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Med. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Artificial intelligence is developing at an astounding pace, with recent emerging technology such as ChatGPT opening a world of new possibilities. In healthcare, coronary artery disease remains the biggest killer worldwide and hence represents a critical field where AI can offer key solutions. Through its ability to process vast amounts of data and learn from algorithms, AI has the huge potential to improve risk prediction using cardiac imaging, reduce human error, and shorten patient waiting times. In this paper, we discuss the applications, implications, opportunities, and challenges that are likely to arise as a result of using AI in cardiology, focusing mainly on cardiac imaging. View this paper
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15 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Implications of Pleural Fluid Composition in Persistent Pleural Effusion following Orthotopic Liver Transplant
by Bhavesh H. Patel, Kathryn H. Melamed, Holly Wilhalme, Gwenyth L. Day, Tisha Wang, Joseph DiNorcia, Douglas Farmer, Vatche Agopian, Fady Kaldas and Igor Barjaktarevic
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010024 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2575
Abstract
Persistent pleural effusions (PPEf) represent a known complication of orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). However, their clinical relevance is not well described. We evaluated the clinical, biochemical, and cellular characteristics of post-OLT PPEf and assessed their relationship with longitudinal outcomes. We performed a retrospective [...] Read more.
Persistent pleural effusions (PPEf) represent a known complication of orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). However, their clinical relevance is not well described. We evaluated the clinical, biochemical, and cellular characteristics of post-OLT PPEf and assessed their relationship with longitudinal outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of OLT recipients between 2006 and 2015. Included patients had post-OLT PPEf, defined by effusion persisting >30 days after OLT and available pleural fluid analysis. PPEf were classified as transudates or exudates (ExudLight) by Light’s criteria. Exudates were subclassified as those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (ExudLDH) or elevated protein (ExudProt). Cellular composition was classified as neutrophil- or lymphocyte-predominant. Of 1602 OLT patients, 124 (7.7%) had PPEf, of which 90.2% were ExudLight. Compared to all OLT recipients, PPEf patients had lower two-year survival (HR 1.63; p = 0.002). Among PPEf patients, one-year mortality was associated with pleural fluid RBC count (p = 0.03). While ExudLight and ExudProt showed no association with outcomes, ExudLDH were associated with increased ventilator dependence (p = 0.03) and postoperative length of stay (p = 0.03). Neutrophil-predominant effusions were associated with increased postoperative ventilator dependence (p = 0.03), vasopressor dependence (p = 0.02), and surgical pleural intervention (p = 0.02). In summary, post-OLT PPEf were associated with increased mortality. Ninety percent of these effusions were exudates by Light’s criteria. Defining exudates using LDH only and incorporating cellular analysis, including neutrophils and RBCs, was useful in predicting morbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hepatic and Gastroenterology Diseases)
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5 pages, 201 KiB  
Communication
Day Case Local Anaesthetic Thoracoscopy: Experience from 2 District General Hospitals in the United Kingdom
by Megan Turner, Felicity Craighead, Joseph Donald MacKenzie and Avinash Aujayeb
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010023 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Background: Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) can be a vital procedure for diagnosis of unexplained pleural effusions. Traditionally, poudrage for pleurodesis and insertion of a large bore drain necessitated admission. There has been a shift towards performing LAT as a day case procedure with [...] Read more.
Background: Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) can be a vital procedure for diagnosis of unexplained pleural effusions. Traditionally, poudrage for pleurodesis and insertion of a large bore drain necessitated admission. There has been a shift towards performing LAT as a day case procedure with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion. This was advocated during the COVID pandemic by the British Thoracic Society (BTS). To determine the feasibility of such pathways, continuous evaluations are required. Methods: All day case LAT procedures with IPC insertion, performed in theatre, were identified at two large district general hospitals (Northumbria HealthCare in the North East of England and Victoria Hospital, NHS Fife, in Scotland). Rapid pleurodesis with talc was not performed due to local staffing problems. All patients had their LAT in theatre under conscious sedation with a rigid scope. Demographics, clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics and outcomes were collected. Results: 79 patients underwent day case LAT. The lung did not deflate, meaning biopsies were not enabled, in four of the patients. The mean age was 72 years (standard deviation 13). Fifty-five patients were male and twenty-four were female. The main diagnoses were lung cancers, mesotheliomas and fibrinous pleuritis with an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 93%. Other diagnoses were breast, tonsillar, unknown primary cancers and lymphomas. Seventy-three IPCs were simultaneously placed and, due to normal macroscopic appearances in two patients, two large bore drains were placed and removed within one hour of LAT termination. Sixty-six (88%) patients were discharged on the same day. Seven patients required admission: one for treatment of surgical emphysema, four because they lived alone, one for pain control and one for control of a cardiac arrythmia. Within 30 days, there were five IPC site infections with two resultant empyemas (9%), with no associated mortality. Two patients developed pneumonia requiring admission and one patient required admission for pain management. The median number of days for which the IPCs remained in situ was 78.5 days (IQR 95). The median length of stay (LoS) was 0 days (IQR 0). No patients required further interventions for pleural fluid management. Conclusions: Day case LAT with IPC insertion is feasible with this current set up, with a median stay of 0 days, and should be widely adopted. The health economics of preventing admission are considerable, as our previous analysis showed a median length of stay of 3.96 days, although we are not comparing matched cohorts. Full article
12 pages, 783 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation and Impact to Nursing Practice—A Cross Sectional Study
by Ana Brčina, Kristian Civka, Renata Habeković, Sabina Krupa, Ana Ljubas, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska and Adriano Friganović
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010022 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Background: Atrial fibrillation is the most common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia, and it might lead to heart failure, which prolongs the duration of hospitalization and consequently increases the cost of treatment. Thus, diagnosing and treating atrial fibrillation should be the first line of [...] Read more.
