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Curr. Oncol., Volume 30, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Epithelial ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies. While BRCA variants elevate the risk of ovarian cancer, most cases occur in individuals without any known genetic variants, necessitating prevention strategies for people without known high-risk genetic variants. Opportunistic salpingectomy, removing fallopian tubes during planned pelvic surgery, is an emerging primary prevention strategy. Evidence of effectiveness has emerged in patients who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy for cancer prevention. This, coupled with an increased understanding of precursor lesions, has turned attention towards broadening opportunities for salpingectomy, as well as offering fallopian tube removal to people at higher-than-average lifetime risk for ovarian cancer despite not having a known genetic mutation that increases their risk. View this paper
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Communication
The Role of c-MET as a Biomarker in Patients with Bladder Cancer Treated with Radical Chemo-Radiotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10550-10555; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120770 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Background: Bladder cancer is a highly aggressive cancer, and muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) requires aggressive strategy. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) appears as a therapeutic option that allows bladder sparing. No biomarker is currently available to optimally select patients for CRT. Methods: We retrospectively [...] Read more.
Background: Bladder cancer is a highly aggressive cancer, and muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) requires aggressive strategy. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) appears as a therapeutic option that allows bladder sparing. No biomarker is currently available to optimally select patients for CRT. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients with MIUC who were treated in a curative setting with CRT. Based on c-MET expression in pre-treatment tumor tissue, patients were stratified into two groups: no expression of c-MET (group A) and expression of c-MET (group B). We evaluated the outcome of these patients based on c-MET expression. Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 13 patients were enrolled in this analysis, 8 in group A and 5 in group B. The disease recurrence was 25% in group A and 100% in group B. Compared to group A, patients from group B experienced more frequent and more rapid recurrence in terms of metastases; the 3-year metastatic recurrence rate was 13% and 100%, respectively. The c-MET expression was also associated with a higher rate of cancer-related deaths. Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis, c-MET expression was associated with worse disease-free survival and survival in patients treated radically with CRT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiotherapy for Genitourinary Cancer)
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11 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Sixth-Week Immune-Nutritional-Inflammatory Biomarkers: Can They Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10539-10549; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120769 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 964
Abstract
Background: We investigated the relationships between inflammatory markers such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), Lung Immune Prognostic Index (LIPI), and modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) to determine whether they could predict treatment response to pembrolizumab or nivolumab (immunotherapy) 6 weeks [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated the relationships between inflammatory markers such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), Lung Immune Prognostic Index (LIPI), and modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) to determine whether they could predict treatment response to pembrolizumab or nivolumab (immunotherapy) 6 weeks after the start of treatment (post-treatment). Methods: We included all patients with lung cancer treated with immunotherapy. We examined the biomarker trends and explored their associations with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and response rate (RR) at 6 weeks. Results: Eighty-three patients were enrolled in the study. The presence of liver metastasis, low post-treatment NLR (<5), low post-treatment PLR (<170), intermediate post-treatment LIPI, and immune-related adverse events were significantly associated with the response. The multivariate analysis revealed that high post-treatment NLRs ≥ 5 (p = 0.004) and PLRs ≥ 170 (p ≤ 0.001) were independent prognostic factors of shorter OS. A good LIPI status was associated with better PFS (p = 0.020) and OS (p = 0.065). Post-treatment mGPS (0–2) was significantly associated with improved PFS (p = 0.009) and OS (p = 0.064). Conclusions: Post-treatment NLR, PLR, LIPI, and mGPS are associated with worse OS and recurrence. These findings should be independently and prospectively validated in further studies. Full article
9 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Breast Volume Is a Predictor of Higher Heart Dose in Whole-Breast Supine Free-Breathing Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Planning
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10530-10538; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120768 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 726
Abstract
In breast cancer volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning, the rotation of the gantry around the target implies a greater dose spreading to the whole heart, compared to tangential-field standard treatment. A consecutive cohort of 121 breast cancer patients treated with the VMAT technique [...] Read more.
In breast cancer volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning, the rotation of the gantry around the target implies a greater dose spreading to the whole heart, compared to tangential-field standard treatment. A consecutive cohort of 121 breast cancer patients treated with the VMAT technique was investigated. The correlation of breast volume, heart volume and lung volume with mean heart dose (mHD) and mean and maximum LAD dose (mLAD dose, MLAD dose) was tested, and a subsequent a linear regression analysis was carried out. VMAT treatment plans from 56 left breast cancer and 65 right breast cancer patients were analyzed. For right-sided patients, breast volume was significantly correlated with mHD, mLAD and MLAD dose, while for left-sided patients, breast volume was significantly correlated with mHD and mLAD, while heart volume and lung volume were correlated with mHD, mLAD and MLAD dose. Breast volume was the only predictor of increased heart and LAD dose (p ≤ 0.001) for right-sided patients. In left-sided patients, heart and lung were also predictors of increased mHD (p = 0.005, p ≤ 0.001) and mean LAD dose (p = 0.009, p ≤ 0.001). In this study, we observed an increase in heart and LAD doses in larger-breasted patients treated with VMAT planning. In right-sided patients, breast volume was shown to be the only predictor of increased heart dose and LAD dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Radiation Therapies)
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11 pages, 7474 KiB  
Case Report
Treatment Response of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma to Palliative Intent Immunotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10519-10529; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120767 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The use of PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor medications has become a common practice in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Success in this setting has led to the investigation of their efficacy in locally advanced cases as a [...] Read more.
