Drug Repurposing in Cancer Treatment and Impacting the Efficacy of Therapeutic Agents

A special issue of Medical Sciences (ISSN 2076-3271). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer and Cancer-Related Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 4926

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Fairborn, OH 45324, USA
Interests: oxidative stressors and lipid mediators; cancer pharmacology and chemoprevention; anticancer therapeutics and immunomodulation; photobiology and environmental factors; cellular signaling pathways in tumor resistance mechanisms; antitumor immune responses
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer treatment remains an ongoing challenge, especially those malignancies which develop resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. While several tumor resistance mechanisms have been identified and strategies to overcome such mechanisms have resulted in improved responses of therapeutic agents, the overall survival benefits remain relatively low. Thus, new approaches to target those counter-regulatory pathways involved in impeding the efficacy of cancer therapy are being implicated to improve cancer treatment. Drug repurposing explores the use of existing investigational drugs with the known mechanisms of action for new clinical purposes, such as the treatment of human malignancies. There is an increased interest in exploring the potential of drug repurposing either alone, or in combination with conventional anticancer agents for cancer treatment. The focus of this Special Issue is to publish original research or review articles related to drug purposing for cancer treatment, or improving the efficacy of therapeutic agents, including targeted therapy. Articles exploring the effectiveness of any drug repurposing candidates on any cancer models will be considered.

Dr. Ravi P. Sahu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • drug repurposing
  • antidiabetic drug
  • anti-inflammatory drug
  • antimalarial drug
  • antipsychotic drug
  • tumor resistance
  • chemotherapeutic agents or targeted therapy

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1860 KiB  
Communication
17β-estradiol Enhances 5-Fluorouracil Anti-Cancer Activities in Colon Cancer Cell Lines
by Amani A. Mahbub
Med. Sci. 2022, 10(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci10040062 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Background: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) represents one of the major constituents of chemotherapy combination regimens in colon cancer (CRC) treatments; however, this regimen is linked with severe adverse effects and chemoresistance. Thus, developing more efficient approaches for CRC is urgently needed to overcome these problems [...] Read more.
Background: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) represents one of the major constituents of chemotherapy combination regimens in colon cancer (CRC) treatments; however, this regimen is linked with severe adverse effects and chemoresistance. Thus, developing more efficient approaches for CRC is urgently needed to overcome these problems and improve the patient survival rate. Currently, 17β-estradiol (E2) has gained greater attention in colon carcinogenesis, significantly lowering the incidence of CRC in females at reproductive age compared with age-matched males. Aims: This study measured the effects of E2 and/or 5-FU single/dual therapies on cell cycle progression and apoptosis against human HT-29 female and SW480 male primary CRC cells versus their impact on SW620 male metastatic CRC cells. Methods: The HT-29, SW480, and SW620 cells were treated with IC50 of E2 (10 nM) and 5-FU (50 μM), alone or combined (E+F), for 48 h before cell cycle and apoptosis analyses using flow cytometry. Results: The data here showed that E2 monotherapy has great potential to arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis in all the investigated colon cancer cells, with the most remarkable effects on metastatic cells (SW620). Most importantly, the dual therapy (E+F) has exerted anti-cancer activities in female (HT-29) and male (SW480) primary CRC cells by inducing apoptosis, which was preferentially provoked in the sub-G1 phase. However, the dual treatment showed the smallest effect in SW620 metastatic cells. Conclusion: this is the first study that demonstrated that the anti-cancer actions of 17β-estradiol and 5-Fluorouracil dual therapy were superior to the monotherapies in female and male primary CRC cells; it is proposed that this treatment strategy could be promising for the early stages of CRC. At the same time, 17β-estradiol monotherapy could be a better approach for treating the metastatic forms of the disease. Nevertheless, additional investigations are still required to determine their precise therapeutic values in CRC. Full article
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Review

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9 pages, 1497 KiB  
Review
Melatonin as a Repurposed Drug for Melanoma Treatment
by Rachana Pathipaka, Anita Thyagarajan and Ravi P. Sahu
Med. Sci. 2023, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci11010009 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with a greater risk of metastasis and a higher prevalence and mortality rate. This cancer type has been demonstrated to develop resistance to the known treatment options such as conventional therapeutic agents and targeted [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with a greater risk of metastasis and a higher prevalence and mortality rate. This cancer type has been demonstrated to develop resistance to the known treatment options such as conventional therapeutic agents and targeted therapy that are currently being used as the standard of care. Drug repurposing has been explored as a potential alternative treatment strategy against disease pathophysiologies, including melanoma. To that end, multiple studies have suggested that melatonin produced by the pineal gland possesses anti-proliferative and oncostatic effects in experimental melanoma models. The anticarcinogenic activity of melatonin is attributed to its ability to target a variety of oncogenic signaling pathways, including the MAPK pathways which are involved in regulating the behavior of cancer cells, including cell survival and proliferation. Additionally, preclinical studies have demonstrated that melatonin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents exerts synergistic effects against melanoma. The goal of this review is to highlight the mechanistic insights of melatonin as a monotherapy or combinational therapy for melanoma treatment. Full article
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