations allowed to us to described one new species, Cymbella baicalaspera Glushchenko, Kulikovskiy and Kociolek sp. nov. This species is both morphologically similar and phylogenetically close to a second giant Cymbella species that we investigated here, identified by us as Cymbella himalaspera Jüttner and Van de Vijver in Jüttner et al. 2010. This species was first described from Nepal on the basis of a morphological investigation. Small morphological differences exist between the type population and specimens from Lake Baikal, but otherwise the two are identical. These very interesting results show that some Baikalian diatoms can be distributed more widely and are not only endemic to this ancient lake. Similarity between Cymbella baicalaspera sp. nov. and Cymbella himalaspera on the basis of both morphological features and their close phylogenetic relationships suggested by molecular data indicate they are sister species and an example of sympatric speciation. These results also suggest an early development of a species flock. This species group warrants additional research in terms of. their diversification and biogeography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Taxonomy of Plants)
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17 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
Selected Indices to Identify Water-Stress-Tolerant Tropical Forage Grasses
by Alan Mario Zuffo, Fábio Steiner, Jorge González Aguilera, Rafael Felippe Ratke, Leandra Matos Barrozo, Ricardo Mezzomo, Adaniel Sousa dos Santos, Hebert Hernán Soto Gonzales, Pedro Arias Cubillas and Sheda Méndez Ancca
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182444 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Periods of soil water stress have been recurrent in the Cerrado region and have become a growing concern for Brazilian tropical pasture areas. Thus, the search for forage grasses more tolerant to water stress has intensified recently in order to promote more sustainable [...] Read more.
Periods of soil water stress have been recurrent in the Cerrado region and have become a growing concern for Brazilian tropical pasture areas. Thus, the search for forage grasses more tolerant to water stress has intensified recently in order to promote more sustainable livestock. In a greenhouse experiment, the degree of water stress tolerance of nine tropical forage grass cultivars was studied under different soil water regimes. The investigation followed a 9 × 3 factorial design in four randomized blocks. Nine cultivars from five species of perennial forage grasses were tested: Urochloa brizantha (‘BRS Piatã’, ‘Marandu’, and ‘Xaraés’), Panicum maximum (‘Aruana’, ‘Mombaça’, and ‘Tanzânia’), Pennisetum glaucum (‘ADR 300’), Urochloa ruziziensis (‘Comum’), and Paspalum atratum (‘Pojuca’). These cultivars were grown in pots under three soil water regimes (high soil water regime—HSW (non-stressful condition), middle soil water regime—MSW (moderate water stress), and low soil water regime—LSW (severe water stress)). Plants were exposed to soil water stress for 25 days during the tillering and stalk elongation phases. Twelve tolerance indices, including tolerance index (TOL), mean production (MP), yield stability index (YSI), drought resistance index (DI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean production (GMP), yield index (YI), modified stress tolerance (k1STI and k2STI), stress susceptibility percentage index (SSPI), abiotic tolerance index (ATI), and harmonic mean (HM), were calculated based on shoot biomass production under non-stressful (YP) and stressful (YS) conditions. Soil water stress decreased leaf area, plant height, tillering capacity, root volume, and shoot and root dry matter production in most cultivars, with varying degrees of reduction among tropical forage grasses. Based on shoot biomass production under controlled greenhouse conditions, the most water-stress-tolerant cultivars were P. maximum cv. Mombaça and cv. Tanzânia under the MSW regime and P. maximum cv. Aruana and cv. Mombaça under the LSW regime. P. maximum cv. Mombaça has greater adaptability and stability of shoot biomass production when grown under greenhouse conditions and subjected to soil water stress. Therefore, this forage grass should be tested under field conditions to confirm its forage production potential for cultivation in tropical regions with the occurrence of water stress. The MP, DI, STI, GMP, YI, k2STI, and HM tolerance indices were the most suitable for identifying forage grass cultivars with greater water stress tolerance and a high potential for shoot biomass production under LSW regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecophysiology and Ecology of Grassland)
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14 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Effect of Exogenous Application of Nicotinic Acid on Morpho-Physiological Characteristics of Hordeum vulgare L. under Water Stress
by Taimoor Hassan Farooq, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari, Muhammad Shahid Irfan, Muhammad Rafay, Awais Shakoor, Muhammad Haroon U. Rashid, Yang Lin, Muhammad Saqib, Zaffar Malik and Nouman Khurshid
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182443 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Abiotic stresses, such as high temperature and drought conditions, greatly influence the development of plants and the quality and quantity of products. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop production is largely impacted by drought, affecting growth, yield, and ultimately the productivity of the [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses, such as high temperature and drought conditions, greatly influence the development of plants and the quality and quantity of products. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop production is largely impacted by drought, affecting growth, yield, and ultimately the productivity of the crop in hot arid/semi-arid conditions. The current pot experiment was directed to observe the outcome of nicotinic acid (NA) treatments on barley’s physiological, biochemical, and production attributes at two capacity levels, i.e., 100% normal range and withholding water stress. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used during the experimentation with the two-factor factorial arrangement. NA was applied exogenously by two different methods, i.e., foliar and soil application (fertigation). NA solution contained various application levels, such as T1 = control, foliar applications (T2 = 0.7368 gL−1, T3 = 1.477 gL−1, T4 = 2.2159 gL−1), and soil applications (T5 = 0.4924 gL−1, T6 = 0.9848 gL−1, and T7 = 1.4773 gL−1). Results depicted that, overall, foliar treatments showed better effects than control and soil treatments. Plant growth was preeminent under T4 treatment, such as plant height (71.07 cm), relative water content (84.0%), leaf water potential (39.73-MPa), leaf area index (36.53 cm2), biological yield (15.10 kgha−1), grain yield (14.40 kgha−1), harvest index (57.70%), catalase (1.54 mmolg−1FW−1), peroxidase (1.90 g−1FWmin−1), and superoxide dismutase (52.60 µgFW−1) were superior under T4 treatment. Soil plant analysis development (54.13 µgcm−2) value was also higher under T4 treatment and lowest under T7 treatment. In conclusion, NA-treated plants were more successful in maintaining growth attributes than non-treated plants; therefore, the NA foliar treatment at the rate of 2.2159 gL−1 is suggested to find economical crop yield under drought conditions. The present study would contribute significantly to improving the drought tolerance potential of barley through exogenous NA supply in water deficit areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Cycle and Hydrological Process of Plant Ecosystems)
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18 pages, 2471 KiB  
Article
Zinc Biofortification in Vitis vinifera: Implications for Quality and Wine Production