The use of PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor medications has become a common practice in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Success in this setting has led to the investigation of their efficacy in locally advanced cases as a part of first-line therapy. In this report, we detail the treatment response to palliative intent immunotherapy of three geriatric patients with mandibular gingival squamous-cell carcinoma who decided against surgical intervention. Patient #1 was treated with pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, and displayed complete clinical and radiologic response of the gingival mass after three months of treatment, which is ongoing at 19 months from initiation. Patients #2 and 3 are each on treatment with single-agent pembrolizumab, with partial response of their tumors, minimal side effects, and ongoing response at 9 and 5 months of treatment, respectively. Durable clinical treatment response to palliative immunotherapy, as is evident in this report, warrants further consideration and investigation in the geriatric population. With appropriate patient selection, surgery may be avoided and allow patients to prioritize quality of life over curative intent surgery. Full article
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10 pages, 279 KiB  
Brief Report
Exploring a Rarity: Incidence of and Therapeutic Approaches for Neurological Complications and Hypophysitis in Cancer Patients on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors—A Single-Center Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10509-10518; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120766 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors, have become the standard of care for many cancer types. However, they induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including neurotoxicity and hypophysitis. The incidence and outcomes of neurotoxicity and hypophysitis in patients treated with immune [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors, have become the standard of care for many cancer types. However, they induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including neurotoxicity and hypophysitis. The incidence and outcomes of neurotoxicity and hypophysitis in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are not well established. We conducted a retrospective study of 812 patients with solid cancers who received immune checkpoint inhibitors at the University General Hospital of Ioannina between January 2018 and January 2023. We assessed demographic and clinical data, including the severity of symptoms, treatment regimen, other irAEs, resolution type and time, and death. Two patients experienced neurotoxicity and two hypophysitis. All four patients required inpatient administration and received corticosteroids or/and hormone replacement. Three patients responded to the initial therapy, experiencing full recovery, while one patient was corticosteroid-resistant, and immunoglobin G was administered. Two patients never received immunotherapy after their toxicity due to the severity of symptoms; one patient continued monotherapy with nivolumab, changing from combination therapy with ipilimumab–nivolumab, while the fourth patient continued his initial treatment with nivolumab. Our study suggests that the incidence of neurotoxicity and hypophysitis in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors is low, but careful monitoring and prompt treatment with corticosteroids are necessary for effective management. Full article
8 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Sexual Outcomes after Conservative Management for Patients with Localized Penile Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10501-10508; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120765 - 17 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Background: Men with localized invasive penile cancer (PC) can be treated with organ-sparing treatments with different functional and aesthetical outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate sexual outcomes in patients with PC confined to the glans that underwent wide local [...] Read more.
Background: Men with localized invasive penile cancer (PC) can be treated with organ-sparing treatments with different functional and aesthetical outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate sexual outcomes in patients with PC confined to the glans that underwent wide local excision (WLE) vs. glansectomy with urethral glanduloplasty. Methods: Complete data from 60 patients with PC were analyzed at our institution from 2017 to 2022. Patients were asked for personal habits and clinical features. PC was assessed with a clinical visit and imaging techniques. At the outpatient follow-up visit or phone call, all patients compiled the Changes in Sexual Function Questionnaire (CSFQ) and the International Index of Erectile Function in its short 5-item form (IIEF-5). Erectile function (EF) impairment was categorized using Cappelleri’s criteria. Results: Overall, 34 patients with PC confined to the glans (c ≤ T2N0) were included. Of those, 12 underwent WLE and 22 underwent glansectomy with urethral glanduloplasty. Using multivariable logistic regression, glansectomy (OR: 3.49) and diabetes (OR: 2.33) were associated with erectile disfunction (IEEF < 22). Meanwhile, using multivariable linear regression analysis, younger patients (Coeff: −2.41) and those that underwent glansectomy (Coeff: −7.5) had a higher risk of sexual function impairment, according to the CSFQ. Conclusions: Patients with PC ≤ T2N0 that underwent WLE have better outcomes in terms of sexual functioning than the patients who underwent glansectomy and uretheral gladuloplasty. Further research is needed to clarify the outcomes of penile-sparing surgery, to inform patients in pre-surgical counseling more comprehensively, and to meet their post-operative expectations more effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Article
Ibrutinib Plus RCHOP versus RCHOP Only in Young Patients with Activated B-Cell-like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL): A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10488-10500; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120764 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
The standard treatment for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP). However, many patients require subsequent treatment after relapsed disease. The ABC subtype of DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) has a worse prognosis, and the PHOENIX trial explored adding ibrutinib [...] Read more.
