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Materials, Volume 15, Issue 13 (July-1 2022) – 356 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Lead-free BiFeO3-based materials are not only promising candidates for replacing lead-based materials but also show intriguing properties that may inspire innovative material design for the next generation of lead-free piezoceramics. However, BF-based lead-free piezoelectric systems still have major issues to be solved. In this review, we provide a further comprehensive understanding of the various major issues to elucidate in BiFeO3-based ceramics. Research on various potential properties and controversial issues in BF-based materials has led to an in-depth understanding of lead-free piezoelectric materials and accelerated the search for next-generation electroactive materials. View this paper
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30 pages, 12121 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress on Regulating Strategies for the Strengthening and Toughening of High-Strength Aluminum Alloys
by Jia Zheng, Qiu Pang, Zhili Hu and Qian Sun
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134725 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Due to their high strength, high toughness, and corrosion resistance, high-strength aluminum alloys have attracted great scientific and technological attention in the fields of aerospace, navigation, high-speed railways, and automobiles. However, the fracture toughness and impact toughness of high-strength aluminum alloys decrease when [...] Read more.
Due to their high strength, high toughness, and corrosion resistance, high-strength aluminum alloys have attracted great scientific and technological attention in the fields of aerospace, navigation, high-speed railways, and automobiles. However, the fracture toughness and impact toughness of high-strength aluminum alloys decrease when their strength increases. In order to solve the above contradiction, there are currently three main control strategies: adjusting the alloying elements, developing new heat treatment processes, and using different deformation methods. This paper first analyzes the existing problems in the preparation of high-strength aluminum alloys, summarizes the strengthening and toughening mechanisms in high-strength aluminum alloys, and analyzes the feasibility of matching high-strength aluminum alloys in strength and toughness. Then, this paper summarizes the research progress towards adjusting the technology of high-strength aluminum alloys based on theoretical analysis and experimental verification, including the adjustment of process parameters and the resulting mechanical properties, as well as new ideas for research on high-strength aluminum alloys. Finally, the main unsolved problems, challenges, and future research directions for the strengthening and toughening of high-strength aluminum alloys are systematically emphasized. It is expected that this work could provide feasible new ideas for the development of high-strength and high-toughness aluminum alloys with high reliability and long service life. Full article
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20 pages, 9322 KiB  
Article
The Use of Miniature Specimens to Determine Local Properties and Fracture Behavior of LPBF-Processed Inconel 718 in as-Deposited and Post-Treated States
by Jan Dzugan, Mohsen Seifi, Martin Rund, Pavel Podany, Richard Grylls and John J. Lewandowski
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134724 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
This paper summarizes the assessment of directional anisotropy in local mechanical properties for Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) IN-718 bulk samples via the use of miniature samples excised from the bulk for both as-deposited and post-treated states. The quasi-static tensile properties at room [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes the assessment of directional anisotropy in local mechanical properties for Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) IN-718 bulk samples via the use of miniature samples excised from the bulk for both as-deposited and post-treated states. The quasi-static tensile properties at room temperature are investigated at several different locations along the build direction and at different orientations for both considered states. A comparison between the excised miniature tensile specimens and standard-sized sample results have also been conducted and exhibit very good agreement. Significant anisotropy is present in mechanical properties at different build heights for the as-deposited state, while the post-treated material exhibited more homogenous properties, both along the height and for different sampling orientations. However, significant reductions (e.g., >30%) in the strength (Yield, UTS) along with a significant increase in the reduction in area at fracture is found for post-processed materials. Metallography and fractography analyses were conducted in order to begin to determine the source(s) of this anisotropy for the as-deposited state. Full article
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13 pages, 4525 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Mn-Doped SrTiO3/Carbon Fiber with Oxygen Vacancy for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution
by Qi Hu, Jiantao Niu, Ke-Qin Zhang and Mu Yao
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134723 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
With carbon fiber, it is difficult to load semiconductor photocatalysts and easy to shed off thanks to its smooth surface and few active groups, which has always been a problem in the synthesis of photocatalysts. In the study, SrTiO3 nanoparticles were loaded [...] Read more.
With carbon fiber, it is difficult to load semiconductor photocatalysts and easy to shed off thanks to its smooth surface and few active groups, which has always been a problem in the synthesis of photocatalysts. In the study, SrTiO3 nanoparticles were loaded onto the Tencel fibers using the solvothermal method, and then the Tencel fibers were carbonized at a high temperature under the condition of inert gas to form carbon fibers, thus SrTiO3@CF photocatalytic composite materials with solid core shell structure were prepared. Meanwhile, Mn ions were added into the SrTiO3 precursor reagent in the solvothermal experiment to prepare Mn-doped Mn-SrTiO3@CF photocatalytic composite material. XPS and EPR tests showed that the prepared Mn-SrTiO3@CF photocatalytic composite was rich in oxygen vacancies. The existence of these oxygen vacancies formed oxygen defect states (VOs) below the conduction band, which constituted the capture center of photogenerated electrons and significantly improved the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic hydrogen experimental results showed that the photocatalytic hydrogen production capacity of Mn-SrTiO3@CF composite material with 5% Mn-doped was six times that of the SrTiO3@CF material, and the doping of Mn ions not only promoted the red shift of the light absorption boundary and the extension to visible light, but also improved the separation and migration efficiency of photocarriers. In the paper, the preparation method solves the difficulty of loading photocatalysts on CF and provides a new design method for the recycling of catalysts, and we improve the hydrogen production performance of photocatalysts by Mn-doped modification and the introduction of oxygen vacancies, which provides a theoretical method for the practical application of hydrogen energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanics of Materials)
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14 pages, 2800 KiB  
Systematic Review
Short Implants versus Longer Implants with Sinus Floor Elevation: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials with a Post-Loading Follow-Up Duration of 5 Years
by Miaozhen Wang, Feng Liu, Christian Ulm, Huidan Shen and Xiaohui Rausch-Fan
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134722 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
This study compared the outcome of fixed prostheses supported by short implants (<8 mm) and longer implants (≥8 mm) with an elevated sinus floor after 5 years of follow-up. The literature searches were performed electronically and manually in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of [...] Read more.
This study compared the outcome of fixed prostheses supported by short implants (<8 mm) and longer implants (≥8 mm) with an elevated sinus floor after 5 years of follow-up. The literature searches were performed electronically and manually in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant articles published from 1 January 2013 to 31 January 2020. We selected eligible studies using inclusion criteria and assessed their quality. From 1688 identified studies, five randomized controlled trials were included. Between the short implant group and the control group, the implant failure-related pooled risk ratio (RR) was 3.64 (p = 0.07). The RR for technical complications was 2.61 (p = 0.0002), favoring longer implants. Marginal peri-implant bone loss after 1 and 5 years of function showed statistically significant less bone loss at short implants (1 year: mean difference = 0.21 mm; p < 0.00001; 5 years: mean difference = 0.26 mm; p = 0.02). The implant failure and the biological failure of both groups were similar after 5 years of follow-up. Short implants could be an alternative to long implants with an elevated sinus floor for atrophic maxillae in aging populations. Studies with larger trials and longer periods of follow-up (10 years) remain essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility and Clinic Outcome of Different Dental Implants)
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20 pages, 5437 KiB  
Article
Research on Hyperparameter Optimization of Concrete Slump Prediction Model Based on Response Surface Method
by Yuan Chen, Jiaye Wu, Yingqian Zhang, Lei Fu, Yunrong Luo, Yong Liu and Lindan Li
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134721 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
In this paper, eight variables of cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, water, superplasticizer, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and flow are used as network input and slump is used as network output to construct a back-propagation (BP) neural network. On this basis, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, eight variables of cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, water, superplasticizer, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and flow are used as network input and slump is used as network output to construct a back-propagation (BP) neural network. On this basis, the learning rate, momentum factor, number of hidden nodes and number of iterations are used as hyperparameters to construct 2-layer and 3-layer neural networks respectively. Finally, the response surface method (RSM) is used to optimize the parameters of the network model obtained previously. The results show that the network model with parameters obtained by the response surface method (RSM) has a better coefficient of determination for the test set than the model before optimization, and the optimized model has higher prediction accuracy. At the same time, the model is used to evaluate the influencing factors of each variable on slump. The results show that flow, water, coarse aggregate and fine aggregate are the four main influencing factors, and the maximum influencing factor of flow is 0.875. This also provides a new idea for quickly and effectively adjusting the parameters of the neural network model to improve the prediction accuracy of concrete slump. Full article
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16 pages, 4639 KiB  
Article
Improving Numerical Modeling Accuracy for Fiber Orientation and Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics
by Riccardo Ivan, Marco Sorgato, Filippo Zanini and Giovanni Lucchetta
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134720 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Local fiber alignment in fiber-reinforced thermoplastics is governed by complex flows during the molding process. As fiber-induced material anisotropy leads to non-homogeneous effective mechanical properties, accurate prediction of the final orientation state is critical for integrated structural simulations of these composites. In this [...] Read more.
Local fiber alignment in fiber-reinforced thermoplastics is governed by complex flows during the molding process. As fiber-induced material anisotropy leads to non-homogeneous effective mechanical properties, accurate prediction of the final orientation state is critical for integrated structural simulations of these composites. In this work, a data-driven inverse modeling approach is proposed to improve the physics-based structural simulation of short glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The approach is divided into two steps: (1) optimization of the fiber orientation distribution (FOD) predicted by the Reduce Strain Closure (RSC) model, and (2) identification of the composite’s mechanical properties used in the Ramberg–Osgood (RO) multiscale structural model. In both steps, the identification of the model’s parameters was carried out using a Genetic Algorithm. Artificial Neural Networks were used as a machine learning-based surrogate model to approximate the simulation results locally and reduce the computational time. X-ray micro-computed tomography and tensile tests were used to acquire the FOD and mechanical data, respectively. The optimized parameters were then used to simulate a tensile test for a specimen injection molded in a dumbbell-shaped cavity selected as a case study for validation. The FOD prediction error was reduced by 51% using the RSC optimized coefficients if compared with the default coefficients of the RSC model. The proposed data-driven approach, which calculates both the RSC coefficients and the RO parameters by inverse modeling from experimental data, allowed improvement in the prediction accuracy by 43% for the elastic modulus and 59% for the tensile strength, compared with the non-optimized analysis. Full article
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16 pages, 2740 KiB  
Article
Insight into Point Defects and Complex Defects in β-Mo2C and Carbide Evolution from First Principles
by Jing Guo, Yunli Feng, Cong Tang, Li Wang, Xiaoliang Qing, Qingxiang Yang and Xuejun Ren
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134719 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
In this paper, first principles method was adopted to investigate the point defects, Vanadium-related defects and defect combinations (vacancy (V), substitutional (S) and/or interstitial (I)) in molybdenum β-Mo2C and explore the use of first principles calculation data in analysing the link [...] Read more.
In this paper, first principles method was adopted to investigate the point defects, Vanadium-related defects and defect combinations (vacancy (V), substitutional (S) and/or interstitial (I)) in molybdenum β-Mo2C and explore the use of first principles calculation data in analysing the link between different carbides and the effects of doping elements. Supercell models with different defect types were established and optimized, and the formation energy data of defects was developed. The structure evolution during the optimization process is analysed in detail to establish the main characteristics of changes and the relevant electronic properties. The data for different types of intrinsic defects and combined defects complexes was developed and key results is analysed. The results show that carbon vacancy (VC) is stable but does not inevitably exist in pure β-Mo2C. Interstitial site II is a very unstable position for any type of atoms (Mo, V and C), and analysis of the structure evolution shows that the atom always moves to the interface area near the interstitial site I between two layers. In particular, a C atom can expand the lattice structure when it exists between the layer interfaces. One type of the defects studied, the substitution of Mo with V (designated as ‘SV-Mo’), is the most stable defect among all single point defects. The data for defect complexes shows that the combination of multiple SV-Mo defects in the super cell being more stable than the combination of other defects (e.g., ‘VMo+IC’, ‘SV-Mo+VC’). The data with increasing SV-Mo in (Mo, V)2C system is developed, and typical data (e.g., formation energy) for Mo-rich carbides and V carbides are correlated and the potential of the data in analysing transition of different carbides is highlighted. The relevance of using first principles calculation data in the studying of V-doping and the complex carbides (V- and Mo-rich carbides) evolution in different materials systems and future focus of continuous work is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic First-Principles Simulation—Nano-Theory)
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23 pages, 11360 KiB  
Article
Improving the Mechanical Resistance of Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Composite Materials Made of Nanofibers with Crystalline Preferential Orientation
by Ricardo Pascual Alanis-Gómez, Eric Mauricio Rivera-Muñoz, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas, José Rafael Alanis-Gómez and Rodrigo Velázquez-Castillo
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134718 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
The stability and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/Chitosan composite materials depend on the dispersion of HAp aggregates in the chitosan matrix and on the chemical interaction between them. Therefore, hexagonal cross-sectioned HAp nanofibers were produced using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Glutamic acid was [...] Read more.
The stability and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/Chitosan composite materials depend on the dispersion of HAp aggregates in the chitosan matrix and on the chemical interaction between them. Therefore, hexagonal cross-sectioned HAp nanofibers were produced using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Glutamic acid was used to control the HAp crystal growth; thereby, nanofibers were obtained with a preferential crystalline orientation, and they were grown along the “c” axis of HAp crystal structures. This morphology exposed the (300) and (100) crystal planes on the surface, and several phosphate groups and calcium ions were also exposed; they were able to form numerous chemical interactions with the amine, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups of chitosan. Consequently, the final mechanical resistance of the composite materials was synergistically increased. Nanofibers were mixed with commercial chitosan using a sonotrode to improve their dispersion within the biopolymer matrix and prevent migration. The HAp nanofiber/Chitosan composite materials showed higher mechanical resistance than that observed in similar materials with the same chemical composition that were made of commercial HAp powders, which were used as reference materials. The mechanical resistance under tension of the composite materials made of nanofibers was similar to that reported for cortical bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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15 pages, 3069 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Responsive Polysaccharide Microparticles Containing Nanoparticles: Release of Multiple Cationic/Anionic Compounds
by Takumi Sato and Yoshihiko Murakami
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4717; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134717 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Most drug carriers used in pulmonary administration are microparticles with diameters over 1 µm. Only a few examples involving nanoparticles have been reported because such small particles are readily exhaled. Consequently, the development of microparticles capable of encapsulating nanoparticles and a wide range [...] Read more.
Most drug carriers used in pulmonary administration are microparticles with diameters over 1 µm. Only a few examples involving nanoparticles have been reported because such small particles are readily exhaled. Consequently, the development of microparticles capable of encapsulating nanoparticles and a wide range of compounds for pulmonary drug-delivery applications is an important objective. In this study, we investigated the development of polysaccharide microparticles containing nanoparticles for the temperature-responsive and two-step release of inclusions. The prepared microparticles containing nanoparticles can release two differently charged compounds in a stepwise manner. The particles have two different drug release pathways: one is the release of nanoparticle inclusions from the nanoparticles and the other is the release of microparticle inclusions during microparticle collapse. The nanoparticles can be efficiently delivered deep into the lungs and a wide range of compounds are released in a charge-independent manner, owing to the suitable roughness of the microparticle surface. These polysaccharide microparticles containing nanoparticles are expected to be used as temperature-responsive drug carriers, not only for pulmonary administration but also for various administration routes, including transpulmonary, intramuscular, and transdermal routes, that can release multiple drugs in a controlled manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering)
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12 pages, 1624 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Elastic, Piezoelectric, and Dielectric Properties of Lithium Niobate from 25 °C to 900 °C Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Resonance Method
by Sevan Bouchy, Ricardo J. Zednik and Pierre Bélanger
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134716 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is known for its high Curie temperature, making it an attractive candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric applications (>200 °C); however, the literature suffers from a paucity of reliable material properties data at high temperatures. This paper therefore provides a [...] Read more.
Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is known for its high Curie temperature, making it an attractive candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric applications (>200 °C); however, the literature suffers from a paucity of reliable material properties data at high temperatures. This paper therefore provides a complete set of elastic and piezoelectric coefficients, as well as complex dielectric constants and the electrical conductivity, for congruent monocrystalline LiNbO3 from 25 °C to 900 °C at atmospheric pressure. An inverse approach using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) resonance method was used to determine the materials’ coefficients and constants. Single crystal Y-cut and Z-cut samples were used to estimate the twelve coefficients defining the electromechanical coupling of LiNbO3. We employed an analytical model inversion to calculate the coefficients based on a linear superposition of nine different bulk acoustic waves (three longitudinal waves and six shear waves), in addition to considering the thermal expansion of the crystal. The results are reported and compared with those of other studies for which the literature has available values. The dominant piezoelectric stress constant was found to be e15, which remained virtually constant between 25 °C and 600 °C; thereafter, it decreased by approximately 10% between 600 °C and 900 °C. The elastic stiffness coefficients c11E, c12E, and c33E all decreased as the temperature increased. The two dielectric constants ϵ11S and ϵ33S increased exponentially as a function of temperature. Full article
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15 pages, 2566 KiB  
Article
Tensile Modulus of Polymer Halloysite Nanotube Systems Containing Filler–Interphase Networks for Biomedical Requests
by Yasser Zare, Kyong Yop Rhee and Soo-Jin Park
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134715 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
To date, there have been a limited number of studies modeling the tensile modulus in the polymer halloysite nanotube (HNT) systems before or after percolation onset. In this paper, an equation for a composite’s modulus post-percolation onset was developed for HNT-filled samples including [...] Read more.
To date, there have been a limited number of studies modeling the tensile modulus in the polymer halloysite nanotube (HNT) systems before or after percolation onset. In this paper, an equation for a composite’s modulus post-percolation onset was developed for HNT-filled samples including the interphase and HNT network. The dispersed nanoparticles and adjoining interphase part were neglected, because they caused ineffective influences on the stiffness of the system after percolation onset. The developed model reflects the impacts of HNTs’ size, interphase depth, percolation onset and the volume shares and moduli of the HNT network and its adjacent interphase on the modulus of HNT-based systems. The impacts of issues on the nanocomposite modulus are defendable, confirming the effectiveness of the developed model. HNT length, interphase depth, HNT concentration, net modulus and net portion directly influenced the stiffness, while the HNT radius and percolation onset had inverse effects. Results show that there was a 142% improvement in the modulus of samples at an interphase depth of 40 nm. Moreover, the stiffness improved by 60% at a net modulus of 200 GPa, but it later exhibited a 180% enhancement at a net modulus of 1000 GPa. In addition, the experimental data for the modulus of numerous composites display fine agreement to the predictions, confirming the validity of the developed model. Full article
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16 pages, 3575 KiB  
Article
Simultaneously Embedding Indomethacin and Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole on Various CoCr Alloys from Ionic Liquids
by Florentina Golgovici, Florentina Gina Ionascu, Mariana Prodana and Ioana Demetrescu
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134714 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
The aim of the present investigation is the electrochemical deposition of polypyrrole films from choline chloride-based ionic liquids at various potential, period times and simultaneously an indomethacin embedding and release. The electrodeposition films were performed on CoCr commercial type Wirobond C (WBC) and, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present investigation is the electrochemical deposition of polypyrrole films from choline chloride-based ionic liquids at various potential, period times and simultaneously an indomethacin embedding and release. The electrodeposition films were performed on CoCr commercial type Wirobond C (WBC) and, Heraenium CE (Hera) using as electroprocedures for deposition cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The morphology of obtained films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An FT-IR investigation of CoCr alloys before and after electrodeposition was able to identify the presence of polymer and drug. The research included an evaluation of the hydrophilic character of all studied samples and their electrochemical characterization in Tanni Zuchi artificial saliva. In the electrochemical study, the following methods have been used: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. Indomethacin release from the polymeric film was determined using UV-VIS spectra. Based on Fick’s law of diffusion and indomethacin release profile, a kinetic law for release was established and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications)
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13 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Effect and Mechanism of Pitch Coating on the Rate Performance Improvement of Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Bo-Ra Kim, Ji-Hong Kim and Ji-Sun Im
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134713 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of pitch coating on graphite anode materials used in lithium-ion batteries and investigated the mechanism whereby pitch coating improves the electrochemical properties. The FG (flake graphite) and pitch were mixed in weight ratios of 95:5–80:20. The mixture was [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of pitch coating on graphite anode materials used in lithium-ion batteries and investigated the mechanism whereby pitch coating improves the electrochemical properties. The FG (flake graphite) and pitch were mixed in weight ratios of 95:5–80:20. The mixture was pressed and prepared into a block form. Additionally, heat treatment was performed at 900 °C for 1 h and pulverized in the size range of 10–25 μm. The results showed that the particles of uniform pitch-coated graphite became more spherical. However, when the pitch is added excessively, pitch aggregation occurs rather than a thicker coating, indicating a nonuniform particle shape. Pitch has a randomly oriented structure and a small crystal size. Therefore, pitch serves as a lithium-ion diffusion pathway, resulting in an improved rate of performance. Notably, the uniform pitch-coated graphite exhibited an outstanding rate of performance owing to the relieving of particle orientation in the electrode rolling process. During the rolling process, the particles are oriented perpendicular to the lithium-ion diffusion pathway, making it difficult for the lithium ions to diffuse. Adding an excessive amount of pitch was found to deteriorate the rate of performance. Pitch aggregation increased the interfacial resistance by forming a heterogeneous surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Carbon Based Materials)
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29 pages, 22337 KiB  
Article
Simultaneously Improving Ductility and Stretch Formability of Mg-3Y Sheet via High Temperature Cross-Rolling and Subsequent Short-Term Annealing
by Yinyang Wang, Chen Liu, Yu Fu, Yongdong Xu, Zhiwen Shao, Xiaohu Chen and Xiurong Zhu
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134712 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
In this work, Mg-3Y sheet was prepared by high temperature cross-rolling and subsequent short-term annealing. The effect of annealing on microstructure, texture, mechanical properties, and stretch formability of Mg-3Y sheet was primarily investigated. Micro-nano size coexistence of β-Mg24Y5 phases can [...] Read more.
In this work, Mg-3Y sheet was prepared by high temperature cross-rolling and subsequent short-term annealing. The effect of annealing on microstructure, texture, mechanical properties, and stretch formability of Mg-3Y sheet was primarily investigated. Micro-nano size coexistence of β-Mg24Y5 phases can be well deformed with matrix. The as-rolled Mg-3Y sheet exhibited a homogeneous deformation microstructure consisting of deformed grains with extensive kink bands and dispersed β-Mg24Y5 phases. A double peak texture character appeared in as-rolled Mg-3Y sheet with a split of the texture peaks of about ±20° tilted to rolling direction. After annealing, the as-annealed Mg-3Y sheet presented complete static recrystallized (SRXed) microstructure consisting of uniform equiaxed grains. The texture orientation distribution was more dispersed and a weakened multiple-peak texture orientation distribution appeared. In addition, the maximum intensity of basal plane decreased from 5.2 to 3.1. The change of texture character was attributed to static recrystallization (SRX) induced by kink bands and grain boundaries. The as-annealed Mg-3Y sheet with high Schmid factor (SF) for basal <a> slip, prismatic <a> slip, pyramidal <a> slip, and pyramidal <c+a> slip exhibited high ductility (~25.6%). Simultaneously, enhanced activity of basal <a> slip and randomized grain orientation played a significant role in decreasing anisotropy for the as-annealed Mg-3Y sheet, which contributed to the formation of high stretch formability (~6.2 mm) at room temperature. Full article
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24 pages, 9193 KiB  
Article
Residual Mechanical Properties and Durability of High-Strength Concrete with Polypropylene Fibers in High Temperatures
by Heron Freitas Resende, Elvys Dias Reis, Felipe Nascimento Arroyo, Matheus Henrique Morato de Moraes, Herisson Ferreira dos Santos, Enio Gomes da Silva, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr, Eduardo Chahud, Tulio Hallak Panzera, André Luis Christoforo and Luiz Antônio Melgaço Nunes Branco
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134711 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Investigations into the fire resistance of high-strength concrete (HSC) is extremely important to optimize structural design in construction engineering. This work describes the influence of polypropylene fibers on the mechanical properties and durability of HSC at high temperatures (25, 100, 200, 400, 600 [...] Read more.
Investigations into the fire resistance of high-strength concrete (HSC) is extremely important to optimize structural design in construction engineering. This work describes the influence of polypropylene fibers on the mechanical properties and durability of HSC at high temperatures (25, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C). HSC specimens with 2 kg/m3 composed of polypropylene fibers are tested in a temperature range of 25 to 800 °C, followed by microstructural analysis. In addition, a statistical analysis is designed to identify the effect of factors, namely temperature and polypropylene fibers, and their interactions on mechanical properties and water absorption, electrical resistivity, mass loss and ultrasonic velocity. Most of the properties are improved by the incorporation of fibers, obtaining highly predictable regression models. However, the polypropylene fibers reduce compressive strength but improve the residual mechanical properties up to 400 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Materials Characterization)
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8 pages, 2681 KiB  
Article
Stability, Energetic, and Reactivity Properties of NiPd Alloy Clusters Deposited on Graphene with Defects: A Density Functional Theory Study
by Adrián Martínez-Vargas, Alfonso Vásquez-López, Carlos D. Antonio-Ruiz, Heriberto Cruz-Martínez, Dora I. Medina and Fernando Montejo-Alvaro
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134710 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Graphene with defects is a vital support material since it improves the catalytic activity and stability of nanoparticles. Here, a density functional theory study was conducted to investigate the stability, energy, and reactivity properties of NinPdn (n = 1–3) clusters [...] Read more.
Graphene with defects is a vital support material since it improves the catalytic activity and stability of nanoparticles. Here, a density functional theory study was conducted to investigate the stability, energy, and reactivity properties of NinPdn (n = 1–3) clusters supported on graphene with different defects (i.e., graphene with monovacancy and pyridinic N-doped graphene with one, two, and three N atoms). On the interaction between the clusters and graphene with defects, the charge was transferred from the clusters to the modified graphene, and it was observed that the binding energy between them was substantially higher than that previously reported for Pd-based clusters supported on pristine graphene. The vertical ionization potential calculated for the clusters supported on modified graphene decreased compared with that calculated for free clusters. In contrast, vertical electron affinity values for the clusters supported on graphene with defects increased compared with those calculated for free clusters. In addition, the chemical hardness calculated for the clusters supported on modified graphene was decreased compared with free clusters, suggesting that the former may exhibit higher reactivity than the latter. Therefore, it could be inferred that graphene with defects is a good support material because it enhances the stability and reactivity of the Pd-based alloy clusters supported on PNG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Structure Theory of Low Dimensional Materials)
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27 pages, 4099 KiB  
Review
Composites Additive Manufacturing for Space Applications: A Review
by Sung Wook Paek, Sivagaminathan Balasubramanian and David Stupples
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134709 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3985
Abstract
The assembly of 3D printed composites has a wide range of applications for ground preparation of space systems, in-orbit manufacturing, or even in-situ resource utilisation on planetary surfaces. The recent developments in composites additive manufacturing (AM) technologies include indoor experimentation on the International [...] Read more.
The assembly of 3D printed composites has a wide range of applications for ground preparation of space systems, in-orbit manufacturing, or even in-situ resource utilisation on planetary surfaces. The recent developments in composites additive manufacturing (AM) technologies include indoor experimentation on the International Space Station, and technological demonstrations will follow using satellite platforms on the Low Earth Orbits (LEOs) in the next few years. This review paper surveys AM technologies for varied off-Earth purposes where components or tools made of composite materials become necessary: mechanical, electrical, electrochemical and medical applications. Recommendations are also made on how to utilize AM technologies developed for ground applications, both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and laboratory-based, to reduce development costs and promote sustainability. Full article
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9 pages, 3110 KiB  
Article
Effects of Three-Dimensional Circular Truncated Cone Microstructures on the Performance of Flexible Pressure Sensors
by Weikan Jin, Zhiheng Yu, Guohong Hu, Hui Zhang, Fengli Huang and Jinmei Gu
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134708 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Three-dimensional microstructures play a key role in the fabrication of flexible electronic products. However, the development of flexible electronics is limited in further applications due to low positioning accuracy, the complex process, and low production efficiency. In this study, a novel method for [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional microstructures play a key role in the fabrication of flexible electronic products. However, the development of flexible electronics is limited in further applications due to low positioning accuracy, the complex process, and low production efficiency. In this study, a novel method for fabricating three-dimensional circular truncated cone microstructures via low-frequency ultrasonic resonance printing is proposed. Simultaneously, to simplify the manufacturing process of flexible sensors, the microstructure and printed interdigital electrodes were fabricated into an integrated structure, and a flexible pressure sensor with microstructures was fabricated. Additionally, the effects of flexible pressure sensors with and without microstructures on performance were studied. The results show that the overall performance of the designed sensor with microstructures could be effectively improved by 69%. Moreover, the sensitivity of the flexible pressure sensor with microstructures was 0.042 kPa−1 in the working range of pressure from 2.5 to 10 kPa, and the sensitivity was as low as 0.013 kPa−1 within the pressure range of 10 to 30 kPa. Meanwhile, the sensor showed a fast response time, which was 112 ms. The stability remained good after the 100 cycles of testing. The performance was better than that of the flexible sensor fabricated by the traditional inverted mold method. This lays a foundation for the development of flexible electronic technology in the future. Full article
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15 pages, 5057 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Empirical Models to Predict Metal Additively Manufactured Part Density and Surface Roughness from Powder Characteristics
by Paul Quinn, Sinéad M. Uí Mhurchadha, Jim Lawlor and Ramesh Raghavendra
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134707 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, viz laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), are becoming an increasingly popular manufacturing tool for a range of industries. The powder material used in L-PBF is costly, and it is rare for a single batch of powder to be [...] Read more.
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, viz laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), are becoming an increasingly popular manufacturing tool for a range of industries. The powder material used in L-PBF is costly, and it is rare for a single batch of powder to be used in a single L-PBF build. The un-melted powder material can be sieved and recycled for further builds, significantly increasing its utilisation. Previous studies conducted by the authors have tracked the effect of both powder recycling and powder rejuvenation processes on the powder characteristics and L-PBF part properties. This paper investigates the use of multiple linear regression to build empirical models to predict the part density and surface roughness of 316L stainless steel parts manufactured using recycled and rejuvenated powder based on the powder characteristics. The developed models built on the understanding of the effect of powder characteristics on the part properties. The developed models were found to be capable of predicting the part density and surface roughness to within ±0.02% and ±0.5 Ra, respectively. The models developed enable L-PBF operators to input powder characteristics and predict the expected part density and surface roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Processing and Emerging Technologies)
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15 pages, 6048 KiB  
Article
Development of Wide-Angle Short-Wave Pass Thin Film Based on the Ultra-Thin Silicate Glass
by Xiuhua Fu, Suotao Dong, Shifu Xiong, Cheng Li and Xiaodong Chen
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134706 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
With the rapid development of laser medicine, there are higher requirements placed on the performance of optical components in various medical systems. This paper is aimed at exploring the critical optical devices of medical equipment for treating periodontitis and gingivitis. The cathode sputtering [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of laser medicine, there are higher requirements placed on the performance of optical components in various medical systems. This paper is aimed at exploring the critical optical devices of medical equipment for treating periodontitis and gingivitis. The cathode sputtering method was used to produce the wide-angle short-wave pass filter, and a hundreds grid fastness test was conducted to detect the occurrence of film peeling. Considering the results of SEM, transmission spectrum, and stress test of the sample, an analysis was conducted as to the cause of poor bonding force for the film. By increasing the amount of argon gas and adjusting the baking temperature, the problem of film peeling was resolved. Besides, a short-wave pass filter film with good bonding and low roughness was obtained to meet the requirements of laser medical equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials towards Tissue Engineering)
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12 pages, 3272 KiB  
Article
Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Co3[Fe(CN)6]2·10H2O@rGO Anode Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Daming Sun, Xiaojie Wang and Meizhen Qu
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134705 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are known to be practical and cost-effective devices for storing electric energy. LIBs have a low energy density, which calls for the development of new anode materials. The Prussian blue analog (PBA) is identified as being a candidate electrode [...] Read more.
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are known to be practical and cost-effective devices for storing electric energy. LIBs have a low energy density, which calls for the development of new anode materials. The Prussian blue analog (PBA) is identified as being a candidate electrode material due to its facile synthesis, open framework structures, high specific surface areas, tunable composition, designable topologies and rich redox couples. However, its poor electrical conductivity and mechanical properties are the main factors limiting its use. The present study loaded PBA (Co3[Fe(CN)6]·10H2O) on graphene oxide (Co-Fe-PBA@rGO) and then conducted calcination at 300 °C under the protection of nitrogen, which reduced the crystal water and provided more ion diffusion pathways. As a result, Co-Fe-PBA@rGO showed excellent performance when utilized as an anode in LIBs, and its specific capacities were 546.3 and 333.2 mAh g−1 at 0.1 and 1.0 A g−1, respectively. In addition, the electrode also showed excellent performance in the long-term cycle, and its capacity reached up to 909.7 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 following 100 cycles. Full article
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12 pages, 9001 KiB  
Article
Precipitation Evolution in the Austenitic Heat-Resistant Steel HR3C upon Creep at 700 °C and 750 °C
by Liming Xu, Yinsheng He, Yeonkwan Kang, Jine-sung Jung and Keesam Shin
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134704 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
HR3C (25Cr-20Ni-Nb-N) is a key material used in heat exchangers in supercritical power plants. Its creep properties and microstructural evolution has been extensively studied at or below 650 °C. The precipitation evolution in HR3C steel after creep rupture at elevated temperatures of 700 [...] Read more.
HR3C (25Cr-20Ni-Nb-N) is a key material used in heat exchangers in supercritical power plants. Its creep properties and microstructural evolution has been extensively studied at or below 650 °C. The precipitation evolution in HR3C steel after creep rupture at elevated temperatures of 700 °C and 750 °C with a stress range of 70~180 MPa is characterized in this paper. The threshold strength at 700 °C and 750 °C were determined by extrapolation method to be σ105700= 57.1 MPa and σ105750=37.5 MPa, respectively. A corresponding microstructure investigation indicated that the main precipitates precipitated during creep exposure are Z-phase (NbCrN), M23C6, and σ phase. The dense Z-phase precipitated dispersively in the austenite matrix along dislocation lines, and remained stable (both size and fraction) during long-term creep exposure. M23C6 preferentially precipitated at grain boundaries, and coarsening was observed in all creep specimens with some continuous precipitation of granular M23C6 in the matrix. The brittle σ phase formed during a relatively long-term creep, whose size and fraction increased significantly at high temperature. Moreover, the σ phases, grown and connected to form a large “island” at triple junctions of grain boundaries, appear to serve as nucleation sites for high stress concentration and creep cavities, weakening the grain boundary strength and increasing the sensitivity to intergranular fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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17 pages, 9565 KiB  
Article
Identification of Type-H-like Blood Vessels in a Dynamic and Controlled Model of Osteogenesis in Rabbit Calvarium
by Laurine Marger, Nicolas Liaudet, Susanne S. Scherrer, Nicolo-Constantino Brembilla, Olivier Preynat-Seauve, Daniel Manoil, Mustapha Mekki and Stéphane Durual
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134703 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Angiogenesis and bone regeneration are closely interconnected processes. Whereas type-H blood vessels are abundantly found in the osteogenic zones during endochondral long bone development, their presence in flat bones’ development involving intramembranous mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that type-H-like capillaries that highly [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis and bone regeneration are closely interconnected processes. Whereas type-H blood vessels are abundantly found in the osteogenic zones during endochondral long bone development, their presence in flat bones’ development involving intramembranous mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that type-H-like capillaries that highly express CD31 and Endomucin (EMCN), may be present at sites of intramembranous bone development and participate in the control of osteogenesis. A rabbit model of calvarial bone augmentation was used in which bone growth was controlled over time (2–4 weeks) using a particulate bone scaffold. The model allowed the visualization of the entire spectrum of stages throughout bone growth in the same sample, i.e., active ossification, osteogenic activity, and controlled inflammation. Using systematic mRNA hybridization, the formation of capillaries subpopulations (CD31–EMCN staining) over time was studied and correlated with the presence of osteogenic precursors (Osterix staining). Type-H-like capillaries strongly expressing CD31 and EMCN were identified and described. Their presence increased gradually from the regenerative zone up to the osteogenic zone, at 2 and 4 weeks. Type-H-like capillaries may thus represent the initial vascular support encountered in flat bones’ development and which organize osteogenic niches. Full article
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19 pages, 17021 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Substitution of Fe and Sr in Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate: Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, Degradation, and Cell Adhesion Properties
by So-Min Kim, Kyung-Hyeon Yoo, Hyeonjin Kim, Yong-Il Kim and Seog-Young Yoon
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134702 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
β-tricalcium phosphate is a promising bone graft substitute material with biocompatibility and high osteoinductivity. However, research on the ideal degradation and absorption for better clinical application remains a challenge. Now, we focus on modifying physicochemical properties and improving biological properties through essential ion [...] Read more.
β-tricalcium phosphate is a promising bone graft substitute material with biocompatibility and high osteoinductivity. However, research on the ideal degradation and absorption for better clinical application remains a challenge. Now, we focus on modifying physicochemical properties and improving biological properties through essential ion co-substitution (Fe and Sr) in β-TCPs. Fe- and Sr-substituted and Fe/Sr co-substituted β-TCP were synthesized by aqueous co-precipitation with substitution levels ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mol%. The β-TCP phase was detected by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Changes in Ca–O and P–O bond lengths of the co-substituted samples were observed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of VSM represent the M-H graph having a combination of diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties. A TRIS–HCl solution immersion test showed that the degradation and resorption functions act synergistically on the surface of the co-substituted sample. Cell adhesion tests demonstrated that Fe enhances the initial adhesion and proliferation behavior of hDPSCs. The present work suggests that Fe and Sr co-substitution in β-TCP can be a candidate for promising bone graft materials in tissue engineering fields. In addition, the possibility of application of hyperthermia for cancer treatment can be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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11 pages, 5242 KiB  
Article
Colossal Permittivity Characteristics of (Nb, Si) Co-Doped TiO2 Ceramics
by Hicham Mahfoz Kotb, Adil Alshoaibi, Javed Mazher, Nagih M. Shaalan and Mohamad M. Ahmad
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4701; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134701 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
(Nb5+, Si4+) co-doped TiO2 (NSTO) ceramics with the compositions (Nb0.5Si0.5)xTi1−xO2, x = 0, 0.025, 0.050 and 0.1 were prepared with a solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns [...] Read more.
(Nb5+, Si4+) co-doped TiO2 (NSTO) ceramics with the compositions (Nb0.5Si0.5)xTi1−xO2, x = 0, 0.025, 0.050 and 0.1 were prepared with a solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra confirmed that the tetragonal rutile is the main phase in all the ceramics. Additionally, XRD revealed the presence of a secondary phase of SiO2 in the co-doped ceramics. Impedance spectroscopy analysis showed two contributions, which correspond to the responses of grain and grain-boundary. All the (Nb, Si) co-doped TiO2 showed improved dielectric performance in the high frequency range (>103 Hz). The sample (Nb0.5Si0.5)0.025Ti0.975O2 showed the best dielectric performance in terms of higher relative permittivity (5.5 × 104) and lower dielectric loss (0.18), at 10 kHz and 300 K, compared to pure TiO2 (1.1 × 103, 0.34). The colossal permittivity of NSTO ceramics is attributed to an internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) effect, formed by insulating grain-boundaries and semiconductor grains in the ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Structural Ceramics and Hybrid Materials)
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18 pages, 3145 KiB  
Review
Apparent Molecular Weight Distributions in Bituminous Binders
by Giovanni Polacco, Miriam Cappello, Giacomo Cuciniello and Sara Filippi
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134700 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Molecular weight distributions are widely used to evaluate the effects of aging or modifiers in bituminous binders. As with polymers, the most common techniques to obtain the distributions can be subdivided into two main groups, depending on whether or not they use a [...] Read more.
Molecular weight distributions are widely used to evaluate the effects of aging or modifiers in bituminous binders. As with polymers, the most common techniques to obtain the distributions can be subdivided into two main groups, depending on whether or not they use a solvent. In the first group, the dimension of the molecules is evaluated in a diluted unperturbed state, while, in the second, the dimension derives from the bulk, where aggregated or interacting molecules may behave as single entities. However, the calibration curves used in the bulk are tuned in order to homogenize the results derived from the two approaches. This sort of contradiction, plus the high number of experimental uncertainties, suggest that the term “apparent” should be used for both distributions. These aspects are well known in the field of polymers but have received less attention in the case of bitumens, which are even more complex. This paper pinpoints the advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques, thus highlighting the most appropriate use. Bulk methods are preferred when evaluating properties that are strictly dependent on the microstructure, such as the level of aging and the effects of additives or modifiers. Diluted methods should be used when the molecular size matters, such as in quantifying the presence of polymers or rejuvenators. Both techniques should be used for comparative studies only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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14 pages, 15427 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of Manganese Ion Addition Points on the Separation of Scheelite and Calcite by Sodium Silicate
by Zhenhao Guan, Kuanwei Lu, Ying Zhang, Hu Yang and Xiaokang Li
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134699 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
The flotation separation (FS) of both scheelite and calcite minerals with similar physicochemical properties remains challenging, since the Ca active sites exist on their surfaces. The present work investigated the effects of different addition points of MnCl2 on the FS of scheelite [...] Read more.
The flotation separation (FS) of both scheelite and calcite minerals with similar physicochemical properties remains challenging, since the Ca active sites exist on their surfaces. The present work investigated the effects of different addition points of MnCl2 on the FS of scheelite and calcite by micro-flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurements, infrared spectrum analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests, and the mechanism of separation is elucidated. Interestingly, the recovery of scheelite was 91.33% and that of calcite was 8.49% when MnCl2 was added after sodium silicate. Compared with the addition of MnCl2 before Na2SiO3, the recovery of scheelite was 64.94% and that of calcite was 6.64%. The sequence of adding MnCl2 followed by Na2SiO3 leads to the non-selective adsorption of Mn2+ on the surface of scheelite and calcite firstly, and later, sodium silicate will interact with it to produce hydrophilic silicate. This substantially enhances the hydrophilicity on the surface of both minerals, making separation impossible. In contrast, the addition of MnCl2 after sodium silicate can promote the formation of a metal silicate and enhance the selectivity and inhibition effect on calcite. Meanwhile, under this dosing sequence, the adsorption of Mn2+ on the scheelite surface offered more active sites for sodium oleate, which improved the scheelite surface hydrophobicity. This leads to a great improvement of the FS effect of scheelite and calcite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials and Technologies in Separation)
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13 pages, 6157 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Property and Small Crack Propagation Mechanism of MIG Welding Joint of 6005A-T6 Aluminum Alloy
by Zeng Peng, Shanglei Yang, Zhentao Wang and Zihao Gao
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134698 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
In this study, metal inert gas welding (MIG) was applied to 4 mm thick 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy welding. Compared with other parts, the hardness of the weld zone (WZ) was the lowest, about 67 HV. There was the Softening in WZ, which might [...] Read more.
In this study, metal inert gas welding (MIG) was applied to 4 mm thick 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy welding. Compared with other parts, the hardness of the weld zone (WZ) was the lowest, about 67 HV. There was the Softening in WZ, which might make WZ the weakest zone. Then, fatigue tests were carried out on MIG welded joints. All the fatigue specimens fractured at the weld toe of the lap joint, and the fracture was characterized by a cleavage fracture. Crack closure induced by oxide was observed during the steady propagation of the fatigue crack. Impurities hindered crack propagation, changed the direction of crack propagation, and appeared in stepped fatigue strip distribution morphology; in the process of the main crack propagation, the initiation and propagation of small cracks were easily restricted and hindered by the main crack, which slowed down the propagation rate and even stopped the propagation directly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue Crack Growth in Metallic Materials)
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15 pages, 4684 KiB  
Article
Theoretical and Experimental Models to Evaluate the Possibility of Corrosion Resistant Concrete for Coastal Offshore Structures
by Sergey Fedosov, Boris Bulgakov, Hung Xuan Ngo, Olga Aleksandrova and Vadim Solovev
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134697 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
This study built theoretical and practical models to evaluate the corrosion resistance of concrete for coastal offshore structures in Vietnam. A mathematical model was developed in the form of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations characterizing the diffusion “free calcium hydroxide” in [...] Read more.
This study built theoretical and practical models to evaluate the corrosion resistance of concrete for coastal offshore structures in Vietnam. A mathematical model was developed in the form of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations characterizing the diffusion “free calcium hydroxide” in a solid of a concrete structure. The model describes the process of non-stationary mass conductivity observed in the “concrete structure—marine environment” system under non-uniform arbitrary initial conditions, as well as combined boundary conditions of the second and third kind, taking into account the nonlinear nature of the coefficients of mass conductivity k and mass transfer β. It was shown that the solution of the boundary value problem of non-stationary mass conductivity allows us to conclude about the duration of the service life of a concrete structure, which will be determined by the processes occurring at the interface: in concrete—mass conductivity, depending on the structural and mechanical characteristics of hydraulic structures, and in the liquid phase—mass transfer, determined by the conditions of interaction at the interface of the indicated phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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22 pages, 11836 KiB  
Article
Effects of High Temperatures on the Performance of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composite Cables Protected with Fire-Retardant Materials
by Ping Zhuge, Guocheng Tao, Bing Wang, Zhiyu Jie and Zihua Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134696 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
In this study, the safe critical temperature that can be tolerated by CFRP tendons under normal working conditions was derived through tensile tests at room and high temperatures. Next, the times required to reach a safe critical temperature for CFRP cables protected with [...] Read more.
In this study, the safe critical temperature that can be tolerated by CFRP tendons under normal working conditions was derived through tensile tests at room and high temperatures. Next, the times required to reach a safe critical temperature for CFRP cables protected with different types of fire-retardant materials of various thicknesses were determined through fire resistance tests, Finally, fitting the surface of the finite element simulation results allowed the establishment of the temperature rise calculation model of CFRP tendons under the protection of fire-retardant materials. The results showed that 300 °C can be regarded as the safe critical temperature. Both high-silica needled felt and ceramic fiber felt exhibited high fireproof performance. With an increase in the thickness of the fire-retardant material, the time for the CFRP tendon to reach the inflection point of the heating rate increased, and the safe fire resistance time increased exponentially. According to the HC temperature rise curve, the fire resistance time of CFRP tendons protected by 24 mm thick high-silica needled felt was 45 min, and that for CFRP tendons protected by 24 mm thick ceramic fiber felt was 39.5 min. Under the action of fire corresponding to the hydrocarbon temperature rise model, the safe fire resistance time of CFRP tendons protected by 45 mm high-silica needled felt or 50 mm ceramic fiber felt was more than 2 h, sufficient to meet the specification. The proposed model of fire resistance performance enables the determination of the thickness of the fire resistance material required to obtain different degrees of fire resistance for CFRP cables for structural use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Technologies for Structures)
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