Background: Atrial fibrillation is the most common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia, and it might lead to heart failure, which prolongs the duration of hospitalization and consequently increases the cost of treatment. Thus, diagnosing and treating atrial fibrillation should be the first line of defense against further complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence rate of postoperative atrial fibrillation and correlation with cardiac surgery on heart valves. A specific aim was to determine the relationship between the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and socio-demographic features. Methods: The study has a prospective cross-sectional design. The questionnaire was anonymous, requesting socio-demographic information as inclusion criteria, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods. Results: The sample was 201 patients. χ2 test and t-test were performed where we found that the frequency of atrial fibrillation was higher in the groups that have had valve surgery compared to other cardiac surgeries (χ2 = 7.695, ss = 2, p = 0.021). Atrial fibrillation increased with the age of the patients, but the prevalence of atrial fibrillation was not correlated with body weight. Conclusion: The results of this this study show that atrial fibrillation was higher in the participants who had valve surgery compared to other cardiac surgeries. There was also an increase in atrial fibrillation in the older participants. The results of this study can help to improve nursing practice and the quality of care for cardiac surgery patients with regard to daily activities, or planning nursing care due to the patient’s condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing Research)
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12 pages, 991 KiB  
Viewpoint
Qigong Exercise Balances Oxygen Supply and Acid-Base to Modulate Hypoxia: A Perspective Platform toward Preemptive Health & Medicine
by Junjie Zhang, Qingning Su and Shengwen Calvin Li
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010021 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2904
Abstract
Qigong is a meditative movement with therapeutic effects and is commonly practiced in Eastern medicine. A growing body of evidence validates its health benefits, leading to mechanistic questions about how it works. We propose a novel mechanism by which the “acid” caused by [...] Read more.
Qigong is a meditative movement with therapeutic effects and is commonly practiced in Eastern medicine. A growing body of evidence validates its health benefits, leading to mechanistic questions about how it works. We propose a novel mechanism by which the “acid” caused by hypoxia affects metabolism, and the way it is neutralized through Qigong practice involves the body’s blood flow and vasculature modifications. Specifically, Qigong exercise generates an oxygen supply and acid-base balance against the hypoxic effects of underlying pathological conditions. We also propose that Qigong exercise mediated and focused on the local hypoxia environment of tissues might normalize the circulation of metabolic and inflammation accumulation in the tumor tissue and restore the normal metabolism of tissues and cells through calm, relaxation, and extreme Zen-style breathing that gravitates toward preemptive health and medicine. Thus, we propose the mechanisms of action related to Qigong, intending to unify Eastern and Western exercise theory. Full article
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22 pages, 1854 KiB  
Article
Artificial Intelligence as a Diagnostic Tool in Non-Invasive Imaging in the Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease
by Gemina Doolub, Michail Mamalakis, Samer Alabed, Rob J. Van der Geest, Andrew J. Swift, Jonathan C. L. Rodrigues, Pankaj Garg, Nikhil V. Joshi and Amardeep Dastidar
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010020 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3357
Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is associated with considerable economic burden. In an ageing, multimorbid population, it has become increasingly important to develop reliable, consistent, low-risk, non-invasive means of diagnosing CAD. The evolution [...] Read more.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is associated with considerable economic burden. In an ageing, multimorbid population, it has become increasingly important to develop reliable, consistent, low-risk, non-invasive means of diagnosing CAD. The evolution of multiple cardiac modalities in this field has addressed this dilemma to a large extent, not only in providing information regarding anatomical disease, as is the case with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), but also in contributing critical details about functional assessment, for instance, using stress cardiac magnetic resonance (S-CMR). The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is developing at an astounding pace, especially in healthcare. In healthcare, key milestones have been achieved using AI and machine learning (ML) in various clinical settings, from smartwatches detecting arrhythmias to retinal image analysis and skin cancer prediction. In recent times, we have seen an emerging interest in developing AI-based technology in the field of cardiovascular imaging, as it is felt that ML methods have potential to overcome some limitations of current risk models by applying computer algorithms to large databases with multidimensional variables, thus enabling the inclusion of complex relationships to predict outcomes. In this paper, we review the current literature on the various applications of AI in the assessment of CAD, with a focus on multimodality imaging, followed by a discussion on future perspectives and critical challenges that this field is likely to encounter as it continues to evolve in cardiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
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12 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
Chronic Stress Induces Type 2b Skeletal Muscle Atrophy via the Inhibition of mTORC1 Signaling in Mice
by Shigeko Fushimi, Tsutomu Nohno and Hironobu Katsuyama
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010019 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 5062
Abstract
Chronic stress induces psychological and physiological changes that may have negative sequelae for health and well-being. In this study, the skeletal muscles of male C57BL/6 mice subjected to repetitive water-immersion restraint stress to model chronic stress were examined. In chronically stressed mice, serum [...] Read more.