The standard treatment for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP). However, many patients require subsequent treatment after relapsed disease. The ABC subtype of DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) has a worse prognosis, and the PHOENIX trial explored adding ibrutinib to RCHOP for this patient population. The trial showed favorable outcomes for younger patients, and our study aimed to inform clinical decision-making via a cost-effectiveness model to compare RCHOP with and without ibrutinib (I-RCHOP). A Markov decision analysis model was designed to compare the treatments for patients younger than 60 years with ABC-DLBCL. The model considered treatment pathways, adverse events, relapses, and death, incorporating data on salvage treatments and novel therapies. The results indicated that I-RCHOP was more cost-effective, with greater quality-adjusted life years (QALY, 15.48 years vs. 14.25 years) and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CAD 34,111.45/QALY compared to RCHOP only. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the model’s robustness. Considering the high market price for ibrutinib, I-RCHOP may be more costly. However, it is suggested as the preferred cost-effective strategy for younger patients due to its benefits in adverse events, overall survival, and quality of life. The decision analytic model provided relevant and robust results to inform clinical decision-making. Full article
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11 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Shorter Durations of Anti-HER2 Therapy for Patients with Early-Stage, HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: The Physician Perspective
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10477-10487; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120763 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Despite evidence from clinical trials showing the efficacy of shorter durations of therapy, most HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) patients receive a year of anti-HER2 therapy. A survey of Canadian oncologists was conducted online, with electronic data collection, and the analysis is reported [...] Read more.
Despite evidence from clinical trials showing the efficacy of shorter durations of therapy, most HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) patients receive a year of anti-HER2 therapy. A survey of Canadian oncologists was conducted online, with electronic data collection, and the analysis is reported descriptively. Measures collected included current practices with respect to the duration of adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy, perspectives on data regarding shorter durations of treatment, and interest in further trials on this subject. Responses were received from 42 providers across Canada. Half (50%, 21/42) reported having never recommended 6 months of anti-HER2 therapy. The primary reason physicians consider a shorter duration is in response to treatment-related toxicities (76%, 31/41). Most participants (79%, 33/42) expressed the need for more data to determine which patients can be safely and effectively treated with shorter durations. Patient factors such as young age, initial stage, hormone receptor status, and type of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were attributed to reluctance to offer shorter durations of treatment. Many respondents (83%, 35/42) expressed interest in participating in the proposed clinical trial of 6 months of anti-HER2 therapy. In contemporary Canadian practice, 12 months of anti-HER2 therapy remains the primary practice. Future trials are required to better define the role of shorter treatment durations. Full article
14 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Low-Frequency PPM1D Gene Mutations Affect Treatment Response to CD19-Targeted CAR T-Cell Therapy in Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10463-10476; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120762 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T)-cell therapy has become a standard treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL). Mutations in the PPM1D gene, a frequent driver alteration in clonal hematopoiesis (CH), lead to a gain of [...] Read more.
Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T)-cell therapy has become a standard treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL). Mutations in the PPM1D gene, a frequent driver alteration in clonal hematopoiesis (CH), lead to a gain of function of PPM1D/Wip1 phosphatase, impairing p53-dependent G1 checkpoint and promoting cell proliferation. The presence of PPM1D mutations has been correlated with reduced response to standard chemotherapy in lymphoma patients. In this study, we analyzed the impact of low-frequency PPM1D mutations on the safety and efficacy of CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy in a cohort of 85 r/r DLBCL patients. In this cohort, the prevalence of PPM1D gene mutations was 20% with a mean variant allele frequency (VAF) of 0.052 and a median VAF of 0.036. CAR T-induced cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neuro-toxicities (ICANS) occurred at similar frequencies in patients with and without PPM1D mutations. Clinical outcomes were globally worse in the PPM1D mutated (PPM1Dmut) vs. PPM1D wild type (PPM1Dwt) subset. While the prevalent treatment outcome within the PPM1Dwt subgroup was complete remission (56%), the majority of patients within the PPM1Dmut subgroup had only partial remission (60%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3 vs. 12 months (p = 0.07) and median overall survival (OS) was 5 vs. 37 months (p = 0.004) for the PPM1Dmut and PPM1Dwt cohort, respectively. Our data suggest that the occurrence of PPM1D mutations in the context of CH may predict worse outcomes after CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy in patients with r/r DLBCL. Full article
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13 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
Regulatory and Interacting Partners of PDLIM7 in Thyroid Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10450-10462; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120761 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Enigma protein, encoded by the PDLIM7 gene, is overexpressed in thyroid cancer in a stage-dependent manner, suggesting a potential involvement in the initiation and progression of thyroid cancer. The Enigma interacts with several cellular pathways, including PI3K/AKT, MDM2, and BMP-1. The Enigma is [...] Read more.