by Diana Daccak, Fernando C. Lidon, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Coelho Marques, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, João Caleiro, José C. Ramalho, António E. Leitão, Maria José Silva, Ana Paula Rodrigues, Mauro Guerra, Roberta G. Leitão, Paula Scotti Campos, Isabel P. Pais, José N. Semedo, Nuno Alvarenga, Elsa M. Gonçalves, Maria Manuela Silva, Paulo Legoinha, Carlos Galhano, José Carlos Kullberg, Maria Brito, Manuela Simões, Maria Fernanda Pessoa and Fernando H. Reboredoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182442 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a growing concern about micronutrient deficits in food products, with agronomic biofortification being considered a mitigation strategy. In this context, as Zn is essential for growth and maintenance of human health, a workflow for the biofortification of grapes from the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a growing concern about micronutrient deficits in food products, with agronomic biofortification being considered a mitigation strategy. In this context, as Zn is essential for growth and maintenance of human health, a workflow for the biofortification of grapes from the Vitis vinifera variety Fernão Pires, which contains this nutrient, was carried out considering the soil properties of the vineyard. Additionally, Zn accumulation in the tissues of the grapes and the implications for some quality parameters and on winemaking were assessed. Vines were sprayed three times with ZnO and ZnSO4 at concentrations of 150, 450, and 900 g ha−1 during the production cycle. Physiological data were obtained through chlorophyll a fluorescence data, to access the potential symptoms of toxicity. At harvest, treated grapes revealed significant increases of Zn concentration relative to the control, being more pronounced for ZnO and ZnSO4 in the skin and seeds, respectively. After winemaking, an increase was also found regarding the control (i.e., 1.59-fold with ZnSO4-450 g ha−1). The contents of the sugars and fatty acids, as well as the colorimetric analyses, were also assessed, but significant variations were not found among treatments. In general, Zn biofortification increased with ZnO and ZnSO4, without significantly affecting the physicochemical characteristics of grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Management for Resilient Crop Production)
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16 pages, 6696 KiB  
Article
Alpha-Mangostin as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Concanavalin A-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis: Impact on the SIRT1/Nrf2 and NF-κB Crosstalk
by Ahmed M. Shehata, Hossein M. Elbadawy, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Gamal A. Mohamed, Wael M. Elsaed, Aisha A. Alhaddad, Nishat Ahmed, Hany Abo-Haded and Dina S. El-Agamy
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182441 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Alpha-mangostin (α-MN) is a xanthone obtained from Garcinia mangostana that has diverse anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. However, its pharmacological activity against autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has not been investigated before. Concanavalin A (Con A) was injected into mice to induce AIH and two doses [...] Read more.
Alpha-mangostin (α-MN) is a xanthone obtained from Garcinia mangostana that has diverse anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. However, its pharmacological activity against autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has not been investigated before. Concanavalin A (Con A) was injected into mice to induce AIH and two doses of α-MN were tested for their protective effects against Con A-induced AIH. The results demonstrated the potent hepatoprotective activity of α-MN evidenced by a remarkable decrease of serum indices of the hepatic injury and amendment of the histological lesions. α-MN significantly attenuated the level and immuno-expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) indicating a decrease in the neutrophil infiltration into the liver. Additionally, the recruitment of the CD4+ T cell was suppressed in the α-MN pre-treated animals. α-MN showed a potent ability to repress the Con A-induced oxidative stress evident by the reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and protein carbonyl (PC), as well as the enhanced levels of antioxidants as the reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The ELISA, RT-PCR, and IHC analyses revealed that α-MN enhanced the sirtuin1/nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-2 (SIRT1/Nrf2) signaling and its downstream cascade genes concurrently with the inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukine-6) signaling. Taken together, these results inferred that the hepatoprotective activity of α-MN could prevent Con A-induced AIH through the modulation of the SIRT1/Nrf2/NF-κB signaling. Hence, α-MN may be considered as a promising candidate for AIH therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Chemical Activity of Metabolites of Medicinal Plants)
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25 pages, 11201 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Glutamate Receptor-like Gene (GLR) Family in Sugarcane
by Jing Zhang, Tianzhen Cui, Yachun Su, Shoujian Zang, Zhennan Zhao, Chang Zhang, Wenhui Zou, Yanling Chen, Yue Cao, Yao Chen, Youxiong Que, Niandong Chen and Jun Luo
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182440 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
The plant glutamate receptor-like gene (GLR) plays a vital role in development, signaling pathways, and in its response to environmental stress. However, the GLR gene family has not been comprehensively and systematically studied in sugarcane. In this work, 43 GLR genes, [...] Read more.
The plant glutamate receptor-like gene (GLR) plays a vital role in development, signaling pathways, and in its response to environmental stress. However, the GLR gene family has not been comprehensively and systematically studied in sugarcane. In this work, 43 GLR genes, including 34 in Saccharum spontaneum and 9 in the Saccharum hybrid cultivar R570, were identified and characterized, which could be divided into three clades (clade I, II, and III). They had different evolutionary mechanisms, the former was mainly on the WGD/segmental duplication, while the latter mainly on the proximal duplication. Those sugarcane GLR proteins in the same clade had a similar gene structure and motif distribution. For example, 79% of the sugarcane GLR proteins contained all the motifs, which proved the evolutionary stability of the sugarcane GLR gene family. The diverse cis-acting regulatory elements indicated that the sugarcane GLRs may play a role in the growth and development, or under the phytohormonal, biotic, and abiotic stresses. In addition, GO and KEGG analyses predicted their transmembrane transport function. Based on the transcriptome data, the expression of the clade III genes was significantly higher than that of the clade I and clade II. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of the SsGLRs was induced by salicylic acid (SA) treatment, methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, suggesting their involvement in the hormone synthesis and signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study should provide useful information on comparative genomics to improve our understanding of the GLR genes and facilitate further research on their functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugarcane Biology and Genetic Breeding)
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22 pages, 756 KiB  
Review
Assessing Impacts of Transgenic Plants on Soil Using Functional Indicators: Twenty Years of Research and Perspectives
by Vadim Lebedev, Tatyana Lebedeva, Elena Tikhonova and Konstantin Shestibratov
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182439 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3862
Abstract
Assessment of the effects of transgenic plants on microbiota and soil fertility is an important part of the overall assessment of their biosafety. However, the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants has long been focused on the aboveground effects. In this review, [...] Read more.
Assessment of the effects of transgenic plants on microbiota and soil fertility is an important part of the overall assessment of their biosafety. However, the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants has long been focused on the aboveground effects. In this review, we discuss the results of two decades of research on the impact of transgenic plants on the physicochemical properties of soil, its enzyme activities and microbial biomass. These indicators allow us to assess both the short-term effects and long-term effects of cultivating transgenic plants. Most studies have shown that the effect of transgenic plants on the soil is temporary and inconsistent. Moreover, many other factors, such as the site location, weather conditions, varietal differences and management system, have a greater impact on soil quality than the transgenic status of the plants. In addition to the effects of transgenic crop cultivation, the review also considers the effects of transgenic plant residues on soil processes, and discusses the future prospects for studying the impact of genetically modified plants on soil ecosystems. Full article
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15 pages, 3606 KiB  
Article
Vascular Plants from the Journey through Portugal (1797–1801) by Hoffmannsegg and Link at the Herbarium of the Real Jardín Botánico of Madrid
by Leopoldo Medina and Carlos Aedo
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182438 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
During the journey through Portugal by Hoffmannsegg and Link (1797–1801), these authors collected an appreciable number of specimens, most of which have been lost. Their collections are relevant since they were used by themselves or by other authors to describe numerous species. In [...] Read more.