Chronic stress induces psychological and physiological changes that may have negative sequelae for health and well-being. In this study, the skeletal muscles of male C57BL/6 mice subjected to repetitive water-immersion restraint stress to model chronic stress were examined. In chronically stressed mice, serum corticosterone levels significantly increased, whereas thymus volume and bone mineral density decreased. Further, body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and grip strength were significantly decreased. Histochemical analysis of the soleus muscles revealed a significant decrease in the cross-sectional area of type 2b muscle fibers. Although type 2a fibers also tended to decrease, chronic stress had no impact on type 1 muscle fibers. Chronic stress increased the expression of REDD1, FoxO1, FoxO3, KLF15, Atrogin1, and FKBP5, but did not affect the expression of myostatin or myogenin. In contrast, chronic stress resulted in a decrease in p-S6 and p-4E-BP1 levels in the soleus muscle. Taken together, these results indicate that chronic stress promotes muscle atrophy by inhibiting mammalian targets of rapamycin complex 1 activity due to the upregulation of its inhibitor, REDD1. Full article
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15 pages, 7882 KiB  
Article
Brenner Tumor of the Ovary: A 10-Year Single Institution Experience and Comprehensive Review of the Literature
by Ferial Alloush, Hisham F. Bahmad, Brendan Lutz, Robert Poppiti, Monica Recine, Sarah Alghamdi and Larry E. Goldenberg
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010018 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5143
Abstract
Brenner tumors (BTs) are surface-epithelial stromal cell tumors that are categorized by the World Health Organization as benign, borderline, and malignant. Due to the rarity of BTs, the published literature on these tumors is comprised primarily of case reports and small retrospective studies. [...] Read more.
Brenner tumors (BTs) are surface-epithelial stromal cell tumors that are categorized by the World Health Organization as benign, borderline, and malignant. Due to the rarity of BTs, the published literature on these tumors is comprised primarily of case reports and small retrospective studies. We performed a pathology database review spanning the last ten years at our institution revealing nine reported benign BTs. We collected the clinical and pathological data of patients associated with those BTs, describing the clinical presentation and imaging results, and assessing the possible risk factors associated with them. The average age at diagnosis was 58 years. BTs were discovered incidentally in 7/9 cases. The tumor was multifocal and bilateral in 1/9 cases and ranged in size from 0.2 cm to 7.5 cm. Associated Walthard rests were found in 6/9 cases and transitional metaplasia of surface ovarian and/or tubal epithelium was found in 4/9 cases. One patient had an associated mucinous cystadenoma in the ipsilateral ovary. Another patient had an associated mucinous cystadenoma in the contralateral ovary. In conclusion, we found that Walthard rests and transitional metaplasia are common findings in association with BTs. Additionally, pathologists and surgeons need to be aware of the association between mucinous cystadenomas and BTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
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9 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Survival and Local Control in Patients with Bone Metastases Treated with Radiotherapy
by Kenji Makita, Yasushi Hamamoto, Hiromitsu Kanzaki, Kei Nagasaki, Noriko Takata, Shintaro Tsuruoka, Kotaro Uwatsu and Teruhito Kido
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010017 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the expected prognosis and factors affecting local control (LC) of the bone metastatic sites treated with palliative external beam radiotherapy (RT). Between December 2010 and April 2019, 420 cases (male/female = 240/180; median age [range]: [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the expected prognosis and factors affecting local control (LC) of the bone metastatic sites treated with palliative external beam radiotherapy (RT). Between December 2010 and April 2019, 420 cases (male/female = 240/180; median age [range]: 66 [12–90] years) with predominantly osteolytic bone metastases received RT and were evaluated. LC was evaluated by follow-up computed tomography (CT) image. Median RT doses (BED10) were 39.0 Gy (range, 14.4–71.7 Gy). The 0.5-year overall survival and LC of RT sites were 71% and 84%, respectively. Local recurrence on CT images was observed in 19% (n = 80) of the RT sites, and the median recurrence time was 3.5 months (range, 1–106 months). In univariate analysis, abnormal laboratory data before RT (platelet count, serum albumin, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum calcium level), high-risk primary tumor sites (colorectal, esophageal, hepatobiliary/pancreatic, renal/ureter, and non-epithelial cancers), no antineoplastic agents (ATs) administration after RT, and no bone modifying agents (BMAs) administration after RT were significantly unfavorable factors for both survival and LC of RT sites. Sex (male), performance status (≥3), and RT dose (BED10) (<39.0 Gy) were significantly unfavorable factors for only survival, and age (≥70 years) and bone cortex destruction were significantly unfavorable factors for only LC of RT sites. In multivariate analysis, only abnormal laboratory data before RT influenced both unfavorable survival and LC of RT sites. Performance status (≥3), no ATs administration after RT, RT dose (BED10) (<39.0 Gy), and sex (male) were significantly unfavorable factors for survival, and primary tumor sites and BMAs administration after RT were significantly unfavorable factors for LC of RT sites. In conclusion, laboratory data before RT was important factor both prognosis and LC of bone metastases treated with palliative RT. At least in patients with abnormal laboratory data before RT, palliative RT seemed to be focused on the only pain relief. Full article
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9 pages, 1280 KiB  
Technical Note
The LipoDerm Method for Regeneration and Reconstruction in Plastic Surgery: A Technical Experimental Ex Vivo Note
by Ziyad Alharbi, Sarah Qari, Maryam Bader, Sherif Khamis, Faris Almarzouqi, Michael Vogt and Christian Opländer
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010016 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
The combination of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal scaffolds has been shown to be an approach with high potential in soft tissue reconstruction. The addition of dermal templates to skin grafts can increase graft survival through angiogenesis, improve regeneration and healing time, [...] Read more.