Enigma protein, encoded by the PDLIM7 gene, is overexpressed in thyroid cancer in a stage-dependent manner, suggesting a potential involvement in the initiation and progression of thyroid cancer. The Enigma interacts with several cellular pathways, including PI3K/AKT, MDM2, and BMP-1. The Enigma is regulated by microRNAs. Specifically, we showed that the Enigma protein upregulation corresponds to the downregulation of Let-7 family genes. There is limited research on the interactions and regulation of the Enigma with other proteins/genes in thyroid cancer tissues, indicating a gap in current knowledge. Our aim is to establish the Enigma as a biomarker. We also aim to study the interacting partners of the Enigma signaling pathways and their probable miRNA regulation in thyroid cancer progression. Using Western blotting, densitometric analysis, immunoprecipitation (IP), and reverse IP, we detected the protein expression and protein–protein interactions in the corresponding papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Utilizing real-time qPCR assay and Pearson’s correlation test, we highlighted the correlation between PDLIM7 and Let-7g gene expression in the same tissues. The results showed the differential upregulations of the Enigma protein in different stages of PTCs compared to benign tissues along with AKT, VDR, BMP-1, and MDM2 proteins. Loss of DBP was observed in a subset of PTCs. Strong interactions of the Enigma with PI3K/AKT and MDM2 were noted, along with a weaker BMP-1 interaction. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis between PDLIM7 and let-7g gene expression was significant (p < 0.05); however, there was a weak inverse correlation (r = −0.27). The study suggests the potential utility of the PDLIM7-qPCR assay as a biomarker for thyroid cancer. The Enigma’s interactions with key signaling pathways may provide valuable insights into the development of thyroid cancer. The study contributes to understanding the molecular mechanisms involving the Enigma protein in thyroid cancer and highlights its potential as a biomarker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic From Basic Research to a Clinical Perspective in Oncology)
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13 pages, 617 KiB  
Article
Anastomosis Complications after Bronchoplasty: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Options Reported by a Referral Cancer Center
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10437-10449; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120760 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Background: Sleeve lobectomy with bronchoplasty is a safe surgical technique for the management of lung cancer and endobronchial localization of extrapulmonary cancers. However, anastomotic complications can occur, and treatment strategies are not standardized. Methods: Data from 280 patients subjected to bronchoplasty were retrospectively [...] Read more.
Background: Sleeve lobectomy with bronchoplasty is a safe surgical technique for the management of lung cancer and endobronchial localization of extrapulmonary cancers. However, anastomotic complications can occur, and treatment strategies are not standardized. Methods: Data from 280 patients subjected to bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on surgical techniques, anastomotic complications, and their management. Multivariate analysis was performed, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine survival. Results: Ninety percent of 280 surgeries were for lung cancer. Anastomotic complications occurred in 6.42% of patients: late stenosis in 3.92% and broncho-pleural fistula in 1.78%. The median survival was 65.90 months (95% CI = 41.76–90.97), with no difference (p = 0.375) for patients with (51.28 months) or without (71.03 months) anastomotic complications. Mortality at 30 days was higher with anastomotic complications (16.7% vs. 3%, p = 0.014). Multivariable analysis confirmed pathological stage (N+) as a risk factor for anastomotic complications (p = 0.016). Our mortality (3.93%) and morbidity rate (41.78%) corresponded to recent series results. Conclusions: In our experience, surgery is preferred to avoid life-threatening complications in bronchopleural fistulas. Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation is preferred for benign strictures. The nodal stage is related to complications (p = 0.0014), reflecting the aggressiveness of surgery, which requires extended radical lymphadenectomy. Full article
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27 pages, 2048 KiB  
Guidelines
The Clinical Utility of FLT3 Mutation Testing in Acute Leukemia: A Canadian Consensus
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10410-10436; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120759 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations are detected in approximately 20–30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with the presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation being associated with an inferior outcome. Assessment of FLT3 mutational [...] Read more.
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations are detected in approximately 20–30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with the presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation being associated with an inferior outcome. Assessment of FLT3 mutational status is now essential to define optimal upfront treatment in both newly diagnosed and relapsed AML, to support post-induction allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) decision-making, and to evaluate treatment response via measurable (minimal) residual disease (MRD) evaluation. In view of its importance in AML diagnosis and management, the Canadian Leukemia Study Group/Groupe canadien d’étude sur la leucémie (CLSG/GCEL) undertook the development of a consensus statement on the clinical utility of FLT3 mutation testing, as members reported considerable inter-center variability across Canada with respect to testing availability and timing of use, methodology, and interpretation. The CLSG/GCEL panel identified key clinical and hematopathological questions, including: (1) which patients should be tested for FLT3 mutations, and when?; (2) which is the preferred method for FLT3 mutation testing?; (3) what is the clinical relevance of FLT3-ITD size, insertion site, and number of distinct FLT3-ITDs?; (4) is there a role for FLT3 analysis in MRD assessment?; (5) what is the clinical relevance of the FLT3-ITD allelic burden?; and (6) how should results of FLT3 mutation testing be reported? The panel followed an evidence-based approach, taken together with Canadian clinical and laboratory experience and expertise, to create a consensus document to facilitate a more uniform approach to AML diagnosis and treatment across Canada. Full article
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2 pages, 178 KiB  
Editorial
Oncology Workforce Crisis: Let’s Work Smarter, Not Harder
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10408-10409; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120758 - 11 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
Editorial: Cancer projections in Canada are bleak, with the average annual number of new cancer diagnoses expected to be 79% higher in 2028–2032 compared to 2003–2007 [...] Full article
12 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Durvalumab-Associated Pneumonitis in Patients with Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Real-World Population Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10396-10407; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120757 - 09 Dec 2023
Viewed by 897
Abstract
The PACIFIC trial led to a new standard of care for patients with locally advanced lung cancer, but real-world practice has demonstrated that immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) pneumonitis can lead to significant clinical complications. This study aimed to examine the clinical predictors, outcomes, [...] Read more.
The PACIFIC trial led to a new standard of care for patients with locally advanced lung cancer, but real-world practice has demonstrated that immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) pneumonitis can lead to significant clinical complications. This study aimed to examine the clinical predictors, outcomes, and healthcare utilization data in patients who received consolidation durvalumab. Using the Alberta Immunotherapy Database, NSCLC patients who received durvalumab in Alberta, Canada, from January 2018 to December 2021 were retrospectively evaluated. We examined incidence and predictive values of severe pneumonitis, with overall survival (OS) and time-to-treatment failure (TTF) using exploratory multivariate analyses. Of 189 patients, 91% were ECOG 0–1 and 85% had a partial response from chemoradiation prior to durvalumab. Median TTF and OS were not reached; 1-year OS was 82%. An amount of 26% developed any grade of pneumonitis; 9% had ≥grade 3 pneumonitis. Male gender and a pre-existing autoimmune condition were associated with severe pneumonitis. V20 was associated with any grade of pneumonitis. Pneumonitis development was found to be an independent risk factor for worse OS (p = 0.038) and TTF (p = 0.007). Our results suggest clinical and dosimetric predictive factors of durvalumab-associated pneumonitis. These results affirm the importance of careful patient selection for safe completion of consolidation durvalumab in real-world LA-NSCLC population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy in Thoracic Malignancies)
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11 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Nodal Failure in Patients with FIGO IIIC Cervical Cancer Receiving Definitive Image-Guided Radiotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10385-10395; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120756 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Background: Nodal failure is a major failure pattern for patients with FIGO IIIC cervical cancer, which is further associated with worse survival. This study was designed to investigate risk factors for nodal failure in FIGO IIIC cervical cancer patients. Methods: The characteristics of [...] Read more.
Background: Nodal failure is a major failure pattern for patients with FIGO IIIC cervical cancer, which is further associated with worse survival. This study was designed to investigate risk factors for nodal failure in FIGO IIIC cervical cancer patients. Methods: The characteristics of positive lymph nodes (LNs) and relevant clinical factors of 162 FIGO IIIC cervical cancer patients were collected. The chi-square test and logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for nodal failure. Results: In total, 368 positive LNs were identified, including 307 pelvic LNs and 61 para-aortic LNs. The nodal failure rates for all LNs, pelvic LNs, and para-aortic LNs were 9.2%, 7.8%, and 16.4%, respectively. After 20 fractions of RT, a nodal short diameter (D20F) ≥ 0.95 cm and a ratio of nodal shrinkage (ΔV20F) < 0.435 resulted; <4 cycles of chemotherapy indicated higher nodal failure rates for all LNs. For pelvic LNs, ΔV20F < 0.435 and <4 cycles of chemotherapy were associated with a higher incidence of nodal failure. For para-aortic LNs, ΔV20F < 0.435 was the only risk factor for nodal failure. Conclusions: Para-aortic LNs were more likely to experience nodal failure than pelvic LNs. Nodal shrinkage during radiotherapy and cycles of chemotherapy were associated with nodal failure in patients with FIGO IIIC cervical cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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22 pages, 1060 KiB  
Guidelines
Canadian Consensus Recommendations for the Management of Operable Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a Modified Delphi Process
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10363-10384; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120755 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
The treatment paradigm for patients with stage II/III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is rapidly evolving. We performed a modified Delphi process culminating at the Early-stage Lung cancer International eXpert Retreat (ELIXR23) meeting held in Montreal, Canada, in June 2023. Participants included medical and [...] Read more.