During the journey through Portugal by Hoffmannsegg and Link (1797–1801), these authors collected an appreciable number of specimens, most of which have been lost. Their collections are relevant since they were used by themselves or by other authors to describe numerous species. In the herbarium of the Real Jardín Botánico of Madrid, 70 specimens from this journey have been located. In the archive of this institution the letters that Hoffmannsegg and Link sent to Cavanilles accompanying these plants have also been located. The analysis of these letters, the herbarium labels and of the protologues has permitted to establish that 15 specimens are original material, four of which had already been proposed as lectotypes by other authors (Airochloa caudata Link, Silene fuscata Link ex Brot., Silene micrantha Link ex Otth and Silene pernoctans Link). The designation of a neotype for Stipa gigantea Link should be superseded, because an original material has been found. Thus, a lectotype for this taxon is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Systematics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Classification)
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19 pages, 987 KiB  
Review
Management of Rhizosphere Microbiota and Plant Production under Drought Stress: A Comprehensive Review
by Catalina Vidal, Felipe González, Christian Santander, Rodrigo Pérez, Víctor Gallardo, Cledir Santos, Humberto Aponte, Antonieta Ruiz and Pablo Cornejo
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182437 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3993
Abstract
Drought generates a complex scenario worldwide in which agriculture should urgently be reframed from an integrative point of view. It includes the search for new water resources and the use of tolerant crops and genotypes, improved irrigation systems, and other less explored alternatives [...] Read more.
Drought generates a complex scenario worldwide in which agriculture should urgently be reframed from an integrative point of view. It includes the search for new water resources and the use of tolerant crops and genotypes, improved irrigation systems, and other less explored alternatives that are very important, such as biotechnological tools that may increase the water use efficiency. Currently, a large body of evidence highlights the role of specific strains in the main microbial rhizosphere groups (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, yeasts, and bacteria) on increasing the drought tolerance of their host plants through diverse plant growth-promoting (PGP) characteristics. With this background, it is possible to suggest that the joint use of distinct PGP microbes could produce positive interactions or additive beneficial effects on their host plants if their co-inoculation does not generate antagonistic responses. To date, such effects have only been partially analyzed by using single omics tools, such as genomics, metabolomics, or proteomics. However, there is a gap of information in the use of multi-omics approaches to detect interactions between PGP and host plants. This approach must be the next scale-jump in the study of the interaction of soil–plant–microorganism. In this review, we analyzed the constraints posed by drought in the framework of an increasing global demand for plant production, integrating the important role played by the rhizosphere biota as a PGP agent. Using multi-omics approaches to understand in depth the processes that occur in plants in the presence of microorganisms can allow us to modulate their combined use and drive it to increase crop yields, improving production processes to attend the growing global demand for food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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12 pages, 1193 KiB  
Review
Genetic Containment for Molecular Farming
by Amy L. Klocko
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182436 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Plant molecular farming can provide humans with a wide variety of plant-based products including vaccines, therapeutics, polymers, industrial enzymes, and more. Some of these products, such as Taxol, are produced by endogenous plant genes, while many others require addition of genes by artificial [...] Read more.
Plant molecular farming can provide humans with a wide variety of plant-based products including vaccines, therapeutics, polymers, industrial enzymes, and more. Some of these products, such as Taxol, are produced by endogenous plant genes, while many others require addition of genes by artificial gene transfer. Thus, some molecular farming plants are transgenic (or cisgenic), while others are not. Both the transgenic nature of many molecular farming plants and the fact that the products generated are of high-value and specific in purpose mean it is essential to prevent accidental cross-over of molecular farming plants and products into food or feed. Such mingling could occur either by gene flow during plant growth and harvest or by human errors in material handling. One simple approach to mitigate possible transfer would be to use only non-food non-feed species for molecular farming purposes. However, given the extent of molecular farming products in development, testing, or approval that do utilize food or feed crops, a ban on use of these species would be challenging to implement. Therefore, other approaches will need to be considered for mitigation of cross-flow between molecular farming and non-molecular-farming plants. This review summarized some of the production systems available for molecular farming purposes and options to implement or improve plant containment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants as Molecular Farming Factories)
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13 pages, 1235 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Activity and Biochemical Profiling of Exudates from Germinating Maize Nostrano di Storo Local Variety
by Stefano Rosa, Stefano De Benedetti, Stefania Mazzini, Gigliola Borgonovo, Elisa Bona, Maria Cavaletto, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Martina Ghidoli, Salvatore Roberto Pilu and Alessio Scarafoni
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182435 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Plant pathogens are responsible for important damages to valuable crops causing important economic losses. Agrobiodiversity protection is crucial for the valorization of local varieties that could possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. At the beginning of germination, seeds are susceptible to [...] Read more.
Plant pathogens are responsible for important damages to valuable crops causing important economic losses. Agrobiodiversity protection is crucial for the valorization of local varieties that could possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. At the beginning of germination, seeds are susceptible to pathogens attacks, thus they can release endogenous antimicrobial compounds of different natures in the spermosphere, to contrast proliferation of microorganisms. The work aimed at characterizing the maize of local variety Nostrano di Storo seed exudates secreted during the first phases of germination, to identify compounds active in the defense towards pathogens. Storo seed exudates were proven to inhibit F. verticilloides germination. In order to investigate the cause of the described effect, compositional profiling of the exudates was performed through NMR, lipidomic, and proteomic analyses. This study suggests an important role of microbial endophytic communities in the protection of the seed during the early phases of the germination process and their interplay with fatty acids released by the seeds, rather than a specific antifungal compound. The valorization of agronomically acceptable maize lines with pre-harvest enhanced resistances to pathogens contamination could lead, in the near future, to commercially available varieties potentially requiring more limited chemical protective treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds in Plants)
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12 pages, 3162 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of UGT Genes in Petunia and Identification of PhUGT51 Involved in the Regulation of Salt Resistance
by Lili Dong, Ziyan Tang, Tianyin Yang, Fuling Hao and Xinyi Deng
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182434 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) plays an essential role in regulating the synthesis of hormones and secondary metabolites in plants. In this study, 129 members of the Petunia UGT family were identified and classified into 16 groups (A–P) based on phylogenetic analysis. The same subgroups have [...] Read more.
UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) plays an essential role in regulating the synthesis of hormones and secondary metabolites in plants. In this study, 129 members of the Petunia UGT family were identified and classified into 16 groups (A–P) based on phylogenetic analysis. The same subgroups have conserved motif compositions and intron/exon arrangement. In the promoters of the Petunia UGT genes, several cis-elements associated with plant hormones, growth and development, and abiotic stress have been discovered. Their expression profiles in five tissues were revealed by tissue expression based on RNA-seq data. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PhUGT51 was located in the nucleus and cell membrane. Salt stress caused an increase in the expression level of PhUGT51, but the expression level remained stable with the growth over time. In addition, the overexpression of PhUGT51 caused a significant increase in salt resistance. Our study systematically analyses the UGT gene family in Petunia for the first time and provides some valuable clues for the further functional studies of UGT genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Responses and Tolerance to Salinity Stress)
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12 pages, 2479 KiB  
Article
Structured Populations of Critically Endangered Yellow Water Lily (Nuphar shimadai Hayata, Nymphaeaceae)
by Junaldo A. Mantiquilla, Hsueh-Yu Lu, Huei-Chuan Shih, Li-Ping Ju, Meng-Shin Shiao and Yu-Chung Chiang
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2433; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182433 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
Yellow water lily (Nuphar shimadai Hayata) is a critically endangered species in Taiwan. Here, we examined genetic structures of four extant populations, WP, GPa, GPb and GPn, using 39 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Positive genetic correlation was observed within 50 m, [...] Read more.
Yellow water lily (Nuphar shimadai Hayata) is a critically endangered species in Taiwan. Here, we examined genetic structures of four extant populations, WP, GPa, GPb and GPn, using 39 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Positive genetic correlation was observed within 50 m, beyond which no correlation was detected due to isolation by distance according to Mantel correlogram. This suggests a significant genetic structuring of the species. Besides, multilocus genotype (MLG) analysis revealed that GPa was a panmictic population and the species’ putative center of origin. Genetic exchange was observed between GPa and GPb populations, which likely resulted from their geographic proximity. Nevertheless, there was a strong asymmetric migration detected from GPa to WP, but a recent genetic barrier prevented dispersal further northward (WP). Geneland estimated the best number of clusters as K = 2, where WP distinctly separated from the rest of the populations. In STRUCTURE output of K = 3, a third cluster was abundant only in WP. We suggest to consider GPn and WP as separate conservation units, being far from GPa. There is indeed a need to investigate these populations; as predicted, Ne = 1.6 to 3.0 is considered low and that may put the species at risk of extinction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetic Resources)
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15 pages, 1996 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes under Water Stress Based on Physiological and Agronomic Parameters
by Fokion Papathanasiou, Elissavet Ninou, Ioannis Mylonas, Dimitrios Baxevanos, Foteini Papadopoulou, Ilias Avdikos, Iosif Sistanis, Avraam Koskosidis, Dimitrios N. Vlachostergios, Stefanos Stefanou, Evangelia Tigka and Anastasia Kargiotidou
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182432 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Drought affects common bean productivity, and the severity of its impact is expected to increase due to climate change. The use of versatile genotypes could contribute to securing future bean production. This study investigates the adaptability of 10 common bean genotypes of indeterminate [...] Read more.
Drought affects common bean productivity, and the severity of its impact is expected to increase due to climate change. The use of versatile genotypes could contribute to securing future bean production. This study investigates the adaptability of 10 common bean genotypes of indeterminate growth type under water scarcity conditions by measuring agronomic and physiological parameters. The evaluation occurs under irrigation treatments applied at two different phenological stages (anthesis (WDA) and seed filling initiation (WDSF)). The recorded adaptabilities of the genotypes (G) showed that G10 produced the highest overall seed yield in the normal irrigation (NI) (197.22 g plant−1) and WDA (192.78 g plant−1), while the G6 had the highest yield at WDSF (196.71 g plant−1). For the genotype’s average mean, chlorophyll content decreased by 10.5% under drought at WDSF. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) were reduced at WDA by 53%, 80.8%, and 61.4% and at WDSF by 43.75%, 57.7%, and 36%, respectively, while relative water content (RWC) reduced by 16.48%, on average, for both stages. G10 and G6 showed adaptability when water scarcity occurred at an early (WDA) or later stage (WDSF), respectively, providing insights into using germplasm resources to cope with the drought effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
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11 pages, 2252 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification of African Nymphaea Species (Water Lily) Based on ITS, trnT-trnF and rpl16
by Zhi-Hao Qian, Justus Mulinge Munywoki, Qing-Feng Wang, Itambo Malombe, Zhi-Zhong Li and Jin-Ming Chen
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182431 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The genus Nymphaea L. (water lily) is the most diverse genus in the family Nymphaeaceae, with more than 50 species worldwide, including 11 species distributed in Africa. The complex and variable morphology of Nymphaea makes it extremely difficult to accurately identify species based [...] Read more.
The genus Nymphaea L. (water lily) is the most diverse genus in the family Nymphaeaceae, with more than 50 species worldwide, including 11 species distributed in Africa. The complex and variable morphology of Nymphaea makes it extremely difficult to accurately identify species based on morphological characteristics alone. DNA barcoding has the potential to identify species accurately. In this study, 158 Nymphaea populations from seven African countries were collected for species identification by ITS, trnT-trnF and rpl16. Additionally, the three candidate DNA barcodes were evaluated for genetic distance and barcoding gap. Based on the comprehensive analysis of sequence similarity, genetic distance method and phylogenetic tree, a total of 137 populations of seven Nymphaea species from African were well-identified, including N. lotus, N. petersiana, N. zenkeri, N. nouchali var. caerulea, N. micrantha and N. guineensis. ITS has more obvious advantages over trnT-trnF, rpl16 and trnT-trnF+rpl16 in the intraspecific and interspecific variation differences and barcoding gap and can identify most species. trnT-trnF and rpl16 can identify some species that cannot be identified by ITS. The results showed that it is more appropriate to apply the combination of ITS and trnT-trnF (or rpl16) as the DNA barcoding of Nymphaea. Additionally, this study further enriches the DNA barcoding database of Nymphaea and provides a reference basis for studying taxonomy, phylogenetics and evolutionary origin of Nymphaea. Full article
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15 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
Nitrate Leaching Mitigation Options in Two Dairy Pastoral Soils and Climatic Conditions in New Zealand
by Dumsane Themba Matse, Paramsothy Jeyakumar, Peter Bishop and Christopher W. N. Anderson
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182430 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
This lysimeter study investigated the effect of late-autumn application of dicyandiamide (DCD), co-poly acrylic-maleic acid (PA-MA), calcium lignosulphonate (LS), a split-application of calcium lignosulphonate (2LS), and a combination of gibberellic acid (GA) and LS (GA + LS) to reduce N leaching losses during [...] Read more.
This lysimeter study investigated the effect of late-autumn application of dicyandiamide (DCD), co-poly acrylic-maleic acid (PA-MA), calcium lignosulphonate (LS), a split-application of calcium lignosulphonate (2LS), and a combination of gibberellic acid (GA) and LS (GA + LS) to reduce N leaching losses during May 2020 to December 2020 in lysimeter field sites in Manawatu (Orthic Pumice soil) and Canterbury (Pallic Orthic Brown soil), New Zealand. In a second application, urine-only, GA only and GA + LS treatments were applied during July 2020 in mid-winter on both sites. Results showed that late-autumn application of DCD, 2LS and GA + LS reduced mineral N leaching by 8%, 16%, and 35% in the Manawatu site and by 34%, 11%, and 35% in the Canterbury site, respectively when compared to urine-only. There was no significant increase in cumulative herbage N uptake and yield between urine-treated lysimeters in both sites. Mid-winter application of GA and GA + LS reduced mineral N leaching by 23% and 20%, respectively in the Manawatu site relative to urine-only treated lysimeters, but no significant reduction was observed in the Canterbury site. Our results demonstrated the potential application of these treatments in different soils under different climate and management conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Nitrogen Management in Soil-Crop System)
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14 pages, 2820 KiB  
Communication
Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Plants Associated with Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizas Are Differentially Influenced by Drought
by Manman Jing, Zhaoyong Shi, Mengge Zhang, Menghan Zhang and Xiaohui Wang
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182429 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important functional traits in plants which affect biogeochemical cycles. As the most widely observed plant–fungus mutualistic symbiosis, mycorrhiza plays a vital role in regulating plant growth. There are different types of mycorrhiza with various [...] Read more.
Leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important functional traits in plants which affect biogeochemical cycles. As the most widely observed plant–fungus mutualistic symbiosis, mycorrhiza plays a vital role in regulating plant growth. There are different types of mycorrhiza with various ecological functions in nature. Drought, as a frequent environmental stress, has been paid more and more attention due to its influence on plant growth. Numerous studies have confirmed that drought affects the concentration of N and P in plants, but few studies involve different mycorrhizal types of plants. In this study, the differences of N and P between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants under different drought patterns, drought duration and cultivation conditions were explored based on a dataset by a meta-analysis. Drought stress (DS) showed negative effects on AM plant N (−7.15%) and AM plant P (−13.87%), and a positive effect on AM plant N:P ratio (+8.01%). Drought significantly increased N and the N:P ratio of ECM plants by 1.58% and 3.58%, respectively, and decreased P of ECM plants by −2.00%. Short-term drought (<30 d) reduces more N and P than long-term drought (<30 d) in AM plant species. The duration of drought did not change the N concentration of ECM plant N, while short-term drought reduced ECM plant P. The effects of N and P on DS also varied with different planting conditions and functional groups between AM and ECM plants. Therefore, mycorrhizal effects and stoichiometry of N and P play a key role in plant response to drought. So mycorrhizal effects should be considered when studying plant responses to drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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15 pages, 6035 KiB  
Article
Do Different Tree-Ring Proxies Contain Different Temperature Signals? A Case Study of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) in the Eastern Carpathians
by Andrei Popa, Ionel Popa, Cătălin-Constantin Roibu and Ovidiu Nicolae Badea
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182428 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
One of the most important proxy archives for past climate variation is tree rings. Tree-ring parameters offer valuable knowledge regarding how trees respond and adapt to environmental changes. Trees encode all environmental changes in different tree-ring parameters. In this study, we analyzed how [...] Read more.
One of the most important proxy archives for past climate variation is tree rings. Tree-ring parameters offer valuable knowledge regarding how trees respond and adapt to environmental changes. Trees encode all environmental changes in different tree-ring parameters. In this study, we analyzed how air temperature is encoded in different Norway spruce tree-ring proxies along an altitude gradient in an intramountain valley of the Carpathians. The study area, in the Gheorgheni region, Romania (Eastern Carpathians), has a mountain climate with a frequent temperature inversion in winter. The climate–growth relationship was analyzed for two contrasting altitudes: low elevation, i.e., below 1000 m a.s.l., and high elevation, i.e., above 1500 m a.s.l. Two local weather stations, one in the valley and the other on the upper part of the mountains, provide daily temperatures (Joseni—750 m a.s.l. and Bucin—1282 m a.s.l.). The bootstrap Pearson correlation between cumulative daily temperature data and three tree-ring proxies (tree-ring width—TRW, basal area increment—BAI, and blue intensity—BI) was computed for each series. The results show that elevation modulates the climate response pattern in the case of BI, and remains relatively similar for TRW and BAI. The winter temperature’s positive influence on spruce growth was observed in both TRW and BAI chronologies. Additionally, the BAI chronology highlights a positive relationship with summer temperature. The highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.551, p < 0.05, n = 41) was recorded between BI residual chronology from high elevation series and summer/autumn temperature from the upper-part weather station for a cumulative period of 59 days (the second half of August to the beginning of October). Our results show that, for this intramountain valley of the Eastern Carpathians, different tree-ring proxies capture different climate signals. Full article
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14 pages, 4001 KiB  
Article
Comparative Metabolomics Analysis of Stigmas and Petals in Chinese Saffron (Crocus sativus) by Widely Targeted Metabolomics
by Lin Zhou, Youming Cai, Liuyan Yang, Zhongwei Zou, Jiao Zhu and Yongchun Zhang
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182427 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron, are consumed largely worldwide because it is highly valuable in foods and has biological activities beneficial for health. Saffron has important economic and medicinal value, and thus, its planting area and global [...] Read more.
The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron, are consumed largely worldwide because it is highly valuable in foods and has biological activities beneficial for health. Saffron has important economic and medicinal value, and thus, its planting area and global production are increasing. Petals, which are a by-product of the stigmas, have not been fully utilized at present. We compared the metabolites between the stigmas and petals of C. sativus using a non-targeted metabolomics method. In total, over 800 metabolites were detected and categorized into 35 classes, including alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids and derivatives, phenols and phenol esters, phenylpropanoids, fatty acyls, steroids and steroid derivatives, vitamins, and other metabolites. The metabolite composition in the petals and stigmas was basically similar. The results of the study showed that the petals contained flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, and other medicinal components, as well as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and other nutritional components. A principal components analysis (PCA) and an orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to screen the different metabolic components. A total of 339 differential metabolites were identified, with 55 metabolites up-regulated and 284 down-regulated. The up-regulated metabolites, including rutin, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, isoquercitrin, syringaresinol-di-O-glucoside, dihydrorobinetin, quercetin, and gallocatechin, were detected in the petals. The down-regulated metabolites were mainly glucofrangulin B, acetovanillone, daidzein, guaiazulene, hypaphorine, indolin-2-one, and pseudouridine. KEGG annotation and enrichment analyses of the differential metabolites revealed that flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acids biosynthesis, and arginine and proline metabolism were the main differentially regulated pathways. In conclusion, the petals of C. sativus are valuable for medicine and foods and have potential utility in multiple areas such as the natural spice, cosmetic, health drink, and natural health product industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants)
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17 pages, 1010 KiB  
Article
High Temporal Variability in Late Blight Pathogen Diversity, Virulence, and Fungicide Resistance in Potato Breeding Fields: Results from a Long-Term Monitoring Study
by Eve Runno-Paurson, Helina Nassar, Terje Tähtjärv, Viacheslav Eremeev, Merili Hansen and Ülo Niinemets
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182426 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
Long-term site-specific studies describing changes in the phenotypic variability of Phytophthora infestans populations allow quantitative predictions of pathogen spread and possible outbreaks of epidemics, and provide key input for regional resistance breeding programs. Late blight samples were collected from potato (Solanum tuberosum [...] Read more.
