Piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS—Materials, Devices, and Applications, Second Edition

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "E:Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 10315

Special Issue Editor

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
Interests: MEMS; microrobotics; smart materials; energy harvesting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Piezoelectric materials have been playing a crucial role in a large number of devices and applications that have promoted a variety of today’s technological progress and impacted modern society. They are widely used as sensors and actuators, and they can be deposited as thin films over standard silicon substrates or flexible substrates. Typically, piezoelectric sensors feature high sensitivity, a wide dynamic range, and self-powering; piezoelectric actuators enable high resolution, large force, and/or large displacement generation. The strong electromechanical coupling, simple geometric implementation, and high energy density endow the piezoelectric device with the capability of energy harvesting. The appeal of piezoelectric materials for MEMS/NEMS has been constantly growing, in particular, with the witness of increasing commercial success of piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS devices. The upcoming era of Big Data, sensors, the Internet of Things (IoT), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been offering new opportunities and challenges to piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS devices, and we are seeing researchers throughout the world actively tapping into the state-of-the-art micro/nano-fabrication process, promoting advanced integration techniques, and exploring innovative applications to unleash the potential of piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS devices. In this Special Issue, we invite submissions exploring the latest advances in the field of piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS devices.

Dr. Wei Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • piezoelectric sensors and actuators
  • micro/nanofabrication
  • microrobotics
  • application of smart materials in MEMS
  • energy-harvesting technologies

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

27 pages, 5967 KiB  
Article
A Novel Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Earcanal Dynamic Motion Exploitation Using a Bistable Resonator Cycled by Coupled Hydraulic Valves Made of Collapsed Flexible Tubes
by Tigran Avetissian, Fabien Formosa, Adrien Badel, Aidin Delnavaz and Jérémie Voix
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030415 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Scavenging energy from the earcanal’s dynamic motion during jaw movements may be a practical way to enhance the battery autonomy of hearing aids. The main challenge is optimizing the amount of energy extracted while working with soft human tissues and the earcanal’s restricted [...] Read more.
Scavenging energy from the earcanal’s dynamic motion during jaw movements may be a practical way to enhance the battery autonomy of hearing aids. The main challenge is optimizing the amount of energy extracted while working with soft human tissues and the earcanal’s restricted volume. This paper proposes a new energy harvester concept: a liquid-filled earplug which transfers energy outside the earcanal to a generator. The latter is composed of a hydraulic amplifier, two hydraulic cylinders that actuate a bistable resonator to raise the source frequency while driving an amplified piezoelectric transducer to generate electricity. The cycling of the resonator is achieved using two innovative flexible hydraulic valves based on the buckling of flexible tubes. A multiphysics-coupled model is established to determine the system operation requirements and to evaluate its theoretical performances. This model exhibits a theoretical energy conversion efficiency of 85%. The electromechanical performance of the resonator coupled to the piezoelectric transducer and the hydraulic behavior of the valves are experimentally investigated. The global model was updated using the experimental data to improve its predictability toward further optimization of the design. Moreover, the energy losses are identified to enhance the entire proposed design and improve the experimental energy conversion efficiency to 26%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 24539 KiB  
Article
Anchor Loss Reduction in Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems Flexural Beam Resonators Using Trench Hole Array Reflectors
by Mohammad Kazemi, Seyedfakhreddin Nabavi, Mathieu Gratuze and Frederic Nabki
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14112036 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
The quality factor of microelectromechanical resonators is a crucial performance metric and has thus been the subject of numerous studies aimed at maximizing its value by minimizing the anchor loss. This work presents a study on the effect of elastic wave reflectors on [...] Read more.
