Functional Materials and Microdevices

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 5345

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: thermoelectric; memristor; energy harvesting; sensors

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China
Interests: thermoelectric; energy harvesting and conversion; direct ink writing of 3D; radiative cooling

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: thermoelectric materials and devices; flexible electronics; low-dimension materials

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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
Interests: MEMS gas sensors; nanostructured sensing materials; chip-based in situ TEM characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functional materials play crucial roles in the development of advanced devices with the potential to revolutionize various industries, including electronics, energy, healthcare, and environmental monitoring. These materials are designed to possess specific properties and functionalities that enable them to perform specific tasks or functions such as catalysis, thermoelectric, photoelectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, photothermal and radiative cooling, etc. They are typically engineered at the nanoscale, allowing for precise control over their properties and performance. The development of functional materials and devices involves various approaches, including synthesis, fabrication, and characterization. Advancements in micro–nano manufacturing technologies have enabled the fabrication of functional materials with tailored properties for advanced electronic devices, sensing and monitoring. However, the development of high-performance functional materials and devices also presents several challenges including cost, scalability, stability and reliability, toxicity and environmental. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers and review articles that focus on functional materials and microdevices, encompassing a wide range of applications and technologies.

Dr. Zhenhua Wu
Dr. Erzhen Mu
Dr. Hongjing Shang
Dr. Ming Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • functional materials and characterizations
  • energy conversion and transport
  • nano–micro device
  • device modeling and simulation
  • sensors and actuators
  • 3D printing and MEMS technologies
  • machine learning and algorithm