Long-term site-specific studies describing changes in the phenotypic variability of Phytophthora infestans populations allow quantitative predictions of pathogen spread and possible outbreaks of epidemics, and provide key input for regional resistance breeding programs. Late blight samples were collected from potato (Solanum tuberosum) breeding fields in Estonia during a twelve-year study period between 2001 and 2014. In total, 207 isolates were assessed for mating type and 235 isolates for metalaxyl resistance and 251 isolates for virulence factors. The frequency of mating types strongly fluctuated across the years, whereas the later period of 2010–2014 was dominated by the A2 mating. Despite fluctuations, both mating types were recorded in the same fields in most years, indicating sustained sexual reproduction of P. infestans with oospore production. Metalaxyl-resistant and intermediately resistant strains dominated in the first years of study, but with the progression of the study, metalaxyl-sensitive isolates became dominant, reaching up to 88%. Racial diversity, characterized by normalized Shannon diversity index decreased in time, varying from 1.00 in 2003 to 0.43 in 2013. The frequency of several virulence factors changed in a time-dependent manner, with R2 increasing and R6, R8, and R9 decreasing in time. Potato cultivar resistance background did not influence the frequency of P. infestans mating type, response to metalaxyl, and racial diversity. However, the diversity index decreased in time among isolates collected from resistant and susceptible cultivars, and remained at a high level in moderately resistant cultivars. These data demonstrate major time-dependent changes in racial diversity, fungicide resistance, and virulence factors in P. infestans, consistent with alterations in the control strategies and popularity of potato cultivars with different resistance. Full article
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11 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
Micropropagation of Citronella mucronata D. Don, a Vulnerable Chilean Endemic Tree Species
by Francesca Guerra, Loreto Badilla, Ricardo Cautin and Mónica Castro
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182425 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
Citronella mucronata (C. mucronata), a tree species endemic to Chile, has become threatened in its natural habitat and is currently listed as vulnerable. Tree population parameters have deteriorated due to indiscriminate logging and other anthropogenic activities, warranting research on mass propagation [...] Read more.
Citronella mucronata (C. mucronata), a tree species endemic to Chile, has become threatened in its natural habitat and is currently listed as vulnerable. Tree population parameters have deteriorated due to indiscriminate logging and other anthropogenic activities, warranting research on mass propagation as a means of recovery. This study, unprecedented for this native species, has developed a successful method for its micropropagation. The objective was to establish a protocol for in vitro propagation of C. mucronata to produce large quantities of high-quality seedlings in an accelerated plant acquisition process. The best results were achieved by growing explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal culture medium supplemented with 4.44 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 14.76 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Explant survival rate was 78 %, the average shoot length reached 3.2 cm, the number of lateral shoots was 3.9, and rooting rate was 60%. Furthermore, stimulation with red and blue light in a 1:2 ratio, supplemented with 14.76 μM IBA, improved the rooting rate to 93%. The survival rate of rooted explants reached 100% in the acclimatization stage when using peat and perlite substrate (1:1 v/v). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biotechnology to Woody Propagation)
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22 pages, 3820 KiB  
Review
Proteomic and Genomic Studies of Micronutrient Deficiency and Toxicity in Plants
by Suchismita Prusty, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Subhendu Nayak, Sowmya Poosapati and Durga Madhab Swain
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182424 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4669
Abstract
Micronutrients are essential for plants. Their growth, productivity and reproduction are directly influenced by the supply of micronutrients. Currently, there are eight trace elements considered to be essential for higher plants: Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, B, Mo, and Cl. Possibly, other essential [...] Read more.
Micronutrients are essential for plants. Their growth, productivity and reproduction are directly influenced by the supply of micronutrients. Currently, there are eight trace elements considered to be essential for higher plants: Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, B, Mo, and Cl. Possibly, other essential elements could be discovered because of recent advances in nutrient solution culture techniques and in the commercial availability of highly sensitive analytical instrumentation for elemental analysis. Much remains to be learned about the physiology of micronutrient absorption, translocation and deposition in plants, and about the functions they perform in plant growth and development. With the recent advancements in the proteomic and molecular biology tools, researchers have attempted to explore and address some of these questions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of micronutrients in plants and the proteomic/genomic approaches used to study plant nutrient deficiency and toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Nutrition)
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21 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
Microhabitat and Pollinator Differentiation Drive Reproductive Isolation between Two Sympatric Salvia Species (Lamiaceae)
by Tial C. Ling, Patcharin Phokasem, Chainarong Sinpoo, Yong-Ping Yang and Terd Disayathanoowat
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2423; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182423 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Evaluation of multiple barriers contributing to reproductive isolation between sympatric plant species is key to understanding the mechanism of their coexistence; however, such investigations in biodiversity hotspots are still rare. In this study, we investigated and compared geography, microhabitat, phenology, flora, and pollinators, [...] Read more.
Evaluation of multiple barriers contributing to reproductive isolation between sympatric plant species is key to understanding the mechanism of their coexistence; however, such investigations in biodiversity hotspots are still rare. In this study, we investigated and compared geography, microhabitat, phenology, flora, and pollinators, in addition to pollen–pistil interactions, seed production, and seed germination of the closely related sympatric Salvia digitaloides and S. flava on Yulong Snow Mountain, Southwestern Yunnan, China. The geographic distribution of these species overlapped, but their adaptation to physical and chemical properties of soil microhabitats differed. They shared the same flowering time but differed in flower size, style length, nectar volume, sugar concentration, and flower longevity. Both species shared bumblebees as effective pollinators, but flower constancy for the two species was relatively strong. Pollen tube growth, seed production, and seed germination were lower in interspecific than in intraspecific crosses. Our study suggested that microhabitat and pollinator isolation acted as the most important isolating barriers in maintaining the coexistence of the two Salvia species. Our study also highlighted that post-pollination barriers play an important role in preventing the gene flow between these two Salvia species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Insect Interactions)
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10 pages, 5090 KiB  
Article
Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Genus Oedogonium (Oedogoniales, Chlorophyta) from China
by Qian Xiong, Yangliang Chen, Qingyu Dai, Benwen Liu and Guoxiang Liu
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182422 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Oedogoniales comprises the three genera Oedogonium, Oedocladium, and Bulbochaete, which include more than 600 described species. The classification of Oedogoniaceae is currently based on morphology, and the complicated morphological characteristics make species identification difficult, with the limited molecular data also [...] Read more.