The treatment paradigm for patients with stage II/III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is rapidly evolving. We performed a modified Delphi process culminating at the Early-stage Lung cancer International eXpert Retreat (ELIXR23) meeting held in Montreal, Canada, in June 2023. Participants included medical and radiation oncologists, thoracic surgeons and pathologists from across Quebec. Statements relating to diagnosis and treatment paradigms in the preoperative, operative and postoperative time periods were generated and modified until all held a high level of consensus. These statements are aimed to help guide clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with stage II/III NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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12 pages, 465 KiB  
Article
Factors Predictive of Positive Lymph Nodes for Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10351-10362; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120754 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Background: Axillary node status is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. The primary aim was to evaluate tumor size and other characteristics relative to axillary disease. Materials and Methods: Single institution retrospective chart review of stage I-III breast cancer patients collected demographic [...] Read more.
Background: Axillary node status is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. The primary aim was to evaluate tumor size and other characteristics relative to axillary disease. Materials and Methods: Single institution retrospective chart review of stage I-III breast cancer patients collected demographic and clinical/pathologic data from 1998–2019. Student’s t-test, Chi-squared test (or Fisher exact test if applicable), and logistic regression models were used for testing the association of pN+ to predictive variables. Results: Of 728 patients (mean age 59 yrs) with mean follow up of 50 months, 86% were estrogen receptor +, 10% Her2+, 78% ER+HER2−negative, and 10% triple-negative. In total, 351/728 (48.2%) were pN+ and mean tumor size was larger in pN+ cases compared to pN− cases (mean = 27.7 mm versus 15.5 mm) (p < 0.001). By univariate analysis, pN+ was associated with lymphovascular invasion (LVI), higher grade, Her2, and histology (p < 0.005). Tumor-to-nipple distance was shorter in pN+ compared to pN− (45 mm v. 62 mm; p< 0.001). Age < 60, LVI, recurrence, mastectomy, larger tumor size, and shorter tumor-nipple distance were associated with 3+ positive nodes (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Larger tumor size and shorter tumor-nipple distance were associated with higher lymph node positivity. Age less than 60, LVI, recurrence, mastectomy, larger tumor size, and shorter tumor-nipple distance were all associated with 3+ positive lymph nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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15 pages, 1295 KiB  
Article
Head and Neck Cancer: A Study on the Complex Relationship between QoL and Swallowing Function
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10336-10350; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120753 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is linked to significant morbidity, adversely affecting survival and functional capacity. Post-treatment challenges such as pain, dysphonia, and dysphagia are common, prompting increased attention in survivorship research. Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires, especially the MD Anderson [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is linked to significant morbidity, adversely affecting survival and functional capacity. Post-treatment challenges such as pain, dysphonia, and dysphagia are common, prompting increased attention in survivorship research. Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires, especially the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), are prevalent outcome measures in clinical studies but often lack parallel objective swallowing function evaluations, leading to potential outcome discrepancies. This study aimed to illuminate the relationship between subjective QoL (EQ-5D-5L and MDADI) measures and objective swallowing function (evaluated via Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, FEES) in patients with HNSCC. The analysis revealed a notable discordance between objective measures of swallowing function, such as the Penetration–Aspiration Scale (PAS) and residue ratings in the vallecula or piriform sinus, and patients’ subjective QoL assessments (p = 0.21). Despite the lack of correlation, swallowing-related QoL, as measured by the MDADI, was more indicative of disease severity than generic QoL assessments. Generic QoL scores did not demonstrate substantial variation between patients. In contrast, MDADI scores significantly declined with advancing tumor stage, multimodal therapy, and reliance on feeding tubes. However, the clinical significance of this finding was tempered by the less than 10-point difference in MDADI scores. The findings of this study underline the limitations of QoL measures as standalone assessments in patients with HNSCC, given their reliance on patient-perceived impairment. While subjective QoL is a crucial aspect of evaluating therapeutic success and patient-centric outcomes, it may fail to capture critical clinical details such as silent aspirations. Consequently, QoL assessments should be augmented by objective evaluations of swallowing function in clinical research and practice to ensure a holistic understanding of patient well-being and treatment impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Outcome among Cancer Survivors)
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11 pages, 3197 KiB  
Article
Trends in Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) for Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Cholangiocarcinoma, and Liver Metastasis: A Total Population Analysis from 2006 to 2021 in Germany