The combination of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal scaffolds has been shown to be an approach with high potential in soft tissue reconstruction. The addition of dermal templates to skin grafts can increase graft survival through angiogenesis, improve regeneration and healing time, and enhance the overall appearance. However, it remains unknown whether the addition of nanofat-containing ASCs to this construct could effectively facilitate the creation of a multi-layer biological regenerative graft, which could possibly be used for soft tissue reconstruction in the future in a single operation. Initially, microfat was harvested using Coleman’s technique, then isolated through the strict protocol using Tonnard’s technique. Finally, centrifugation, emulsification, and filtration were conducted to seed the filtered nanofat-containing ASCs onto Matriderm for sterile ex vivo cellular enrichment. After seeding, a resazurin-based reagent was added, and the construct was visualized using two-photon microscopy. Within 1 h of incubation, viable ASCs were detected and attached to the top layer of the scaffold. This experimental ex vivo note opens more dimensions and horizons towards the combination of ASCs and collagen–elastin matrices (i.e., dermal scaffolds) as an effective approach in soft tissue regeneration. The proposed multi-layered structure containing nanofat and dermal template (Lipoderm) may be used, in the future, as a biological regenerative graft for wound defect reconstruction and regeneration in a single operation and can also be combined with skin grafts. Such protocols may optimize the skin graft results by creating a multi-layer soft tissue reconstruction template, leading to more optimal regeneration and aesthetic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Skin Wound Healing)
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34 pages, 1661 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prevention and Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) with Non-Pharmacological Interventions: Clinical Recommendations from a Systematic Scoping Review and an Expert Consensus Process
by Nadja Klafke, Jasmin Bossert, Birgit Kröger, Petra Neuberger, Ute Heyder, Monika Layer, Marcela Winkler, Christel Idler, Elke Kaschdailewitsch, Rolf Heine, Heike John, Tatjana Zielke, Beeke Schmeling, Sosamma Joy, Isabel Mertens, Burcu Babadag-Savas, Sara Kohler, Cornelia Mahler, Claudia M. Witt, Diana Steinmann, Petra Voiss and Regina Stolzadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010015 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6512
Abstract
Background: Most individuals affected by cancer who are treated with certain chemotherapies suffer of CIPN. Therefore, there is a high patient and provider interest in complementary non-pharmacological therapies, but its evidence base has not yet been clearly pointed out in the context of [...] Read more.
Background: Most individuals affected by cancer who are treated with certain chemotherapies suffer of CIPN. Therefore, there is a high patient and provider interest in complementary non-pharmacological therapies, but its evidence base has not yet been clearly pointed out in the context of CIPN. Methods: The results of a scoping review overviewing the published clinical evidence on the application of complementary therapies for improving the complex CIPN symptomatology are synthesized with the recommendations of an expert consensus process aiming to draw attention to supportive strategies for CIPN. The scoping review, registered at PROSPERO 2020 (CRD 42020165851), followed the PRISMA-ScR and JBI guidelines. Relevant studies published in Pubmed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, and CINAHL between 2000 and 2021 were included. CASP was used to evaluate the methodologic quality of the studies. Results: Seventy-five studies with mixed study quality met the inclusion criteria. Manipulative therapies (including massage, reflexology, therapeutic touch), rhythmical embrocations, movement and mind–body therapies, acupuncture/acupressure, and TENS/Scrambler therapy were the most frequently analyzed in research and may be effective treatment options for CIPN. The expert panel approved 17 supportive interventions, most of them were phytotherapeutic interventions including external applications and cryotherapy, hydrotherapy, and tactile stimulation. More than two-thirds of the consented interventions were rated with moderate to high perceived clinical effectiveness in therapeutic use. Conclusions: The evidence of both the review and the expert panel supports a variety of complementary procedures regarding the supportive treatment of CIPN; however, the application on patients should be individually weighed in each case. Based on this meta-synthesis, interprofessional healthcare teams may open up a dialogue with patients interested in non-pharmacological treatment options to tailor complementary counselling and treatments to their needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
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11 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Thiotepa, Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide: Effective but Toxic Conditioning Regimen Prior to Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Central Nervous System Lymphoma
by Lebon Delphine, Debureaux Pierre-Edouard, Royer Bruno, Gruson Bérengère, Joris Magalie, Votte Patrick, Marolleau Jean-Pierre and Morel Pierre
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010014 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
In primary central nervous system lymphoma, two-year progression-free survival rates of up to 63 percent have been reported for first-line autologous stem cell transplantation after conditioning with the thiotepa busulfan cyclophosphamide regimen. However, 11 percent of the patients died due to toxicity. Besides [...] Read more.