Oedogoniales comprises the three genera Oedogonium, Oedocladium, and Bulbochaete, which include more than 600 described species. The classification of Oedogoniaceae is currently based on morphology, and the complicated morphological characteristics make species identification difficult, with the limited molecular data also restricting the phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, we collected 47 Oedogonium specimens from China and sequenced 18S rDNA, ITS2, ITS (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2), and rbcL sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. We selected nine morphological characteristics, most of which were considered important in traditional systematics, for comparison with the molecular phylogeny results. All the topologies based on different datasets showed similar results; Oedogonium was a paraphyletic group, and Oedocladium and Bulbochaete clustered with Oedogonium. The morphological characteristics matching the phylogenetic results showed that the types of sexual differentiation, characteristics of the oogonium (including shape, types of aperture, and ornamentation of oospore wall), division types of antheridial, and number of sperm of each antheridial, which are considered the most important morphological characteristics in traditional taxonomy of Oedogonium, did not form monophyletic lineages respectively, indicating that traditional systematics may not reflect the real phylogeny of the genus Oedogonium. In addition, a new taxonomical classification of the genus Oedogonium was presented according to the shapes of basal cells, which matched well with the phylogenetic topologies. In addition, we propose to divide the genus Oedogonium into two sections, section Globosum and section Elongatum, representing the species with spherical or sub-hemispherical basal cells and elongated basal cells, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Systematics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Classification)
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14 pages, 1770 KiB  
Article
Effect of Stock Plant Growing Medium and Density upon a Cutting Propagation System for Tea Tree, Melaleuca alternifolia
by Gail E. Lowe, Mervyn Shepherd, Terry J. Rose and Carolyn Raymond
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182421 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
To offer a viable alternative to seedling deployment of tea tree, clones will require the development of an efficient, robust, and vegetative propagation system for the large number of plants needed for plantations (i.e., typically 33,000 plants/ha). This study investigated the productivity of [...] Read more.
To offer a viable alternative to seedling deployment of tea tree, clones will require the development of an efficient, robust, and vegetative propagation system for the large number of plants needed for plantations (i.e., typically 33,000 plants/ha). This study investigated the productivity of an intensive management system for tea tree stock plants and rooted cuttings grown in a subtropical environment (Lismore, NSW, Australia). Three stock plant densities (30, 100, and 200 plants/m2) were tested in coir and potting mix media (consisting of peat+perlite+vermiculite), with 11 settings of cuttings undertaken between April 2019 and March 2020. All stock plants in each media type survived 11 harvests and remained productive; however after 13 months, many plants in the coir media, appeared chlorotic and showed symptoms of iron deficiency. Rooting and cutting survival rates using the mini cutting technique were high, ranging from a maximum mean monthly setting value of 87.7% ± 4 at 84 days post-setting in potting mix, to a minimum of 80.4% ± 3.7 in coir. The most productive treatment was at high stock plant density in potting mix which had the potential to produce 13,440 plants/year/m2. Overall coir appeared less productive, but the pattern of difference among treatments was similar. For the highest system productivity, it is recommended to grow stock plants in potting mix at high densities and modulate temperatures to between 18 °C and 28 °C. Late spring and early summer were the best time for harvesting and setting tea tree mini cuttings in the subtropics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants)
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12 pages, 2841 KiB  
Article
Microbial Community Succession Associated with Poplar Wood Discoloration
by Xiaohua Zhang, Hao Liu, Heming Han, Bo Zhang, Cunzhi Zhang, Jian He, Shunpeng Li and Hui Cao
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182420 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Microbes are common inhabitants of wood, but little is known about the relationship between microbial community dynamics during wood discoloration. This study uses simulation experiments to examine the changes in the microbial communities in poplar wood at different succession stages. The composition and [...] Read more.
Microbes are common inhabitants of wood, but little is known about the relationship between microbial community dynamics during wood discoloration. This study uses simulation experiments to examine the changes in the microbial communities in poplar wood at different succession stages. The composition and structure of the microbial communities changed significantly in different successional stages, with an overarching pattern of bacterial diversity decreasing and fungal diversity increasing from the early to the late successional stages. Nevertheless, succession did not affect the composition of the microbial communities at the phylum level: Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria dominated the bacterial communities, while Ascomycota and Basidiomycota dominated the fungal communities. However, at the genus level, bacterial populations of Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium, and fungal populations of Sphaeropsis were significantly more prevalent in later successional stages. Stochastic assembly processes were dominant in the early successional stages for bacteria and fungi. However, variable selection played a more critical role in the assembly processes as succession proceeded, with bacterial communities evolving towards more deterministic processes and fungal communities towards more stochastic processes. Altogether, our results suggest that bacteria and fungi exhibit different ecological strategies in poplar wood. Understanding those strategies, the resulting changes in community structures over time, and the relationship to the different stages of poplar discoloration, is vital to the biological control of that discoloration. Full article
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14 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Nitrogen Dosage in ‘Alicante Bouschet’ Vineyards with Machine Learning Models
by Gustavo Brunetto, Lincon Oliveira Stefanello, Matheus Severo de Souza Kulmann, Adriele Tassinari, Rodrigo Otavio Schneider de Souza, Danilo Eduardo Rozane, Tadeu Luis Tiecher, Carlos Alberto Ceretta, Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira, Gustavo Nogara de Siqueira and Léon Étienne Parent
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182419 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Vineyard soils normally do not provide the amount of nitrogen (N) necessary for red wine production. Traditionally, the N concentration in leaves guides the N fertilization of vineyards to reach high grape yields and chemical composition under the ceteris paribus assumption. Moreover, the [...] Read more.