The quality factor of microelectromechanical resonators is a crucial performance metric and has thus been the subject of numerous studies aimed at maximizing its value by minimizing the anchor loss. This work presents a study on the effect of elastic wave reflectors on the quality factor of MEMS clamped–clamped flexural beam resonators. The elastic wave reflectors are a series of holes created by trenches in the silicon substrate of the resonators. In this regard, four different shapes of arrayed holes are considered, i.e., two sizes of squares and two half circles with different directions are positioned in proximity to the anchors. The impact of these shapes on the quality factor is examined through both numerical simulations and experimental analysis. A 2D in-plane wave propagation model with a low-reflecting fixed boundary condition was used in the numerical simulation to predict the behavior, and the MEMS resonator prototypes were fabricated using a commercially available micro-fabrication process to validate the findings. Notably, the research identifies that half-circle-shaped holes with their curved sides facing the anchors yield the most promising results. With these reflectors, the quality factor of the resonator is increased by a factor of 1.70× in air or 1.72× in vacuum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4605 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning-Based Classification of Mango Pulp Weevil Activity Utilizing an Acoustic Sensor
by Ivane Ann P. Banlawe and Jennifer C. dela Cruz
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14111979 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
The mango pulp weevil (MPW) is an aggressive pest that mates seasonally according to the cycle of the mango fruit. After discovering the existence of the mango pulp weevil in Palawan, the island has been under quarantine for exporting mangoes. Detection of the [...] Read more.
The mango pulp weevil (MPW) is an aggressive pest that mates seasonally according to the cycle of the mango fruit. After discovering the existence of the mango pulp weevil in Palawan, the island has been under quarantine for exporting mangoes. Detection of the pest proves difficult as the pest does not leave a physical sign that the mango has been damaged. Infested mangoes are wasted as they cannot be sold due to damage. This study serves as a base study for non-invasive mango pulp weevil detection using MATLAB machine learning and audio feature extraction tools. Acoustic sensors were evaluated for best-fit use in the study. The rationale for selecting the acoustic sensors includes local availability and accessibility. Among the three sensors tested, the MEMS sensor had the best result. The data for acoustic frequency are acquired using the selected sensor, which is placed inside a soundproof chamber to minimize the noise and isolate the sound produced by each activity. The identified activity of the adult mango pulp weevil includes walking, resting, and mating. The Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) was used for feature extraction of the recorded audio and training of the SVM classifier. The study achieved 89.81% overall accuracy in characterizing mango pulp weevil activity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3538 KiB  
Article
Applications of a Novel Tunable Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester
by Sreekumari Raghavan, Rishi Gupta and Loveleen Sharma
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091782 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Conversion of ambient energy to usable electrical energy is attracting attention from researchers since providing a maintenance-free power source for the sensors is critical in any IoT (Internet of Things)-based system and in SHM (structural health monitoring). Continuous health monitoring of structures is [...] Read more.
Conversion of ambient energy to usable electrical energy is attracting attention from researchers since providing a maintenance-free power source for the sensors is critical in any IoT (Internet of Things)-based system and in SHM (structural health monitoring). Continuous health monitoring of structures is advantageous since the damage can be identified at inception and the necessary action taken. Sensor technology has advanced significantly, and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems)-based low-power sensors are available for incorporating into large structures. Relevant signal conditioning and transmission modules have also evolved, making them power-efficient and miniaturized. Various micro wireless sensor nodes (WSN) have also been developed in recent years that require very little power. This paper describes the applications of a novel tunable piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) for providing autonomous power to low-power MEMS sensors for use in IoT and remote SHM. The novel device uses piezoelectric material and an ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) and enables electrical tuning of the resonant frequency using a small portion of the power generated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5576 KiB  
Article
A Self-Powered DSSH Circuit with MOSFET Threshold Voltage Management for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting
by Liao Wu, Xinhui Wang and Minghua Xie
Micromachines 2023, 14(8), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14081639 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
This paper presents a piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting circuit based on the DSSH (double synchronized switch harvesting) principle. The circuit consisted of a rectifier and a DC–DC circuit, which achieves double synchronized switch operation for the PE transducer in each vibration half-cycle. One [...] Read more.