In primary central nervous system lymphoma, two-year progression-free survival rates of up to 63 percent have been reported for first-line autologous stem cell transplantation after conditioning with the thiotepa busulfan cyclophosphamide regimen. However, 11 percent of the patients died due to toxicity. Besides conventional survival, progression-free survival and treatment related mortality analyses, a competing-risk analysis was applied to our cohort of twenty-four consecutive patients with primary or secondary central nervous system lymphoma who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation after thiotepa busulfan cyclophosphamide conditioning. The two-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 78 percent and 65 percent, respectively. The treatment-related mortality rate was 21 percent. The competing risks analysis demonstrate that age 60 or over and the infusion of less than 4.6 × 106/kg CD34+ stem cells were significant adverse prognostic factors for overall survival. Autologous stem cell transplantation with thiotepa busulfan cyclophosphamide conditioning was associated with sustained remission and survival. Nevertheless, the intensive thiotepa busulfan cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen was highly toxic, especially in older patients. Thus, our results suggest that future studies should aim at identifying the subgroup of patients who will really benefit of the procedure and/or to reduce the toxicity of future conditioning regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-Cancer Drugs)
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12 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
The Importance of Mitral Valve Prolapse Doming Volume in the Assessment of Left Ventricular Stroke Volume with Cardiac MRI
by Rui Li, Hosamadin Assadi, Gareth Matthews, Zia Mehmood, Ciaran Grafton-Clarke, Bahman Kasmai, David Hewson, Richard Greenwood, Hilmar Spohr, Liang Zhong, Xiaodan Zhao, Chris Sawh, Rudolf Duehmke, Vassilios S. Vassiliou, Faye Nelthorpe, David Ashman, John Curtin, Gurung-Koney Yashoda, Rob J. Van der Geest, Samer Alabed, Andrew J. Swift, Marina Hughes and Pankaj Gargadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010013 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
There remains a debate whether the ventricular volume within prolapsing mitral valve (MV) leaflets should be included in the left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume, and therefore factored in LV stroke volume (SV), in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assessments. This study aims to compare [...] Read more.
There remains a debate whether the ventricular volume within prolapsing mitral valve (MV) leaflets should be included in the left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume, and therefore factored in LV stroke volume (SV), in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assessments. This study aims to compare LV volumes during end-systolic phases, with and without the inclusion of the volume of blood on the left atrial aspect of the atrioventricular groove but still within the MV prolapsing leaflets, against the reference LV SV by four-dimensional flow (4DF). A total of 15 patients with MV prolapse (MVP) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. We compared LV SV with (LV SVMVP) and without (LV SVstandard) MVP left ventricular doming volume, using 4D flow (LV SV4DF) as the reference value. Significant differences were observed when comparing LV SVstandard and LV SVMVP (p < 0.001), and between LV SVstandard and LV SV4DF (p = 0.02). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) test demonstrated good repeatability between LV SVMVP and LV SV4DF (ICC = 0.86, p < 0.001) but only moderate repeatability between LV SVstandard and LV SV4DF (ICC = 0.75, p < 0.01). Calculating LV SV by including the MVP left ventricular doming volume has a higher consistency with LV SV derived from the 4DF assessment. In conclusion, LV SV short-axis cine assessment incorporating MVP dooming volume can significantly improve the precision of LV SV assessment compared to the reference 4DF method. Hence, in cases with bi-leaflet MVP, we recommend factoring in MVP dooming into the left ventricular end-systolic volume to improve the accuracy and precision of quantifying mitral regurgitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
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9 pages, 237 KiB  
Article
Free Flaps for Skin and Soft Tissue Reconstruction in the Elderly Patient: Indication or Contraindication
by Heiko Sorg, Christian G. G. Sorg, Daniel J. Tilkorn, Simon Thönnes, Rees Karimo and Jörg Hauser
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010012 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Background: Increased lifespan and the improvement of medical treatment have given rise to research in reconstructive procedures in elderly patients. Higher postoperative complication rates, longer rehabilitation, and surgical difficulties remain a problem in the elderly. We asked whether a free flap in elderly [...] Read more.