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10325-10335; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120752 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate trends in selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCC), and liver metastasis in Germany. We analyzed the nationwide German hospital billing database from 2006 to 2019 for the diagnosis of HCC, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate trends in selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCC), and liver metastasis in Germany. We analyzed the nationwide German hospital billing database from 2006 to 2019 for the diagnosis of HCC, CCC or liver metastasis in combination with SIRT. For analyses of SIRT on the hospital level, we used the reimbursement.INFO tool based on German hospitals’ quality reports from 2008 to 2021. Linear regression analysis was performed to detect changes over time. We included a total of 14,165 SIRT procedures. The annual numbers increased from 99 in 2006 to 1605 in 2015 (p < 0.001; increase by 1521%), decreasing to 1175 cases in 2019 (p < 0.001). In 2008, 6 of 21 hospitals (28.6%) performed more than 20 SIRTs per year, which increased to 19 of 53 (35.8%) in 2021. The share of SIRT for HCC increased from 29.8% in 2006 to 44.7% in 2019 (p < 0.001) and for CCC from 0% in 2006 to 9.5% in 2019 (p < 0.001), while the share of SIRT for liver metastasis decreased from 70.2% in 2006 to 45.7% in 2019 (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was 0.2% after the SIRT procedure. Gastritis (2.7%), liver failure (0.4%), and sepsis (0.3%) were the most common in-hospital complications reported. We observed an increase in SIRT procedures in Germany, with the number of hospitals offering the procedure going up from 21 in 2008 to 53 in 2021. While the treatment of liver metastasis remains the most common indication, SIRT for HCC and CCC increased significantly over the last few years. The mortality and complication rates show that SIRT is a relatively safe procedure. Full article
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14 pages, 1597 KiB  
Systematic Review
Combining Novel Hormonal Therapies with a Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Emerging Evidence
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10311-10324; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120751 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested potential synergies of combining poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and novel hormonal therapies (NHT) for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We systematically searched PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and ASCO-GU annual meeting abstracts up to March 2023 to [...] Read more.
Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested potential synergies of combining poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and novel hormonal therapies (NHT) for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We systematically searched PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and ASCO-GU annual meeting abstracts up to March 2023 to identify potential phase III trials reporting the use of combining PARP inhibitors with NHT in the first-line setting for mCRPC. A total of four phase III trials met the criteria for subsequent review. Emerging data suggested that the radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) was significantly longer in the PARP inhibitor combined with NHT group versus the placebo plus NHT group for the first-line setting of biomarker-unselected mCRPC patients, especially for patients with homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutation (HRR m), and with the greatest benefit for BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCA1/2 m) populations. Final overall survival (OS) data of the PROpel trial indicated a significant improvement in median OS for mCRPC patients with HRR m and BRCA1/2 m receiving olaparib + abiraterone. Prior taxane-based chemotherapy might not influence the efficacy of the combination. Compared with the current standard-of-care therapies, combining NHT with PARP inhibitors could achieve a significant survival benefit in the first-line setting for mCRPC patients with HRR and BRCA1/2 mutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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12 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Prostate MRI: Correlation between Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Parameters
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10299-10310; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120750 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
This research aimed to assess the relationship between contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) values and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters including (Ktrans, Kep, Ve, and iAUC). To evaluate the correlation between the MRF-derived values (T1 and [...] Read more.
This research aimed to assess the relationship between contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) values and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters including (Ktrans, Kep, Ve, and iAUC). To evaluate the correlation between the MRF-derived values (T1 and T2 values, CE T1 and T2 values, T1 and T2 change) and DCE-MRI parameters and the differences in the parameters between prostate cancer and noncancer lesions in 68 patients, two radiologists independently drew regions-of-interest (ROIs) at the focal prostate lesions. Prostate cancer was identified in 75% (51/68) of patients. The CE T2 value was significantly lower in prostate cancer than in noncancer lesions in the peripheral zone and transition zone. Ktrans, Kep, and iAUC were significantly higher in prostate cancer than noncancer lesions in the peripheral zone (p < 0.05), but not in the transition zone. The CE T1 value was significantly correlated with Ktrans, Ve, and iAUC in prostate cancer, and the CE T2 value was correlated to Ve in noncancer. Some CE MRF values are different between prostate cancer and noncancer tissues and correlate with DCE-MRI parameters. Prostate cancer and noncancer tissues may have different characteristics regarding contrast enhancement. Full article
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16 pages, 340 KiB  
Review
Incorporating Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy into the Multidisciplinary Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10283-10298; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120749 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has challenged the conventional wisdom surrounding the radioresistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the past decade, there has been a significant accumulation of clinical data to support the safety and efficacy of SABR in RCC. Herein, we review [...] Read more.