This paper presents a piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting circuit based on the DSSH (double synchronized switch harvesting) principle. The circuit consisted of a rectifier and a DC–DC circuit, which achieves double synchronized switch operation for the PE transducer in each vibration half-cycle. One of the main challenges of the DSSH scheme was precisely controlling the switch timing in the second loop of the resonant loops. The proposed circuit included a MOS transistor in the second loop to address this challenge. It utilized its threshold voltage to manage the stored energy in the intermediate capacitor per vibration half-cycle to simplify the controller for the DSSH circuit. The circuit can operate under either the DSSH scheme or the ESSH (enhanced synchronized switch harvesting) scheme, depending on the value of the intermediate capacitor. In the DSSH scheme, the following DC–DC circuit reused the rectifier’s two diodes for a short period. The prototype circuit was implemented using 16 discrete components. The proposed circuit can be self-powered and started up without a battery. The experimental results showed that the proposed circuit increased the power harvested from the PE transducer compared to the full-bridge (FB) rectifier. With two different intermediate capacitors of 100 nF and 320 nF, the proposed circuit achieved power increases of 3.2 and 2.7 times, respectively. The charging efficiency of the proposed circuit was improved by a factor of 5.1 compared to the typical DSSH circuit. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 23394 KiB  
Article
A Nonlinear Impact-Driven Triboelectric Vibration Energy Harvester for Frequency Up-Conversion
by Hadeel Abumarar and Alwathiqbellah Ibrahim
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14051082 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Energy harvesting effectively powers micro-sensors and wireless applications. However, higher frequency oscillations do not overlap with ambient vibrations, and low power can be harvested. This paper utilizes vibro-impact triboelectric energy harvesting for frequency up-conversion. Two magnetically coupled cantilever beams with low and high [...] Read more.
Energy harvesting effectively powers micro-sensors and wireless applications. However, higher frequency oscillations do not overlap with ambient vibrations, and low power can be harvested. This paper utilizes vibro-impact triboelectric energy harvesting for frequency up-conversion. Two magnetically coupled cantilever beams with low and high natural frequencies are used. The two beams have identical tip magnets at the same polarity. A triboelectric energy harvester is integrated with the high-frequency beam to generate an electrical signal via contact-separation impact motion between the triboelectric layers. An electrical signal is generated at the low-frequency beam range achieving frequency up-converter. The two degrees of freedom (2DOF) lumped-parameter model system is used to investigate the system’s dynamic behavior and the corresponding voltage signal. The static analysis of the system revealed a threshold distance of 15 mm that divides the system into monostable and bistable regimes. In the monostable and bistable regimes, softening and hardening behaviors were observed at low frequencies. Additionally, the threshold voltage generated was increased by 1117% in comparison with the monostable regime. The simulation findings were experimentally validated. The study demonstrates the potential of using triboelectric energy harvesting in frequency up-converting applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8566 KiB  
Article
Parameter Identification of Model for Piezoelectric Actuators
by Dongmei Liu, Jingqu Dong, Shuai Guo, Li Tan and Shuyou Yu
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14051050 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in high-precision positioning systems. The nonlinear characteristics of piezoelectric actuators, such as multi-valued mapping and frequency-dependent hysteresis, severely limit the advancement of the positioning system’s accuracy. Therefore, a particle swarm genetic hybrid parameter identification method is proposed by [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in high-precision positioning systems. The nonlinear characteristics of piezoelectric actuators, such as multi-valued mapping and frequency-dependent hysteresis, severely limit the advancement of the positioning system’s accuracy. Therefore, a particle swarm genetic hybrid parameter identification method is proposed by combining the directivity of the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the genetic random characteristics of the genetic algorithm. Thus, the global search and optimization abilities of the parameter identification approach are improved, and the problems, including the genetic algorithm’s poor local search capability and the particle swarm optimization algorithm’s ease of falling into local optimal solutions, are resolved. The nonlinear hysteretic model of piezoelectric actuators is established based on the hybrid parameter identification algorithm proposed in this paper. The output of the model of the piezoelectric actuator is in accordance with the real output obtained from the experiments, and the root mean square error is only 0.029423 μm. The experimental and simulation results show that the model of piezoelectric actuators established by the proposed identification method can describe the multi-valued mapping and frequency-dependent nonlinear hysteresis characteristics of piezoelectric actuators. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2948 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Bistability for a Wider Bandwidth in Vibro-Impact Triboelectric Energy Harvesters
by Qais Qaseem and Alwathiqbellah Ibrahim
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14051008 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Mechanical energy from vibrations is widespread in the ambient environment. It may be harvested efficiently using triboelectric generators. Nevertheless, a harvester’s effectiveness is restricted because of the limited bandwidth. To this end, this paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of a [...] Read more.