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
Loss-Optimized Design of Magnetic Devices
by Yuhu Zhao, Zhengfeng Ming and Chaofan Du
Micromachines 2024, 15(6), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15060697 (registering DOI) - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 71
Abstract
Maximizing efficiency, power density, and reliability stands as paramount objectives in the advancement of power electronic systems. Notably, the dimensions and losses of magnetic components emerge as primary constraints hindering the miniaturization of such systems. Researchers have increasingly focused on the design of [...] Read more.
Maximizing efficiency, power density, and reliability stands as paramount objectives in the advancement of power electronic systems. Notably, the dimensions and losses of magnetic components emerge as primary constraints hindering the miniaturization of such systems. Researchers have increasingly focused on the design of loss minimization and size optimization of magnetic devices. In this paper, with the objective of minimizing the loss of magnetic devices, an optimal design method for the winding structure of devices is proposed based on the coupling relationship between the loss prediction model and the design variables. The method examines the decoupling conditions between the design variables and the loss model, deriving optimized design closure equations for the design variables. This approach furnishes a technical foundation for the miniaturized design of miniature apparatuses incorporating magnetic components, offering a straightforward and adaptable design methodology. The finite element method simulation results and experimental measurement data verify the accuracy of the prediction of the proposed method and the validity of the optimal design theory of device loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
13 pages, 5947 KiB  
Article
IC Packaging Material Identification via a Hybrid Deep Learning Framework with CNN–Transformer Bidirectional Interaction
by Chengbin Zhang, Xuankai Zhou, Nian Cai, Shuai Zhou and Han Wang
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030418 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
With the advancement of micro- and nanomanufacturing technologies, electronic components and chips are increasingly being miniaturized. To automatically identify their packaging materials for ensuring the reliability of ICs, a hybrid deep learning framework termed as CNN–transformer interaction (CTI) model is designed on IC [...] Read more.
With the advancement of micro- and nanomanufacturing technologies, electronic components and chips are increasingly being miniaturized. To automatically identify their packaging materials for ensuring the reliability of ICs, a hybrid deep learning framework termed as CNN–transformer interaction (CTI) model is designed on IC packaging images in this paper, in which several cascaded CTI blocks are designed to bidirectionally capture local and global features from the IC packaging image. Each CTI block involves a CNN branch with two designed convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for CNN local features and a transformer branch with two transformers for transformer global features and transformer local-window features. A bidirectional interaction mechanism is designed to interactively transfer the features in channel and spatial dimensions between the CNNs and transformers. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid framework can recognize three types of IC packaging materials with a good performance of 96.16% F1-score and 97.92% accuracy, which is superior to some existing deep learning methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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16 pages, 11802 KiB  
Article
Self-Powered Flow Rate Sensing via a Single-Electrode Flowing Liquid Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator
by Duy-Linh Vu, Quang-Tan Nguyen, Pil-Seung Chung and Kyoung-Kwan Ahn
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030384 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Recently, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as having an important role in the next wave of technology due to their large potential applications in energy harvesting and smart sensing. Recognizing this, a device based on TENGs, which can solve some of the problems [...] Read more.
Recently, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as having an important role in the next wave of technology due to their large potential applications in energy harvesting and smart sensing. Recognizing this, a device based on TENGs, which can solve some of the problems in the liquid flow measurement process, was considered. In this paper, a new method to measure the liquid flow rate through a pipe which is based on the triboelectric effect is reported. A single-electrode flowing liquid-based TENG (FL-TENG) was developed, comprising a silicon pipe and an electrode coated with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The measured electrical responses show that the FL-TENG can generate a peak open-circuit voltage and peak short-circuit current of 2.6 V and 0.3 µA when DI water is passed through an 8 mm cell FL-TENG at a flow rate of 130 mL/min and reach their maximum values of 17.8 V–1.57 µA at a flow rate of 1170 mL/min, respectively. Importantly, the FL-TENG demonstrates a robust linear correlation between its electrical output and the flow rate, with the correlation coefficient R2 ranging from 0.943 to 0.996. Additionally, this study explores the potential of the FL-TENG to serve as a self-powered sensor power supply in future applications, emphasizing its adaptability as both a flow rate sensor and an energy harvesting device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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10 pages, 764 KiB  
Communication
An Analytical Mechanics Model for the Rotary Sliding Triboelectric Nanogenerator
by Guangping Gong, Maoyi Zhang, Dongqi An, Rui Li and Yewang Su
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030371 - 9 Mar 2024
Viewed by 837
Abstract
In recent years, global attention towards new energy has surged due to increasing energy demand and environmental concerns. Researchers have intensified their focus on new energy, leading to advancements in technologies like triboelectrification, which harnesses energy from the environment. The invention of the [...] Read more.
In recent years, global attention towards new energy has surged due to increasing energy demand and environmental concerns. Researchers have intensified their focus on new energy, leading to advancements in technologies like triboelectrification, which harnesses energy from the environment. The invention of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has led to new possibilities, with the rotary sliding TENG standing out for its superior performance. However, understanding its mechanical behavior remains a challenge, potentially leading to structural issues. This paper introduces a novel analytical mechanics model to analyze the mechanical performance of the stator of the rotary sliding TENG, offering a new analytical solution. The solution also presents an innovative approach to solving axisymmetric problems in elasticity theory since it challenges a traditional assumption that the stress function depends solely on the radial coordinate, proposing a new stress function to derive a more general solution, supplementing the classical approach in the theory of elasticity. Through the obtained solutions, the mechanical characteristics of the rotary sliding TENG during operation are analyzed. A clearer relationship between mechanical characteristics and electrical output is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the design of the rotary sliding TENG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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18 pages, 11507 KiB  