Background: Increased lifespan and the improvement of medical treatment have given rise to research in reconstructive procedures in elderly patients. Higher postoperative complication rates, longer rehabilitation, and surgical difficulties remain a problem in the elderly. We asked whether a free flap in elderly patients is an indication or a contraindication and performed a retrospective, monocentric study. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups (YOUNG 0–59 years; OLD > 60 years). The endpoint was the survival of flaps and their dependence on patient- and surgery-specific parameters using multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 110 patients (OLD n = 59) underwent 129 flaps. The chance of flap loss increased as soon as two flaps were performed in one surgery. Anterior lateral thigh flaps had the highest chance for flap survival. Compared with the lower extremity, the head/neck/trunk group had a significantly increased chance of flap loss. There was a significant increase in the odds of flap loss in linear relation to the administration of erythrocyte concentrates. Conclusion: The results confirm that free flap surgery can be indicated as a safe method for the elderly. Perioperative parameters such as two flaps in one surgery and transfusion regimens must be considered as risk factors for flap loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Skin Wound Healing)
13 pages, 2383 KiB  
Perspective
Effects of Electrical Stimulation of the Cell: Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Signal Transduction
by Kazuo Katoh
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010011 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
Electrical stimulation of the cell can have a number of different effects depending on the type of cell being stimulated. In general, electrical stimulation can cause the cell to become more active, increase its metabolism, and change its gene expression. For example, if [...] Read more.
Electrical stimulation of the cell can have a number of different effects depending on the type of cell being stimulated. In general, electrical stimulation can cause the cell to become more active, increase its metabolism, and change its gene expression. For example, if the electrical stimulation is of low intensity and short duration, it may simply cause the cell to depolarize. However, if the electrical stimulation is of high intensity or long duration, it may cause the cell to become hyperpolarized. The electrical stimulation of cells is a process by which an electrical current is applied to cells in order to change their function or behavior. This process can be used to treat various medical conditions and has been shown to be effective in a number of studies. In this perspective, the effects of electrical stimulation on the cell are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Skin Wound Healing)
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3 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Medical Sciences in 2022
by Medical Sciences Editorial Office
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010010 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 987
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
9 pages, 1497 KiB  
Review
Melatonin as a Repurposed Drug for Melanoma Treatment
by Rachana Pathipaka, Anita Thyagarajan and Ravi P. Sahu
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010009 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with a greater risk of metastasis and a higher prevalence and mortality rate. This cancer type has been demonstrated to develop resistance to the known treatment options such as conventional therapeutic agents and targeted [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with a greater risk of metastasis and a higher prevalence and mortality rate. This cancer type has been demonstrated to develop resistance to the known treatment options such as conventional therapeutic agents and targeted therapy that are currently being used as the standard of care. Drug repurposing has been explored as a potential alternative treatment strategy against disease pathophysiologies, including melanoma. To that end, multiple studies have suggested that melatonin produced by the pineal gland possesses anti-proliferative and oncostatic effects in experimental melanoma models. The anticarcinogenic activity of melatonin is attributed to its ability to target a variety of oncogenic signaling pathways, including the MAPK pathways which are involved in regulating the behavior of cancer cells, including cell survival and proliferation. Additionally, preclinical studies have demonstrated that melatonin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents exerts synergistic effects against melanoma. The goal of this review is to highlight the mechanistic insights of melatonin as a monotherapy or combinational therapy for melanoma treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 657 KiB  
Review
Different Liquid Biopsies for the Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Mutational Oncology Era
by Maria Palmieri and Elisa Frullanti
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010008 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
In the last ten years, liquid biopsy has been slowly joining the traditional invasive techniques for the diagnosis and monitoring of tumors. Liquid biopsies allow easy repeated sampling of blood, reflect the tumor scenario, and make personalized therapy real for the patient. Liquid [...] Read more.
In the last ten years, liquid biopsy has been slowly joining the traditional invasive techniques for the diagnosis and monitoring of tumors. Liquid biopsies allow easy repeated sampling of blood, reflect the tumor scenario, and make personalized therapy real for the patient. Liquid biopsies isolate and utilize different substrates present in patients’ body fluids such as circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, tumor extracellular vesicles, etc. One of the most-used solid cancers in the development of the non-invasive liquid biopsy approach that has benefited from scientific advances is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using liquid biopsy, it is possible to have more details on NSCLC staging, progression, heterogeneity, gene mutations and clonal evolution, etc., basing the treatment on precision medicine as well as on the screening of markers for therapeutic resistance. With this review, the authors propose a complete and current overview of all different liquid biopsies available to date, to understand how much has been carried out and how much remains to be completed for a better characterization of NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
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14 pages, 4652 KiB  
Article
Expression of Markers Ki-67, Nestin, VEGF, CD34 and Apoptosis in Relatively Healthy Lung Tissue with Non-Changed and Metaplastic Bronchial Epithelium
by Kaiva Zile Zarina and Mara Pilmane
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010007 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Background: Knowledge about the occurrence of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis in healthy lung tissues with different bronchial epitheliums is limited, and further exploration can contribute to a better understanding of the physiological renewal of lung tissues. The processes mentioned above [...] Read more.