Mechanical energy from vibrations is widespread in the ambient environment. It may be harvested efficiently using triboelectric generators. Nevertheless, a harvester’s effectiveness is restricted because of the limited bandwidth. To this end, this paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of a variable frequency energy harvester, which integrates a vibro-impact triboelectric-based harvester and magnetic nonlinearity to increase the operation bandwidth and improve the efficiency of conventional triboelectric harvesters. A cantilever beam with a tip magnet was aligned with another fixed magnet at the same polarity to induce a nonlinear magnetic repulsive force. A triboelectric harvester was integrated into the system by utilizing the lower surface of the tip magnet to serve as the top electrode of the harvester, while the bottom electrode with an attached polydimethylsiloxane insulator was placed underneath. Numerical simulations were performed to examine the impact of the potential wells formed by the magnets. The structure’s static and dynamic behaviors at varying excitation levels, separation distance, and surface charge density are all discussed. In order to develop a variable frequency system with a wide bandwidth, the system’s natural frequency varies by changing the distance between the two magnets to reduce or magnify the magnetic force to achieve monostable or bistable oscillations. When the system is excited by vibrations, the beams vibrate, which causes an impact between the triboelectric layers. An alternating electrical signal is generated from a periodic contact-separation motion between the harvester’s electrodes. Our theoretical findings were experimentally validated. The findings of this study have the potential to pave the way for the development of an effective energy harvester that is capable of scavenging energy from ambient vibrations across a broad range of excitation frequencies. The frequency bandwidth was found to increase by 120% at threshold distance compared to the conventional energy harvester. Nonlinear impact-driven triboelectric energy harvesters can effectively broaden the operational frequency bandwidth and enhance the harvested energy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 26808 KiB  
Review
Leveraging Ferroelectret Nanogenerators for Acoustic Applications
by Ziling Song, Xianfa Cai, Yiqin Wang, Wenyu Yang and Wei Li
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122145 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Ferroelectret nanogenerator (FENG), renowned for its remarkable electromechanical conversion efficiency and low Young’s modulus, has gained significant attention in various acoustic applications. The increasing interest is attributed to the crucial role acoustic devices play in our daily lives. This paper provides a comprehensive [...] Read more.
Ferroelectret nanogenerator (FENG), renowned for its remarkable electromechanical conversion efficiency and low Young’s modulus, has gained significant attention in various acoustic applications. The increasing interest is attributed to the crucial role acoustic devices play in our daily lives. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the advancements made in using FENG for acoustic applications. It elaborates on the operational mechanism of FENG in acoustics, with a special focus on comparing the influence of different fabrication materials and techniques on its properties. This review categorizes acoustic applications of FENG into three primary areas: acoustic sensing, acoustic actuation, and acoustic energy harvesting. The detailed descriptions of FENG’s implementations in these areas are provided, and potential directions and challenges for further development are outlined. By demonstrating the wide range of potential applications for FENG, it is shown that FENG can be adapted to meet different individual needs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop