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Micromachines, Volume 15, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 130 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Conventional technologies can no longer keep up with the growing demand for RF/microwave systems. In order to achieve an integrated system with great performance at a reasonable cost, the industry needs technologies that are consistently stable, compact, and dependable. Meanwhile, high sensitivity, resilience, reusability, and cost-effectiveness are not enough for modern integrated sensing systems; sensors also need to be tiny, stable, able to rapidly respond, and reliable. The proposed resonator was designed for application in modern integrated systems since the three-layered CSISS with airbridges is smaller while also capable of maintaining good performance. Furthermore, the proposed microwave resonator has great potential in sensing applications. View this paper
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13 pages, 3850 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Negative Bias Instability and Self-Heating Effect on Threshold Voltage and SRAM (Static Random-Access Memory) Stability of Nanosheet Field-Effect Transistors
by Xiaoming Li, Yali Shao, Yunqi Wang, Fang Liu, Fengyu Kuang, Yiqi Zhuang and Cong Li
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030420 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the effects of negative bias instability (NBTI) and self-heating effect (SHE) on threshold voltage in NSFETs. To explore accurately the interaction between SHE and NBTI, we established an NBTI simulation framework based on trap microdynamics and considered the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the effects of negative bias instability (NBTI) and self-heating effect (SHE) on threshold voltage in NSFETs. To explore accurately the interaction between SHE and NBTI, we established an NBTI simulation framework based on trap microdynamics and considered the influence of the self-heating effect. The results show that NBTI weakens the SHE effect, while SHE exacerbates the NBTI effect. Since the width of the nanosheet in NSFET has a significant control effect on the electric field distribution, we also studied the effect of the width of the nanosheet on the NBTI and self-heating effect. The results show that increasing the width of the nanosheet will reduce the NBTI effect but will enhance the SHE effect. In addition, we extended our research to the SRAM cell circuit, and the results show that the NBTI effect will reduce the static noise margin (SNM) of the SRAM cell, and the NBTI effect affected by self-heating will make the SNM decrease more significantly. In addition, our research results also indicate that increasing the nanosheet width can help slow down the NBTI effect and the negative impact of NBTI on SRAM performance affected by the self-heating effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Issues in Advanced Transistor Nodes)
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20 pages, 9794 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Non-Uniform ζ Potential on Interfacial Flow
by Yu Han and Wei Zhao
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030419 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Zeta potential (ζ potential) is a significant parameter to characterize the electric property of the electric double layer (EDL), which is important at the solid–liquid interface. Non-uniform ζ potential could be developed on a chemically uniform solid–liquid interface due to external flow. [...] Read more.
Zeta potential (ζ potential) is a significant parameter to characterize the electric property of the electric double layer (EDL), which is important at the solid–liquid interface. Non-uniform ζ potential could be developed on a chemically uniform solid–liquid interface due to external flow. However, its influence on the flow has never been concerned. In this investigation, we numerically studied the influence of non-uniform 2D ζ potential on the flow at the solid–liquid interface. It is found, that even without any external electric field and only considering the influence of 2D ζ potential distribution, swirling flow can be generated near EDL, according to the rotational electric volume force. The streamwise vortices, which are important in the turbulent boundary layer, are theoretically predicted in this laminar flow model when considering the 2D distribution of ζ potential, implying the necessity of considering the origin of streamwise vortices of the turbulent boundary layer from the perspective of electrokinetic flow. In addition, the ζ potential distribution can promote the wall shear stress. Therefore, more attention must be paid to shear-sensitivity circumstances, like biomedical, medical devices, and in vivo. We hope that the current investigation can help us to better understand the effect of charge distribution on interfacial flow and provide theoretical guidance for the development of related applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A:Physics)
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13 pages, 5947 KiB  
Article
IC Packaging Material Identification via a Hybrid Deep Learning Framework with CNN–Transformer Bidirectional Interaction
by Chengbin Zhang, Xuankai Zhou, Nian Cai, Shuai Zhou and Han Wang
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030418 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 551
Abstract
With the advancement of micro- and nanomanufacturing technologies, electronic components and chips are increasingly being miniaturized. To automatically identify their packaging materials for ensuring the reliability of ICs, a hybrid deep learning framework termed as CNN–transformer interaction (CTI) model is designed on IC [...] Read more.
With the advancement of micro- and nanomanufacturing technologies, electronic components and chips are increasingly being miniaturized. To automatically identify their packaging materials for ensuring the reliability of ICs, a hybrid deep learning framework termed as CNN–transformer interaction (CTI) model is designed on IC packaging images in this paper, in which several cascaded CTI blocks are designed to bidirectionally capture local and global features from the IC packaging image. Each CTI block involves a CNN branch with two designed convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for CNN local features and a transformer branch with two transformers for transformer global features and transformer local-window features. A bidirectional interaction mechanism is designed to interactively transfer the features in channel and spatial dimensions between the CNNs and transformers. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid framework can recognize three types of IC packaging materials with a good performance of 96.16% F1-score and 97.92% accuracy, which is superior to some existing deep learning methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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11 pages, 4602 KiB  
Article
Analytical Investigation of Replica-Molding-Enabled Nanopatterned Tribocharging Process on Soft-Material Surfaces
by In Ho Cho, Myung Gi Ji and Jaeyoun Kim
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030417 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Nanopatterned tribocharge can be generated on the surface of elastomers through their replica molding with nanotextured molds. Despite its vast application potential, the physical conditions enabling the phenomenon have not been clarified in the framework of analytical mechanics. Here, we explain the final [...] Read more.
Nanopatterned tribocharge can be generated on the surface of elastomers through their replica molding with nanotextured molds. Despite its vast application potential, the physical conditions enabling the phenomenon have not been clarified in the framework of analytical mechanics. Here, we explain the final tribocharge pattern by separately applying two models, namely cohesive zone failure and cumulative fracture energy, as a function of the mold nanotexture’s aspect ratio. These models deepen our understanding of the triboelectrification phenomenon. Full article
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17 pages, 5731 KiB  
Article
Research on Key Technologies of Microarray Chips for Detecting Drug-Resistant Genes in Helicobacter pylori
by Hongzhuang Guo, Xiuyan Jin, Hao Zhang, Ping Gong, Xin Wang and Tingting Sun
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030416 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
In addressing the detection of drug resistance in Helicobacter pylori, we have successfully developed an efficient and highly accurate detection methodology. Initially, we designed and fabricated a microarray chip, which underwent finite element analysis for its optical and thermal characteristics. Ultimately, COC [...] Read more.
In addressing the detection of drug resistance in Helicobacter pylori, we have successfully developed an efficient and highly accurate detection methodology. Initially, we designed and fabricated a microarray chip, which underwent finite element analysis for its optical and thermal characteristics. Ultimately, COC material was chosen as the processing material for the chip, ensuring superior performance. Subsequently, we established a comprehensive detection system and validated its performance. Following that, comparative experiments were conducted for detecting drug resistance in H. pylori. The experimental results indicate that our established methodology aligns with the results obtained using the E-test detection kit, achieving a concordance rate of 100%. In comparison to the E-test detection kit, our methodology reduces the detection time to 1.5 h and provides a more extensive coverage of detection sites. Full article
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27 pages, 5967 KiB  
Article
A Novel Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Earcanal Dynamic Motion Exploitation Using a Bistable Resonator Cycled by Coupled Hydraulic Valves Made of Collapsed Flexible Tubes
by Tigran Avetissian, Fabien Formosa, Adrien Badel, Aidin Delnavaz and Jérémie Voix
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030415 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Scavenging energy from the earcanal’s dynamic motion during jaw movements may be a practical way to enhance the battery autonomy of hearing aids. The main challenge is optimizing the amount of energy extracted while working with soft human tissues and the earcanal’s restricted [...] Read more.
Scavenging energy from the earcanal’s dynamic motion during jaw movements may be a practical way to enhance the battery autonomy of hearing aids. The main challenge is optimizing the amount of energy extracted while working with soft human tissues and the earcanal’s restricted volume. This paper proposes a new energy harvester concept: a liquid-filled earplug which transfers energy outside the earcanal to a generator. The latter is composed of a hydraulic amplifier, two hydraulic cylinders that actuate a bistable resonator to raise the source frequency while driving an amplified piezoelectric transducer to generate electricity. The cycling of the resonator is achieved using two innovative flexible hydraulic valves based on the buckling of flexible tubes. A multiphysics-coupled model is established to determine the system operation requirements and to evaluate its theoretical performances. This model exhibits a theoretical energy conversion efficiency of 85%. The electromechanical performance of the resonator coupled to the piezoelectric transducer and the hydraulic behavior of the valves are experimentally investigated. The global model was updated using the experimental data to improve its predictability toward further optimization of the design. Moreover, the energy losses are identified to enhance the entire proposed design and improve the experimental energy conversion efficiency to 26%. Full article
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17 pages, 8035 KiB  
Article
Elevating Supercapacitor Performance of Co3O4-g-C3N4 Nanocomposites Fabricated via the Hydrothermal Method
by Manesh A. Yewale, Vineet Kumar, Aviraj M. Teli, Sonali A. Beknalkar, Umesh T. Nakate and Dong-Kil Shin
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030414 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 695
Abstract
The hydrothermal method has been utilized to synthesize graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) polymers and cobalt oxide composites effectively. The weight percentage of g-C3N4 nanoparticles influenced the electrochemical performance of the Co3O4-g-C3 [...] Read more.
The hydrothermal method has been utilized to synthesize graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) polymers and cobalt oxide composites effectively. The weight percentage of g-C3N4 nanoparticles influenced the electrochemical performance of the Co3O4-g-C3N4 composite. In an aqueous electrolyte, the Co3O4-g-C3N4 composite electrode, produced with 150 mg of g-C3N4 nanoparticles, revealed remarkable electrochemical performance. With an increase in the weight percentage of g-C3N4 nanoparticles, the capacitive contribution of the Co3O4-g-C3N4 composite electrode increased. The Co3O4-g-C3N4-150 mg composite electrode shows a specific capacitance of 198 F/g. The optimized electrode, activated carbon, and polyvinyl alcohol gel with potassium hydroxide were used to develop an asymmetric supercapacitor. At a current density of 5 mA/cm2, the asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrated exceptional energy storage capacity with remarkable energy density and power density. The device retained great capacity over 6k galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles, with no rise in series resistance following cyclic stability. The columbic efficiency of the asymmetric supercapacitor was likewise high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Harvesting and Storage)
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10 pages, 2471 KiB  
Article
Droplets for Gene Editing Using CRISPR-Cas9 and Clonal Selection Improvement Using Hydrogels
by Camilo Pérez-Sosa, Maximiliano S. Pérez, Alexander Paolo Vallejo-Janeta, Shekhar Bhansali, Santiago Miriuka and Betiana Lerner
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030413 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Gene editing tools have triggered a revolutionary transformation in the realms of cellular and molecular physiology, serving as a fundamental cornerstone for the evolution of disease models and assays in cell culture reactions, marked by various enhancements. Concurrently, microfluidics has emerged over recent [...] Read more.
Gene editing tools have triggered a revolutionary transformation in the realms of cellular and molecular physiology, serving as a fundamental cornerstone for the evolution of disease models and assays in cell culture reactions, marked by various enhancements. Concurrently, microfluidics has emerged over recent decades as a versatile technology capable of elevating performance and reducing costs in daily experiments across diverse scientific disciplines, with a pronounced impact on cell biology. The amalgamation of these groundbreaking techniques holds the potential to amplify the generation of stable cell lines and the production of extracellular matrix hydrogels. These hydrogels, assuming a pivotal role in isolating cells at the single-cell level, facilitate a myriad of analyses. This study presents a novel method that seamlessly integrates CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing techniques with single-cell isolation methods in induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines, utilizing the combined power of droplets and hydrogels. This innovative approach is designed to optimize clonal selection, thereby concurrently reducing costs and the time required for generating a stable genetically modified cell line. By bridging the advancements in gene editing and microfluidic technologies, our approach not only holds significant promise for the development of disease models and assays but also addresses the crucial need for efficient single-cell isolation. This integration contributes to streamlining processes, making it a transformative method with implications for enhancing the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of stable cell line generation. As we navigate the intersection of gene editing and microfluidics, our study marks a significant stride toward innovative methodologies in the dynamic landscape of cellular and molecular physiology research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics in Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 5398 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Monolithic Integrated Three-Axis Acceleration/Pressure/Magnetic Field Sensors
by Ying Wang, Yu Xiao, Xiaofeng Zhao and Dianzhong Wen
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030412 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
In order to realize the measurement of three-axis acceleration, pressure, and magnetic field, monolithic integrated three-axis acceleration/pressure/magnetic field sensors are proposed in this paper. The proposed sensors were constructed with an acceleration sensor consisting of four L-shaped double beams, two masses, middle double-beams, [...] Read more.
In order to realize the measurement of three-axis acceleration, pressure, and magnetic field, monolithic integrated three-axis acceleration/pressure/magnetic field sensors are proposed in this paper. The proposed sensors were constructed with an acceleration sensor consisting of four L-shaped double beams, two masses, middle double-beams, and twelve piezoresistors, a pressure sensor made of a square silicon membrane, and four piezoresistors, as well as a magnetic field sensor composed of five Hall elements. COMSOL software and TCAD-Atlas software were used to simulate characteristics of integrated sensors, and analyze the working principles of the sensors in measuring acceleration, pressure, and magnetic field. The integrated sensors were fabricated by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and packaged by using inner lead bonding technology. When applying a working voltage of 5 V at room temperature, it is possible for the proposed sensors to achieve the acceleration sensitivities of 3.58 mV/g, 2.68 mV/g, and 9.45 mV/g along the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis (through an amplifying circuit), and the sensitivities towards pressure and magnetic field are 0.28 mV/kPa and 22.44 mV/T, respectively. It is shown that the proposed sensors can measure three-axis acceleration, pressure, and magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional-Nanomaterials-Based Semiconductor Devices and Sensors)
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12 pages, 3372 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning-Based Figure of Merit Model of SIPOS Modulated Drift Region for U-MOSFET
by Zhen Cao, Qi Sun, Chuanfeng Ma, Biao Hou and Licheng Jiao
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030411 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
This paper presents a machine learning-based figure of merit model for superjunction (SJ) U-MOSFET (SSJ-UMOS) with a modulated drift region utilizing semi-insulating poly-crystalline silicon (SIPOS) pillars. This SJ drift region modulation is achieved through SIPOS pillars beneath the trench gate, focusing on optimizing [...] Read more.
This paper presents a machine learning-based figure of merit model for superjunction (SJ) U-MOSFET (SSJ-UMOS) with a modulated drift region utilizing semi-insulating poly-crystalline silicon (SIPOS) pillars. This SJ drift region modulation is achieved through SIPOS pillars beneath the trench gate, focusing on optimizing the tradeoff between breakdown voltage (BV) and specific ON-resistance (RON,sp). This analytical model considers the effects of electric field modulation, charge-coupling, and majority carrier accumulation due to additional SIPOS pillars. Gaussian process regression is employed for the figure of merit (FOM = BV2/RON,sp) prediction and hyperparameter optimization, ensuring a reasonable and accurate model. A methodology is devised to determine the optimal BV-RON,sp tradeoff, surpassing the SJ silicon limit. The paper also delves into a discussion of optimal structural parameters for drift region, oxide thickness, and electric field modulation coefficients within the analytical model. The validity of the proposed model is robustly confirmed through comprehensive verification against TCAD simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Semiconductor Devices and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 3719 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Unique Motility of the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at Low Temperatures down to −8 °C
by Kyohei Yamashita, Tomoka Yamaguchi, Shigehiro Ikeno, Asuka Koyama, Tetsuo Aono, Ayaka Mori, Shoto Serizawa, Yuji Ishikawa and Eiji Tokunaga
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030410 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Previous studies of motility at low temperatures in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been conducted at temperatures of up to 15 °C. In this study, we report that C. reinhardtii exhibits unique motility at a lower temperature range (−8.7 to 1.7 °C). Cell motility was [...] Read more.
Previous studies of motility at low temperatures in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been conducted at temperatures of up to 15 °C. In this study, we report that C. reinhardtii exhibits unique motility at a lower temperature range (−8.7 to 1.7 °C). Cell motility was recorded using four low-cost, easy-to-operate observation systems. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis at room temperature (20–27 °C) showed that the main peak frequency of oscillations ranged from 44 to 61 Hz, which is consistent with the 60 Hz beat frequency of flagella. At lower temperatures, swimming velocity decreased with decreasing temperature. The results of the FFT analysis showed that the major peak shifted to the 5–18 Hz range, suggesting that the flagellar beat frequency was decreasing. The FFT spectra had distinct major peaks in both temperature ranges, indicating that the oscillations were regular. This was not affected by the wavelength of the observation light source (white, red, green or blue LED) or the environmental spatial scale of the cells. In contrast, cells in a highly viscous (3.5 mPa·s) culture at room temperature showed numerous peaks in the 0–200 Hz frequency band, indicating that the oscillations were irregular. These findings contribute to a better understanding of motility under lower-temperature conditions in C. reinhardtii. Full article
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13 pages, 2593 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation of Graphene-Based Transducers in NEMS Accelerometers
by Chang He, Jie Ding and Xuge Fan
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030409 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 748
Abstract
The mechanical characteristics of graphene ribbons with an attached proof mass that can be used as NEMS transducers have been minimally studied, which hinders the development of graphene-based NEMS devices. Here, we simulated the mechanical characteristics of graphene ribbons with an attached proof [...] Read more.
The mechanical characteristics of graphene ribbons with an attached proof mass that can be used as NEMS transducers have been minimally studied, which hinders the development of graphene-based NEMS devices. Here, we simulated the mechanical characteristics of graphene ribbons with an attached proof mass using the finite element method. We studied the impact of force, residual stress, and geometrical size on displacement, strain, resonant frequency, and fracture strength of graphene ribbons with an attached proof mass. The results show that the increase of width and thickness of graphene ribbons would result in a decrease of the displacement and strain but also an increase of resonant frequency. The increase of the length of graphene ribbons has an insignificant impact on the strain, but it could increase the displacement and decrease the resonant frequency. The increase of residual stress in the graphene ribbons decreases its strain and displacement. The estimated fracture strength of graphene shows limited dependence on its thickness, with an estimated value of around 148 GPa. These findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanical characteristics of graphene ribbons with an attached proof mass and lay the solid foundation for the design and manufacture of high-performance graphene-based NEMS devices such as accelerometers. Full article
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13 pages, 4980 KiB  
Article
Multi-Step Mechanical and Thermal Homogenization for the Warpage Estimation of Silicon Wafers
by Zhouyi Xiang, Min Chen, Yonghui Deng, Songhua Huang, Sanli Liu and Ji Li
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030408 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 662
Abstract
In response to the increasing demand for high-performance capacitors, with a simultaneous emphasis on minimizing their physical size, a common practice involves etching deep vias and coating them with functional layers to enhance operational efficiency. However, these deep vias often cause warpages during [...] Read more.
In response to the increasing demand for high-performance capacitors, with a simultaneous emphasis on minimizing their physical size, a common practice involves etching deep vias and coating them with functional layers to enhance operational efficiency. However, these deep vias often cause warpages during the processing stage. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of wafer warpage that occurs during the deposition of three thin layers onto these vias. A multi-step mechanical and thermal homogenization approach is proposed to estimate the warpage of the silicon wafer. The efficiency and accuracy of this numerical homogenization strategy are validated by comparing detailed and homogenized models. The multi-step homogenization method yields more accurate results compared to the conventional direct homogenization method. Theoretical analysis is also conducted to predict the shape of the wafer warpage, and this study further explores the impact of via depth and substrate thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Women in Micromachines)
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13 pages, 12245 KiB  
Article
Design of High-Gain Antenna Arrays for Terahertz Applications
by Xinran Ji, Yu Chen, Jing Li, Dian Wang, Yue Zhao, Qiannan Wu and Mengwei Li
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030407 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 660
Abstract
A terahertz band (0.1–10 THz) has the characteristics of rich spectrum resources, high transmission speed, strong penetration, and clear directionality. However, the terahertz signal will suffer serious attenuation and absorption during transmission. Therefore, a terahertz antenna with high gain, high efficiency, and wide [...] Read more.
A terahertz band (0.1–10 THz) has the characteristics of rich spectrum resources, high transmission speed, strong penetration, and clear directionality. However, the terahertz signal will suffer serious attenuation and absorption during transmission. Therefore, a terahertz antenna with high gain, high efficiency, and wide bandwidth is an indispensable key component of terahertz wireless systems and has become a research hotspot in the field of antennas. In this paper, a high-gain broadband antenna is presented for terahertz applications. The antenna is a three-layer structure, fed by a grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW), using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material as the dielectric substrate, and the metal through-hole of the dielectric substrate forms a substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) structure. The metal fence structure is introduced to reduce the coupling effect between the radiation patches and increase the radiation bandwidth and gain. The center frequency is 0.6366 THz, the operating bandwidth is 0.61–0.68 THz, the minimum value of the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is 1.00158, and the peak gain is 13.14 dBi. In addition, the performance of the designed antenna with a different isolation structure, the length of the connection line, the height of the substrate, the radius of the through-hole, and the thickness of the patch is also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Terahertz Devices and Applications)
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29 pages, 9264 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Study and Design of Graphene Transistor
by Qian Cai, Jiachi Ye, Belal Jahannia, Hao Wang, Chandraman Patil, Rasul Al Foysal Redoy, Abdulrahman Sidam, Sinan Sameer, Sultan Aljohani, Muhammed Umer, Aseel Alsulami, Essa Shibli, Bassim Arkook, Yas Al-Hadeethi, Hamed Dalir and Elham Heidari
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030406 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Graphene, renowned for its exceptional electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, takes center stage in the realm of next-generation electronics. In this paper, we provide a thorough investigation into the comprehensive fabrication process of graphene field-effect transistors. Recognizing the pivotal role graphene quality plays [...] Read more.
Graphene, renowned for its exceptional electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, takes center stage in the realm of next-generation electronics. In this paper, we provide a thorough investigation into the comprehensive fabrication process of graphene field-effect transistors. Recognizing the pivotal role graphene quality plays in determining device performance, we explore many techniques and metrological methods to assess and ensure the superior quality of graphene layers. In addition, we delve into the intricate nuances of doping graphene and examine its effects on electronic properties. We uncover the transformative impact these dopants have on the charge carrier concentration, bandgap, and overall device performance. By amalgamating these critical facets of graphene field-effect transistors fabrication and analysis, this study offers a holistic understanding for researchers and engineers aiming to optimize the performance of graphene-based electronic devices. Full article
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18 pages, 6164 KiB  
Article
Geometry Scaling for Externally Balanced Cascade Deterministic Lateral Displacement Microfluidic Separation of Multi-Size Particles
by Heyu Yin, Sylmarie Dávila-Montero and Andrew J. Mason
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030405 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
To non-invasively monitor personal biological and environmental samples in Internet of Things (IoT)-based wearable microfluidic sensing applications, the particle size could be key to sensing, which emphasizes the need for particle size fractionation. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic structure that has [...] Read more.
To non-invasively monitor personal biological and environmental samples in Internet of Things (IoT)-based wearable microfluidic sensing applications, the particle size could be key to sensing, which emphasizes the need for particle size fractionation. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic structure that has shown great potential for the size fractionation of micro- and nano-sized particles. This paper introduces a new externally balanced multi-section cascade DLD approach with a section-scaling technique aimed at expanding the dynamic range of particle size separation. To analyze the design tradeoffs of this new approach, a robust model that also accounts for practical fabrication limits is presented, enabling designers to visualize compromises between the overall device size and the achievement of various performance goals. Furthermore, results show that a wide variety of size fractionation ranges and size separation resolutions can be achieved by cascading multiple sections of an increasingly smaller gap size and critical separation dimension. Model results based on DLD theoretical equations are first presented, followed by model results that apply the scaling restrictions associated with the second order of effects, including practical fabrication limits, the gap/pillar size ratio, and pillar shape. Full article
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15 pages, 5298 KiB  
Article
Online Recognition of Fallen-Off Bond Wires in IGBT Modules
by Zhen Hu, Man Cui and Tao Shi
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030404 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 625
Abstract
As a core component of power conversion systems, insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules continually suffer from severe thermal damage caused by temperature swings and shear stress, resulting in fatigue failure. Bond wires falling off is one of the failure modes of IGBT [...] Read more.
As a core component of power conversion systems, insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules continually suffer from severe thermal damage caused by temperature swings and shear stress, resulting in fatigue failure. Bond wires falling off is one of the failure modes of IGBT modules. Given that the number of fallen-off bond wires is a significant parameter to evaluate the health status of the IGBT modules, this paper proposes an online identification model to recognize the number of fallen-off bond wires during normal operation. Firstly, a database containing datum Vce,onTjIC (collector–emitter on-state voltage Vce,on, chip junction temperature Tj, collector current IC) planes with different fallen-off bond wires is built based on an offline aging test. Secondly, a Foster network model and a special circuit are designed to measure the junction temperature Tj and the collector–emitter on-state voltage Vce,on, respectively. Thirdly, the feature points of the IGBT module represented by Vce,on, Tj, and IC are given to the database to recognize the number of fallen-off bond wires according to the position of the feature points in the datum plane. The experimental results show that the proposed method can determine the fallen-off bond wires under the operation condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Modules)
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15 pages, 9788 KiB  
Article
Directionally Illuminated Autostereoscopy with Seamless Viewpoints for Multi-Viewers
by Aiqin Zhang, Xuehao Chen, Jiahui Wang, Yong He and Jianying Zhou
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030403 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Autostereoscopy is usually perceived at finite viewpoints that result from the separated pixel array of a display system. With directionally illuminated autostereoscopy, the separation of the illumination channel from the image channel provides extra flexibility in optimizing the performance of autostereoscopy. This work [...] Read more.
Autostereoscopy is usually perceived at finite viewpoints that result from the separated pixel array of a display system. With directionally illuminated autostereoscopy, the separation of the illumination channel from the image channel provides extra flexibility in optimizing the performance of autostereoscopy. This work demonstrates that by taking advantage of illumination freedom, seamless viewpoints in the sweet viewing region, where the ghosting does not cause significant discomfort, are realized. This realization is based on illuminating the screen with a polyline array of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and continuous viewpoints are generated through independent variation in the radiance of each individual LED column. This new method is implemented in the directionally illuminated display for both single and multiple viewers, proving its effectiveness as a valuable technique for achieving a high-quality and high-resolution autostereoscopic display with seamless viewpoints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel 3D Display Technology towards Metaverse)
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17 pages, 9946 KiB  
Article
Sensor-Fusion-Based Simultaneous Positioning and Vibration Suppression Method for a Three-Degrees-of-Freedom Isolator
by Jing Wang, Lei Wang, Peng Jin, Zhen Zhang, Pengxuan Li and Ritao Xiao
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030402 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
For vibration isolation systems, vibration suppression and platform positioning are both important. Since absolute velocity feedback causes difficulty in achieving positioning while suppressing vibration, an H∞ control strategy based on sensor fusion feedback is proposed in this paper. The signals of inertial and [...] Read more.