Article
Application of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Materials in Balanced-Force-Type Electromagnetic Relay
by Ding Ding, Jiaxin You, Xiangqian Cui, Yutong Xue, Xu Tan and Guofu Zhai
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030368 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 883
Abstract
The magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials, including their saturation magnetic induction strength and permeability, significantly affect the dynamic characteristics of electromagnetic relays. However, the soft materials most commonly used for relays in the magnetic conductive components of electromagnetic systems, such as electrical [...] Read more.
The magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials, including their saturation magnetic induction strength and permeability, significantly affect the dynamic characteristics of electromagnetic relays. However, the soft materials most commonly used for relays in the magnetic conductive components of electromagnetic systems, such as electrical pure iron, limit further relay design improvement and optimization to a certain extent. Thus, this paper proposes the use of amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials with good high-frequency magnetic properties in magnetic circuits. A wavelet analysis was conducted on the high-frequency components of the coil current while the relay operated, and the corresponding magnetic materials were selected. Considering the challenges in processing amorphous and nanocrystalline materials and collecting test data for the accuracy verification of simulation methods, we prepared a scaled-up prototype for use in dynamic characteristic tests. The simulation method was improved, yielding more accurate simulation results regarding the relay’s dynamic characteristics. On this basis, six replacement schemes using amorphous and nanocrystalline materials were considered. The test results proved that this application could improve the relay’s dynamic characteristics. Finally, a full-size sample with an iron core consisting of nanocrystalline alloy 1K107B was prepared, and the conclusions were verified in tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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14 pages, 3803 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Multielement Composite Oxide Nanomaterials Containing Ce, Zr, Y, and Yb via Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis
by Qingyun Li, Zihua Wang and Xuezhong Wang
Micromachines 2024, 15(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15010154 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The synthesis of multielement composite oxide nanomaterials containing Ce, Zr, Y, and Yb was investigated using a micro confined jet mixer reactor operated in continuous mode under supercritical water conditions. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using ICP-AES, SEM-EDS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and [...] Read more.
The synthesis of multielement composite oxide nanomaterials containing Ce, Zr, Y, and Yb was investigated using a micro confined jet mixer reactor operated in continuous mode under supercritical water conditions. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using ICP-AES, SEM-EDS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and TEM. All samples exhibited a uniform particle shape and a narrow particle size distribution. An analysis of the d-spacing results using selected electron area diffraction (SAED) patterns confirmed the production of cubic-phase crystals. A BET test was employed to determine the specific surface area of the prepared nanoparticles. OSC and TPR techniques were utilized to characterize the oxygen storage capacity and reduction performance of the obtained samples, with an analysis conducted to determine how the different proportions of elements affected the performance of multielement mixed oxides. The ionic conductivity of multielement composite oxide was measured using alternating current impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the impact of Y, Ce, and Yb on the electrolyte material’s ionic conductivity was analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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16 pages, 7780 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method of Wireless Micro Energy Transmission Based on MEMS Micro Coil
by Yongdong Wang, Cheng Yi, Fanxiang Meng and Xuecheng Sun
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14111997 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Based on current implantable devices, a battery’s rigidity and large size makes it prone to immune rejection and wound incisions. Additionally, it is limited by its finite lifespan, which hinders long-term usage. These limitations greatly restrict the development of implantable medical device systems [...] Read more.
Based on current implantable devices, a battery’s rigidity and large size makes it prone to immune rejection and wound incisions. Additionally, it is limited by its finite lifespan, which hinders long-term usage. These limitations greatly restrict the development of implantable medical device systems towards miniaturization and minimally invasive approaches. Consequently, obtaining high-fidelity and stable biological signals from the target tissue area of the organism remains challenging. Therefore, there is a need to develop wireless power transmission technology. In this paper, we propose a wireless micro energy transfer method based on MEMS micro coils for charging implantable devices. Through simulation calculations, we first investigate the influence of coaxial distance, horizontal displacement, and rotation angle between the MEMS micro coil and the transmitting coil on power transmission. Subsequently, we utilize micro nanofabrication technology to create a MEMS micro spiral copper coil with a line width, thickness, and spacing of 50 µm and a total of five turns. Finally, we conduct wireless power transmission tests on the coil. The results show that, when the transmitting coil and the receiving coil are 10 mm apart and the operating frequency is 100 kHz, the power of the wireless power transmission system reaches 45 µW. This power level is sufficient to meet the power supply requirements of implantable pacemakers. Therefore, this technology holds great potential for applications in the field of wireless power transmission for implantable medical devices, including pacemakers and brain neurostimulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Microdevices)
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