Vineyard soils normally do not provide the amount of nitrogen (N) necessary for red wine production. Traditionally, the N concentration in leaves guides the N fertilization of vineyards to reach high grape yields and chemical composition under the ceteris paribus assumption. Moreover, the carryover effects of nutrients and carbohydrates stored by perennials such as grapevines are neglected. Where a well-documented database is assembled, machine learning (ML) methods can account for key site-specific features and carryover effects, impacting the performance of grapevines. The aim of this study was to predict, using ML tools, N management from local features to reach high berry yield and quality in ‘Alicante Bouschet’ vineyards. The 5-year (2015–2019) fertilizer trial comprised six N doses (0–20–40–60–80–100 kg N ha−1) and three regimes of irrigation. Model features included N dosage, climatic indices, foliar N application, and stem diameter of the preceding season, all of which were indices of the carryover effects. Accuracy of ML models was the highest with a yield cutoff of 14 t ha−1 and a total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 3900 mg L−1. Regression models were more accurate for total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, TAC, and total phenolic content (TPC) in the marketable grape yield. The tissue N ranges differed between high marketable yield and TAC, indicating a trade-off about 24 g N kg−1 in the diagnostic leaf. The N dosage predicted varied from 0 to 40 kg N ha−1 depending on target variable, this was calculated from local features and carryover effects but excluded climatic indices. The dataset can increase in size and diversity with the collaboration of growers, which can help to cross over the numerous combinations of features found in vineyards. This research contributes to the rational use of N fertilizers, but with the guarantee that obtaining high productivity must be with adequate composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Modeling)
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21 pages, 3377 KiB  
Article
Metal Complexation of Bis-Chalcone Derivatives Enhances Their Efficacy against Fusarium Wilt Disease, Caused by Fusarium equiseti, via Induction of Antioxidant Defense Machinery
by Asmaa El-Nagar, Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely, Tran Dang Xuan, Mohamed Gaber, Nadia El-Wakeil, Yusif El-Sayed and Yasser Nehela
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182418 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most widely produced vegetable plants in the world. Fusarium wilt of pepper is one of the most dangerous soil-borne fungal diseases worldwide. Herein, we investigated the antifungal activities and the potential application of [...] Read more.
Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most widely produced vegetable plants in the world. Fusarium wilt of pepper is one of the most dangerous soil-borne fungal diseases worldwide. Herein, we investigated the antifungal activities and the potential application of two chalcone derivatives against the phytopathogenic fungus, Fusarium equiseti, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in vitro and in vivo. The tested compounds included 3-(4-dimethyl amino-phenyl)-1-{6-[3-(4 dimethyl amino-phenyl)-a cryloyl]-pyridin-2-yl}-propanone (DMAPAPP) and its metal complex with ruthenium III (Ru-DMAPAPP). Both compounds had potent fungistatic activity against F. equiseti and considerably decreased disease progression. The tested compounds enhanced the vegetative growth of pepper plants, indicating there was no phytotoxicity on pepper plants in greenhouse conditions. DMAPAPP and Ru-DMAPAPP also activated antioxidant defense mechanisms that are enzymatic, including peroxidase, polyphenole oxidase, and catalase, and non-enzymatic, such as total soluble phenolics and total soluble flavonoids. DMAPAPP and Ru-DMAPAPP also promoted the overexpression of CaCu-SOD and CaAPX genes. However, CaGR and CaMDHAR were downregulated. These results demonstrate how DMAPAPP and Ru-DMAPAPP could be employed as a long-term alternative control approach for Fusarium wilt disease as well as the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that protect plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diseases of Horticultural Crops and Their Management)
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14 pages, 3409 KiB  
Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Cultivars in Response to Paclobutrazol Treatment
by Ronghua Zhang, Haibi Li, Yiyun Gui, Jinju Wei, Kai Zhu, Hui Zhou, Prakash Lakshmanan, Lianying Mao, Manman Lu, Junxian Liu, Youxiong Que, Song Li and Xihui Liu
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182417 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Sugarcane is an important crop across the globe, and the rapid multiplication of excellent cultivars is an important object of the sugarcane industry. As one of the plant growth regulators, paclobutrazol (PBZ) has been frequently used in the tissue culture of sugarcane seedlings. [...] Read more.
Sugarcane is an important crop across the globe, and the rapid multiplication of excellent cultivars is an important object of the sugarcane industry. As one of the plant growth regulators, paclobutrazol (PBZ) has been frequently used in the tissue culture of sugarcane seedlings. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of response to PBZ in this crop. Here, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis between sensitive (LC05−136) and non−sensitive (GGZ001) sugarcane cultivars treated by PBZ at three time points (0 d, 10 d, and 30 d) using RNA sequencing (RNA−Seq). The results showed that approximately 70.36 Mb of clean data for each sample were generated and assembled into 239,212 unigenes. A total of 6108 and 4404 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified within the sensitive and non−sensitive sugarcane cultivars, respectively. Among them, DEGs in LC05−136 were most significantly enriched in the photosynthesis and valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways, while in GGZ001, DEGs associated with ion channels and plant–pathogen interaction were mainly observed. Notably, many interesting genes, including those encoding putative regulators, key components of photosynthesis, amino acids degradation and glutamatergic synapse, were identified, revealing their importance in the response of sugarcane to PBZ. Furthermore, the expressions of sixteen selected DEGs were tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT−qPCR), confirming the reliability of the RNA−seq data used in this study. These results provide valuable information regarding the transcriptome changes in sugarcane treated by PBZ and provide an insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the resistance to PBZ in sugarcane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugarcane Biology and Genetic Breeding)
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19 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Rhizobacteria Mitigate the Negative Effect of Aluminum on Pea Growth by Immobilizing the Toxicant and Modulating Root Exudation
by Andrey A. Belimov, Alexander I. Shaposhnikov, Tatiana S. Azarova, Darya S. Syrova, Anna B. Kitaeva, Pavel S. Ulyanich, Oleg S. Yuzikhin, Edgar A. Sekste, Vera I. Safronova, Margarita A. Vishnyakova, Viktor E. Tsyganov and Igor I. Tikhonovich
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182416 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
High soil acidity is one of the main unfavorable soil factors that inhibit the growth and mineral nutrition of plants. This is largely due to the toxicity of aluminum (Al), the mobility of which increases significantly in acidic soils. Symbiotic microorganisms have a [...] Read more.
High soil acidity is one of the main unfavorable soil factors that inhibit the growth and mineral nutrition of plants. This is largely due to the toxicity of aluminum (Al), the mobility of which increases significantly in acidic soils. Symbiotic microorganisms have a wide range of beneficial properties for plants, protecting them against abiotic stress factors. This report describes the mechanisms of positive effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens SPB2137 on four pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes grown in hydroponics and treated with 80 µM AlCl3. In batch culture, the bacteria produced auxins, possessed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, alkalized the medium and immobilized Al, forming biofilm-like structures and insoluble phosphates. Inoculation with Ps. fluorescens SPB2137 increased root and/or shoot biomass of Al-treated plants. The bacteria alkalized the nutrient solution and transferred Al from the solution to the residue, which contained phosphorus that was exuded by roots. As a result, the Al concentration in roots decreased, while the amount of precipitated Al correlated negatively with its concentration in the solution, positively with the solution pH and negatively with Al concentration in roots and shoots. Treatment with Al induced root exudation of organic acids, amino acids and sugars. The bacteria modulated root exudation via utilization and/or stimulation processes. The effects of Al and bacteria on plants varied depending on pea genotype, but all the effects had a positive direction and the variability was mostly quantitative. Thus, Ps. fluorescens SPB2137 improved the Al tolerance of pea due to immobilization and exclusion of toxicants from the root zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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