Background: Knowledge about the occurrence of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis in healthy lung tissues with different bronchial epitheliums is limited, and further exploration can contribute to a better understanding of the physiological renewal of lung tissues. The processes mentioned above occur with the help of important tissue factors; therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the expression of markers Ki-67, nestin, CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG) and detect apoptotic cells in relatively healthy lung tissue. Methods: Samples of relatively healthy lung tissue were obtained from 19 patients and divided into groups of patients with non-changed and patients with metaplastic bronchial epithelium. Tissue samples were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Ki-67, nestin, VEGF and CD34-positive cells were detected by the immunohistochemistry method. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was carried out to detect apoptotic cells. The number of positive structures was counted semi-quantitatively by microscopy. Results: Ki-67-positive cells were detected in only one case. An occasional to moderate number of nestin-positive structures was found in various tissues of relatively healthy lungs with different bronchial epitheliums. No apoptotic cells were seen in non-changed bronchial epithelium, compared with few apoptotic cells in metaplastic bronchial epithelium. Metaplastic bronchial epithelium contained more VEGF-positive cells than non-changed bronchial epithelium. Samples with non-changed, and metaplastic bronchial epithelium both contained a similar number of CD34-positive structures. Conclusions: Proliferative activity and programmed cell death are not prominent events in normal lung tissue. A moderate number of nestin-positive cells in the alveolar epithelium and cartilage of bronchi with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium suggests a significant role of neuronal origin cells in these structures, to be intensified in metaplastic bronchial epithelium. A practically non-changed number of CD34-positive cells excludes any difference in stimulation of endothelial origin cells between lungs with different types of epithelium, while an increase in VEGF in structures with metaplastic epithelium suggests the presence/influence of tissue ischemia impact on possible development/maintenance of metaplasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pneumology and Respiratory Diseases)
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16 pages, 656 KiB  
Review
The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and Throat
by Jonathan M Carnino, Steven Miyawaki and Sanjeev Rampam
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010006 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous nanoparticles produced by most cell types into the extracellular space and play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Historically, EVs were categorized based on their methods of biogenesis and size into three groups: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous nanoparticles produced by most cell types into the extracellular space and play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Historically, EVs were categorized based on their methods of biogenesis and size into three groups: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. Most recently, EV nomenclature has evolved to categorize these nanoparticles based on their size, surface markers, and/or the cell type which secreted them. Many techniques have been adopted in recent years which leverage these characteristics to isolate them from cell culture media and biological fluids. EVs carry various “cargo”, including DNA, RNA, proteins, and small signaling molecules. After isolation, EVs can be characterized by various methods to analyze their unique cargo profiles which define their role in cell-to-cell communication, normal physiology, and disease progression. The study of EV cargo has become more common recently as we continue to delineate their role in various human diseases. Further understanding these mechanisms may allow for the future use of EVs as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in diseases. Furthermore, their unique cargo delivery mechanisms may one day be exploited to selectively deliver therapeutic agents and drugs. Despite the growing research interest in EVs, limited studies have focused on the role of EVs in the diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. In this review, we will introduce EVs and their cargo, discuss methods of isolation and characterization, and summarize the most up-to-date literature thus far into the role of EVs in diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Full article
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9 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
The ESCRT-III Protein Chmp1 Regulates Lipid Storage in the Drosophila Fat Body
by Austin M. Fruin, Kelly E. Leon and Justin R. DiAngelo
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010005 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Defects in how excess nutrients are stored as triglycerides can result in several diseases including obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Understanding the genes responsible for normal lipid homeostasis will help understand the pathogenesis of these diseases. RNAi screens performed in Drosophila cells identified [...] Read more.
Defects in how excess nutrients are stored as triglycerides can result in several diseases including obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Understanding the genes responsible for normal lipid homeostasis will help understand the pathogenesis of these diseases. RNAi screens performed in Drosophila cells identified genes involved in vesicle formation and protein sorting as important for the formation of lipid droplets; however, all of the vesicular trafficking proteins that regulate lipid storage are unknown. Here, we characterize the function of the Drosophila Charged multivesicular protein 1 (Chmp1) gene in regulating fat storage. Chmp1 is a member of the ESCRT-III complex that targets membrane localized signaling receptors to intralumenal vesicles in the multivesicular body of the endosome and then ultimately to the lysosome for degradation. When Chmp1 levels are decreased specifically in the fly fat body, triglyceride accumulates while fat-body-specific Chmp1 overexpression decreases triglycerides. Chmp1 controls triglyceride storage by regulating the number and size of fat body cells produced and not by altering food consumption or lipid metabolic enzyme gene expression. Together, these data uncover a novel function for Chmp1 in controlling lipid storage in Drosophila and supports the role of the endomembrane system in regulating metabolic homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases)
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12 pages, 8585 KiB  
Systematic Review
Anakinra in Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Kamran Mahfooz, Aditya Rana, Keerthi Palagati, Akshata Krishna Suvarna, Christian Perryman, Sai Pranathi Gaddipati, Arshiya Adhnon, Rupesh Andani and Advait Vasavada
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010004 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4080
Abstract
Background: Heart failure (HF) has become increasingly difficult to manage given its increasing incidence. Despite the availability of novel treatment target relieving inhibition and congestions for neurohormonal activation, heart failure is one of leading health conditions associated with high hospitalization and readmission rates, [...] Read more.