For vibration isolation systems, vibration suppression and platform positioning are both important. Since absolute velocity feedback causes difficulty in achieving positioning while suppressing vibration, an H∞ control strategy based on sensor fusion feedback is proposed in this paper. The signals of inertial and displacement sensors are fused through a pair of complementary filters. Thus, active control based on the fusion signal could concurrently achieve vibration and position control since it is a displacement signal. In addition, the obtained fusion signals have a lower noise level. In this way, simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression can be established using the sensor fusion strategy. On this basis, in order to obtain an optimal H∞ controller, system damping can be maximized by using the performance weight function to attenuate noise; the system bandwidth is determined by the uncertainty weight function, which can avoid the effect of high-frequency modes of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified by comparing it with the conventional absolute velocity feedback strategy on a 3-DOF isolator. Full article
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17 pages, 7439 KiB  
Article
Integrated Circuit of a Chua’s System Based on the Integral-Differential Nonlinear Resistance with Multi-Path Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
by Zhikui Duan, Huosheng Li, Shaobo He, Yongxi Long, Xinmei Yu and Qingqing Ke
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030401 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
In this paper, we present a fully integrated circuit without inductance implementing Chua’s chaotic system. The circuit described in this study utilizes the SMIC 180 nm CMOS process and incorporates a multi-path voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The integral-differential nonlinear resistance is utilized as a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a fully integrated circuit without inductance implementing Chua’s chaotic system. The circuit described in this study utilizes the SMIC 180 nm CMOS process and incorporates a multi-path voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The integral-differential nonlinear resistance is utilized as a variable impedance component in the circuit, constructed using discrete devices from a microelectronics standpoint. Meanwhile, the utilization of a multi-path voltage-controlled oscillator ensures the provision of an adequate oscillation frequency and a stable waveform for the chaotic circuit. The analysis focuses on the intricate and dynamic behaviors exhibited by the chaotic microelectronic circuit. The experimental findings indicate that the oscillation frequency of the VCO can be adjusted within a range of 198 MHz to 320 MHz by manipulating the applied voltage from 0 V to 1.8 V. The circuit operates within a 1.8 V environment, and exhibits power consumption, gain–bandwidth product (GBW), area, and Lyapunov exponent values of 1.0782 mW, 4.43 GHz, 0.0165 mm2, and 0.6435∼1.0012, respectively. The aforementioned circuit design demonstrates the ability to generate chaotic behavior while also possessing the benefits of low power consumption, high frequency, and a compact size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section E:Engineering and Technology)
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8 pages, 2729 KiB  
Communication
Origin of the High Density of Oxygen Vacancies at the Back Channel of Back-Channel-Etched a-InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistors
by Shimin Ge, Juncheng Xiao, Shan Li, Dong Yuan, Yuhua Dong and Shengdong Zhang
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030400 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
This study reveals the pronounced density of oxygen vacancies (Vo) at the back channel of back-channel-etched (BCE) a-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) results from the sputtered deposition rather than the wet etching process of the source/drain metal, and they are distributed within approximately [...] Read more.
This study reveals the pronounced density of oxygen vacancies (Vo) at the back channel of back-channel-etched (BCE) a-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) results from the sputtered deposition rather than the wet etching process of the source/drain metal, and they are distributed within approximately 25 nm of the back surface. Furthermore, the existence and distribution depth of the high density of Vo defects are verified by means of XPS spectra analyses. Then, the mechanism through which the above Vo defects lead to the instability of BCE a-IGZO TFTs is elucidated. Lastly, it is demonstrated that the device instability under high-humidity conditions and negative bias temperature illumination stress can be effectively alleviated by etching and thus removing the surface layer of the back channel, which contains the high density of Vo defects. In addition, this etch method does not cause a significant deterioration in the uniformity of electrical characteristics and is quite convenient to implement in practical fabrication processes. Thus, a novel and effective solution to the device instability of BCE a-IGZO TFTs is provided. Full article
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10 pages, 7529 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Reflectarray Antennas for High-Power Microwave Applications
by Jianing Zhao, Yongzhen Dong, Hao Li, Tianming Li, Wei Liu, Yihong Zhou, Haiyang Wang, Biao Hu, Fang Li, Keqiang Wang and Bin Qiu
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030399 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The power capacity of reflectarray antennas (RAs) is investigated through full-wave simulations and high-power microwave (HPM) experiments in this paper. In order to illustrate the results in detail, two RA elements are designed. The simulated power handling capacity of two RA elements are [...] Read more.
The power capacity of reflectarray antennas (RAs) is investigated through full-wave simulations and high-power microwave (HPM) experiments in this paper. In order to illustrate the results in detail, two RA elements are designed. The simulated power handling capacity of two RA elements are 7.17 MW/m2 and 2.3 GW/m2, respectively. To further study the HPM RA, two RA prototypes operating at 2.8 GHz are constructed with the aperture size of 1 m × 1 m. Simulations and experimental measurements are conducted for the two prototypes. The experimental results demonstrate that, even when subjected to 1 GW of power, the radiation beam of the RA with the second elements can still propagate in the intended direction. This research will establish a basis for advancing the practicality of RAs in HPM applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Antenna System: Structural Analysis, Design and Application)
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22 pages, 1988 KiB  
Review
Modern Trends in Microelectronics Packaging Reliability Testing
by Emmanuel Bender, Joseph B. Bernstein and Duane S. Boning
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030398 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 994
Abstract
In this review, recent trends in microelectronics packaging reliability are summarized. We review the technology from early packaging concepts, including wire bond and BGA, to advanced techniques used in HI schemes such as 3D stacking, interposers, fan-out packaging, and more recently developed silicon [...] Read more.
In this review, recent trends in microelectronics packaging reliability are summarized. We review the technology from early packaging concepts, including wire bond and BGA, to advanced techniques used in HI schemes such as 3D stacking, interposers, fan-out packaging, and more recently developed silicon interconnect fabric integration. This review includes approaches for both design modification studies and packaged device validation. Methods are explored for compatibility in new complex packaging assemblies. Suggestions are proposed for optimizations of the testing practices to account for the challenges anticipated in upcoming HI packaging schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microelectronics Reliability)
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14 pages, 6585 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Manufacturability of SU-8 Piezoelectric Composite Films for Microsystem Applications
by Irma Rocio Vazquez, Zeynel Guler and Nathan Jackson
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030397 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Piezoelectric thin films are extensively used as sensing or actuating layers in various micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. However, most piezoelectrics are stiff ceramics, and current polymer piezoelectrics are not compatible with microfabrication due to their low Curie Temperature. Recent polymer-composite piezoelectrics have gained [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric thin films are extensively used as sensing or actuating layers in various micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. However, most piezoelectrics are stiff ceramics, and current polymer piezoelectrics are not compatible with microfabrication due to their low Curie Temperature. Recent polymer-composite piezoelectrics have gained interest but can be difficult to pattern. Photodefinable piezoelectric films could resolve these challenges by reducing the manufacturability steps by eliminating the etching process. But they typically have poor resolution and thickness properties. This study explores methods of enhancing the manufacturability of piezoelectric composite films by optimizing the process parameters and synthesis of SU-8 piezo-composite materials. Piezoelectric ceramic powders (barium titanate (BTO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT)) were integrated into SU-8, a negative epoxy-based photoresist, to produce high-resolution composites in a non-cleanroom environment. I-line (365 nm) light was used to enhance resolution compared to broadband lithography. Two variations of SU-8 were prepared by thinning down SU-8 3050 and SU-8 3005. Different weight percentages of the piezoelectric powders were investigated: 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% along with varied photolithography processing parameters. The composites’ transmittance properties were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and the films’ crystallinity was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The 0–3 SU-8/piezo composites demonstrated resolutions < 2 μm while maintaining bulk piezoelectric coefficients d33 > 5 pm V−1. The films were developed with thicknesses >10 μm. Stacked layers were achieved and demonstrated significantly higher d33 properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Functional Micro/Nano Structured Surfaces)
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16 pages, 9080 KiB  
Article
High-Quality Spherical Silver Alloy Powder for Laser Powder Bed Fusion Using Plasma Rotating Electrode Process
by Hao Li, Shenghuan Zhang, Qiaoyu Chen, Zhaoyang Du, Xingyu Chen, Xiaodan Chen, Shiyi Zhou, Shuwen Mei, Linda Ke, Qinglei Sun, Zuowei Yin, Jie Yin and Zheng Li
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030396 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
The plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) is an ideal method for the preparation of metal powders such as nickel-based, titanium-based, and iron-based alloys due to its low material loss and good degree of sphericity. However, the preparation of silver alloy powder by PREP [...] Read more.
The plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) is an ideal method for the preparation of metal powders such as nickel-based, titanium-based, and iron-based alloys due to its low material loss and good degree of sphericity. However, the preparation of silver alloy powder by PREP remains challenging. The low hardness of the mould casting silver alloy leads to the bending of the electrode rod when subjected to high-speed rotation during PREP. The mould casting silver electrode rod can only be used in low-speed rotation, which has a negative effect on particle refinement. This study employed continuous casting (CC) to improve the surface hardness of S800 Ag (30.30% higher than mould casting), which enables a high rotation speed of up to 37,000 revolutions per minute, and silver alloy powder with an average sphericity of 0.98 (5.56% higher than gas atomisation) and a sphericity ratio of 97.67% (36.28% higher than gas atomisation) has been successfully prepared. The dense S800 Ag was successfully fabricated by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), which proved the feasibility of preparing high-quality powder by the “CC + PREP” method. The samples fabricated by LPBF have a Vickers hardness of up to 271.20 HV (3.66 times that of mould casting), leading to a notable enhancement in the strength of S800 Ag. In comparison to GA, the S800 Ag powder prepared by “CC + PREP” exhibits greater sphericity, a higher sphericity ratio and less satellite powder, which lays the foundation for dense LPBF S800 Ag fabrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Micro- and Nano-Manufacturing Technologies)
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14 pages, 3600 KiB  
Article
Influence of Aging on the Flexural Strength of PLA and PLA-X 3D-Printed Materials
by Nenad Mitrović, Zorana Golubović, Aleksandra Mitrović, Milan Travica, Isaak Trajković, Miloš Milošević and Aleksandar Petrović
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030395 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The three-point bending test is a valuable method for evaluating the mechanical properties of 3D-printed biomaterials, which can be used in various applications. The use of 3D printing in specimen preparation enables precise control over material composition and microstructure, facilitating the investigation of [...] Read more.
The three-point bending test is a valuable method for evaluating the mechanical properties of 3D-printed biomaterials, which can be used in various applications. The use of 3D printing in specimen preparation enables precise control over material composition and microstructure, facilitating the investigation of different printing parameters and advanced materials. The traditional approach to analyzing the mechanical properties of a material using a three-point bending test has the disadvantage that it provides only global information about the material’s behavior. This means that it does not provide detailed insight into the local strain distribution within the material. However, the 2D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method offers additional insight, especially in terms of strain localization. DIC is an optical technique that measures full-field displacements and strains on the surface of a sample. PLA and enhanced PLA-X material were utilized to create three-point bending samples. The aim of this paper was to analyze and compare the influence of aging on the mechanical properties of PLA and enhanced PLA-X materials using three-point bending coupled with the DIC method. The results showed statistically significant differences between the PLA and PLA-X, for both the new and aged materials. The aged PLA samples had the highest average value of maximal force around 68 N, which was an increase of 8.8% compared to the new PLA samples. On the other hand, the aged PLA-X material had an increase of 7.7% in the average maximal force compared to the new PLA-X samples. When comparing the two materials, the PLA samples had higher maximal force values, 6.2% for the new samples, and 7.3% for the aged samples. The DIC results showed that both the new PLA and PLA-X samples endured higher strain values at Points 1 and 2 than the aged ones, except for the aged PLA-X sample at Point 2, where the new sample had higher strain values. However, for the first 5 min of the experiment, both materials exhibited identical behavior, after which point significant differences started to occur for both materials, as well as at Points 1 and 2. A more profound comprehension of the biomechanical characteristics of both PLA and PLA-X material is essential to enhance the knowledge for potential biomedical applications. The DIC method was found to be a powerful tool for analyzing the deformation and failure behavior of samples and for complementing the traditional approach to material testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D Printing for Biomedical Applications)
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12 pages, 8791 KiB  
Article
Parallel Grooved Microstructure Manufacturing on the Surface of Si3N4 Ceramics by Femtosecond Laser
by Xufeng Wen, Yanfeng Gao, Hua Zhang and Yaxin Yang
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030394 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Machining special microstructures on the surface of silicon nitride ceramics helps improve their service performance. However, the high brittleness and low fracture toughness of silicon nitride ceramics make it extremely difficult to machine microstructures on their surface. In this study, a femtosecond laser [...] Read more.