Background: Heart failure (HF) has become increasingly difficult to manage given its increasing incidence. Despite the availability of novel treatment target relieving inhibition and congestions for neurohormonal activation, heart failure is one of leading health conditions associated with high hospitalization and readmission rates, resulting in poor quality of life. In light of this, this article serves to demonstrate the effect of anakinra as one of the treatment paradigms for HF to explore the need for advanced novel interventions. Methods: We conducted a search in five electronic databases, including Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus, and PubMed, for RCTs (randomized controlled trials) evaluating the effects of anakinra against placebo in HF. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan version 5.4. Results: Eight RCTs were obtained and included for analysis in this study. The results demonstrate that anakinra significantly reduces the levels of CRP (C-reactive protein), with significant difference between anakinra- and placebo-treated groups. Analyses also show that CRP failed to cause an improvement in peak oxygen consumption and ventilatory efficiency. Additionally, the treatment-related adverse events were insignificant. Some considerable limitations are that the same set of researchers were involved in most of the studies; hence, more independent studies need to be encouraged. Conclusion: Anakinra was associated with a reduction in CRP levels, indicating some anti-inflammatory effects but no effect on function, exercise capacity, and adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
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12 pages, 1376 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Malaria Transmission Mechanisms, Control, and Modeling
by Merveille Koissi Savi
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010003 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7422
Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. As a result of the interplay between many factors, the control of this disease can be challenging. However, few studies have demonstrated malaria’s complexity, control, and modeling although this perspective could [...] Read more.
In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. As a result of the interplay between many factors, the control of this disease can be challenging. However, few studies have demonstrated malaria’s complexity, control, and modeling although this perspective could lead to effective policy recommendations. This paper aims to be a didactic material providing the reader with an overview of malaria. More importantly, using a system approach lens, we intend to highlight the debated topics and the multifaceted thematic aspects of malaria transmission mechanisms, while showing the control approaches used as well as the model supporting the dynamics of malaria. As there is a large amount of information on each subject, we have attempted to provide a basic understanding of malaria that needs to be further developed. Nevertheless, this study illustrates the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach to designing next-generation malaria control policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology and Infectious Diseases)
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8 pages, 214 KiB  
Article
The Effect of COVID-19 on Maternal Mental Health and Medical Support
by Laura Catalina Merlano, Sindhu Nagarakanti, Kailyn Mitchell, Charles Wollmuth, Peter Magnusson and Joseph Pergolizzi
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010002 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that affected the overall mental health of the population. As seen in previous situations, there seemed to be an extreme impact of disasters on the mental health of pregnant women and new mothers; therefore, we [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that affected the overall mental health of the population. As seen in previous situations, there seemed to be an extreme impact of disasters on the mental health of pregnant women and new mothers; therefore, we investigated the relationship between COVID-19 and maternal mental health. The pregnant subjects were identified during the study period through convenience sampling. The study received Institutional Review Board approval and online surveys were sent to subjects via email. The questions were focused on feelings about being pregnant and the influence of the practices during the pandemic. Fifty-one (51) pregnant patients were identified. Our study found that 92.3% of the participants felt negatively, as the COVID-19 precautions did not permit their significant other to attend their routine prenatal visits with them. 64.7% felt that the visits were less personal, 100% felt that they had to take more precautions. Only 42% of the doctors of the subjects discussed how COVID-19 could affect the pregnancy and the baby. Pregnant subjects all had negative feelings towards the pandemic, routine precautions, and the inability to include significant others in prenatal visits and delivery. The majority did not feel their medical teams discussed how COVID-19 could affect the baby. Full article
9 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Trimethoprim on In Vitro Biofilm Formation in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)
by Shane Whelan, Mary Claire O’Grady, Gerard Daniel Corcoran, Karen Finn and Brigid Lucey
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim was determined and the biofilm formation [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim was determined and the biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified. The statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett’s test. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form stronger biofilms by nitrofurantoin, 12% by ciprofloxacin, and 19% by trimethoprim; conversely 36.8% of strains had inhibited biofilm formation with nitrofurantoin, 52.6% with ciprofloxacin, and 38.5% with trimethoprim. A key finding was that even in cases where the isolate was resistant to an antibiotic as defined by EUCAST, many were induced to form a stronger biofilm when grown with sub-MIC concentrations of antibiotics, especially trimethoprim, where six of the 22 trimethoprim resistant strains were induced to form stronger biofilms. These findings suggest that the use of empirical treatment with trimethoprim without first establishing susceptibility may in fact potentiate infection in cases where a patient who is suffering from a urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by trimethoprim resistant UPEC is administered trimethoprim. This emphasizes the need for laboratory-guided treatment of UTI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology and Infectious Diseases)
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