Machining special microstructures on the surface of silicon nitride ceramics helps improve their service performance. However, the high brittleness and low fracture toughness of silicon nitride ceramics make it extremely difficult to machine microstructures on their surface. In this study, a femtosecond laser is used to machine parallel grooved microstructures on the surface of silicon nitride ceramics. The effects of the laser polarization angle, laser single pulse energy, scanning line spacing, and laser scan numbers on the surface morphology and geometric characteristics of grooved microstructures are researched. It is found that a greater angle between the direction of the scanning path and laser polarization is helpful to obtain a smoother surface. As the single pulse energy increases, debris and irregular surface structures will emerge. Increasing the laser scan line spacing leads to clearer and more defined parallel grooved microstructures. The groove depth increases with the increase in the scan numbers. However, when a certain number of scans is reached, the depth will not increase further. This study serves as a valuable research foundation for the femtosecond laser processing of silicon nitride ceramic materials. Full article
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15 pages, 5860 KiB  
Article
The Development of the Stress-Free Polishing System Based on the Positioning Error Analysis for the Deterministic Polishing of Jet Electrochemical Machining
by Ke Wang, Hongding Wang, Yanlong Zhang, Huirong Shi and Jiahao Shi
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030393 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Deterministic polishing based on jet electrochemical machining (Jet-ECM) is a stress-free machining method for low-rigidity and ultra-precision workpieces. The nozzle is equivalent to a special tool in deterministic polishing, and the workpiece material is removed using the mechanism of electrochemical dissolution at the [...] Read more.
Deterministic polishing based on jet electrochemical machining (Jet-ECM) is a stress-free machining method for low-rigidity and ultra-precision workpieces. The nozzle is equivalent to a special tool in deterministic polishing, and the workpiece material is removed using the mechanism of electrochemical dissolution at the position where the nozzle passes. By precisely regulating the nozzle’s movement speed and dwell time, the quantity of material removed from the workpiece at a designated position can be finely adjusted. With this mechanism, the improvement of the workpiece shape accuracy can be achieved by planning the nozzle trajectory and nozzle movement speed. However, due to the positioning errors of the polishing device, the actual position of the nozzle may deviate from the theoretical position, resulting in errors in material removal amount, which affects the accuracy and stability of the polishing process. This study established a mathematical model to analyze the influence of nozzle positioning errors in deterministic polishing based on Jet-ECM. This model has been used to design a specific deterministic polishing device based on Jet-ECM. With the proposed deterministic polishing device, the surface shape of the workpiece is converged. The surface peak-to-valley (PV) value of the φ 50 mm workpiece (valid dimensions = 90% of the central region) indicated that the shape error of the surface was reduced from 2.67 μm to 1.24 μm in 34 min. The power spectral density (PSD) method was used to evaluate the height distribution and height characteristics of the workpiece surface. The results show that the low frequency spatial error is reduced significantly after processing. This study improves the accuracy of the stress-free deterministic polishing methods and further expands the use of deterministic polishing in industry. Full article
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12 pages, 19406 KiB  
Article
All-Optical XOR, AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND, and XNOR Logic Operations Based on M-Shaped Silicon Waveguides at 1.55 μm
by Amer Kotb, Kyriakos E. Zoiros and Wei Chen
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030392 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Silicon waveguides are essential to integrated photonics, which is where optical and electronic components are coupled together on a single silicon chip. These waveguides allow for the integration of signal processing and optical transmission, which advances data centers, telecommunications, and other optical applications. [...] Read more.
Silicon waveguides are essential to integrated photonics, which is where optical and electronic components are coupled together on a single silicon chip. These waveguides allow for the integration of signal processing and optical transmission, which advances data centers, telecommunications, and other optical applications. Thus, our study involves the simulation of essential all-optical logic operations, namely XOR, AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND, and XNOR, and utilizes M-shaped silicon optical waveguides at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. This simulation is conducted through Lumerical FDTD solutions. The suggested waveguide comprises four identical slots, configured in the shape of the letter ‘M’, and all of which are formed of core silicon and silica cladding. These logic operations work based on constructive and destructive interferences that are caused by phase changes in the input optical beams. The contrast ratio (CR) is employed to quantitatively and comparatively assess the degree to which the target logic operations are efficiently executed. The simulation results indicate that, compared to other reported designs, the considered logic functions constructed using the proposed waveguide can be implemented with higher CRs. The outcomes of this paper can be utilized regarding the implementation of optoelectronic combinational logic circuits of enhanced functionality. Full article
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57 pages, 16061 KiB  
Review
Nature-Inspired Superhydrophobic Coating Materials: Drawing Inspiration from Nature for Enhanced Functionality
by Subodh Barthwal, Surbhi Uniyal and Sumit Barthwal
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030391 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Superhydrophobic surfaces, characterized by exceptional water repellency and self-cleaning properties, have gained significant attention for their diverse applications across industries. This review paper comprehensively explores the theoretical foundations, various fabrication methods, applications, and associated challenges of superhydrophobic surfaces. The theoretical section investigates the [...] Read more.
Superhydrophobic surfaces, characterized by exceptional water repellency and self-cleaning properties, have gained significant attention for their diverse applications across industries. This review paper comprehensively explores the theoretical foundations, various fabrication methods, applications, and associated challenges of superhydrophobic surfaces. The theoretical section investigates the underlying principles, focusing on models such as Young’s equation, Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter states, and the dynamics of wetting. Various fabrication methods are explored, ranging from microstructuring and nanostructuring techniques to advanced material coatings, shedding light on the evolution of surface engineering. The extensive applications of superhydrophobic surfaces, spanning from self-cleaning technologies to oil–water separation, are systematically discussed, emphasizing their potential contributions to diverse fields such as healthcare, energy, and environmental protection. Despite their promising attributes, superhydrophobic surfaces also face significant challenges, including durability and scalability issues, environmental concerns, and limitations in achieving multifunctionality, which are discussed in this paper. By providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of superhydrophobic research, this review aims to guide future investigations and inspire innovations in the development and utilization of these fascinating surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Micro/Nano Devices)
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