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has challenged the conventional wisdom surrounding the radioresistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the past decade, there has been a significant accumulation of clinical data to support the safety and efficacy of SABR in RCC. Herein, we review the use of SABR across the spectrum of RCC. We performed an online search of the Pubmed database from January 1990 through April 2023. Studies of SABR/stereotactic radiosurgery targeting primary, extracranial, and intracranial metastatic RCC were included. For SABR in non-metastatic RCC, this includes its use in small renal masses, larger renal masses, and inferior vena cava tumor thrombi. In the metastatic setting, SABR can be used at diagnosis, for oligometastatic and oligoprogressive disease, and for symptomatic reasons. Notably, SABR can be used for both the primary renal tumor and metastasis-directed therapy. Management of RCC is evolving rapidly, and the role that SABR will have in this landscape is being assessed in a number of ongoing prospective clinical trials. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the evidence corroborating the use of SABR in RCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renal Cell Carcinoma Management)
11 pages, 494 KiB  
Article
Combined Interval Cytoreductive Surgery and Carboplatin-Based Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Advanced Primary High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10272-10282; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120748 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 824
Abstract
Combining interval cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) improves survival in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Although limited, growing evidence regarding carboplatin-based HIPEC highlights its potential. This retrospective study included all patients with advanced primary high-grade serous ovarian cancer who underwent [...] Read more.
Combining interval cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) improves survival in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Although limited, growing evidence regarding carboplatin-based HIPEC highlights its potential. This retrospective study included all patients with advanced primary high-grade serous ovarian cancer who underwent interval CRS combined with carboplatin-based HIPEC at our Canadian tertiary care center between 2014 and 2020. We identified 40 patients with a median age of 61 years. The median peritoneal cancer index was 13 and complete cytoreduction was achieved in 38 patients (95%). Median hospital stay was 13 days and there were four admissions to the intensive care unit (10%) and six readmissions (15%). Severe adverse events occurred in eight patients (20%) and there was no perioperative death. Recurrence was seen in 33 patients (82%) with a median DFS of 18.0 months and a median overall survival of 36.4 months. Multivariate analyses showed that age, peritoneal cancer index, completeness of cytoreduction, occurrence of severe complications, and bowel resection did not significantly impact DFS or OS in our cohort. Interval CRS combined with carboplatin-based HIPEC for advanced primary EOC is associated with acceptable morbidity and oncological outcomes. Larger studies are required to determine the long-term outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgery Advances in Gynecologic Tumors)
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12 pages, 1931 KiB  
Case Report
Long-Term Follow-Up of Tamoxifen Treatment and the Use of Imaging in Psammocarcinoma: A Case Report, Review of the Literature and Discussion of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10260-10271; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120747 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Psammocarcinoma (PsC) represents a rare form of low-grade serous tumor of the ovary or peritoneum. Although ovarian cancer generally has a poor prognosis in its late stages, PsC seems to have a more indolent course. We present a patient with a history of [...] Read more.
Psammocarcinoma (PsC) represents a rare form of low-grade serous tumor of the ovary or peritoneum. Although ovarian cancer generally has a poor prognosis in its late stages, PsC seems to have a more indolent course. We present a patient with a history of unspecific abdominal pain for more than a year, with sudden acute onset of severe inguinal pain. On admission to the hospital, a computed tomography (CT) revealed a pelvic mass of suspected ovarian origin. Radical surgery was attempted but not achieved due to widespread tumor growth. Histopathological evaluation revealed estrogen receptor-positive stage III PsC. Tamoxifen treatment was thus initiated, still maintaining stable disease 10 years later. The patient has undergone extensive radiological work-up, including CT, chest X-ray, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, 99mTc- hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) bone scintigraphy, 18F-fluoro-thymidine (FLT) PET/CT, Tc-99m depreotide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PsC has characteristic radiological features and different imaging modalities can be suitable in different clinical situations. In contrast to most other ovarian cancers, PsC does not always warrant adjuvant chemotherapy, even in advanced stages. This emphasizes the need for a deeper knowledge of the biological behavior of this rare tumor, to select the optimal treatment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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11 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Breakthrough and Episodic Cancer Pain from a Palliative Care Perspective
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10249-10259; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120746 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Cancer pain intensity (PI) fluctuates, but the relationship between pain flares and background pain with respect to pain management is not settled. We studied how flare and background PIs corresponded with treatment results for background cancer pain. Patients admitted to an acute palliative [...] Read more.
Cancer pain intensity (PI) fluctuates, but the relationship between pain flares and background pain with respect to pain management is not settled. We studied how flare and background PIs corresponded with treatment results for background cancer pain. Patients admitted to an acute palliative care unit with average and/or worst PI ≥ 1 on the 11-point numeric rating scale were included. Average and worst PI at admission and average PI at discharge were collected. We examined how the difference and ratio between worst and average PI and average PI at admission, were associated with average PI development during hospitalization. Positive differences between worst and average PI at admission were defined as pain flares. Ninety out of 131 patients had pain flares. The reduction in average PI for patients with flares was 0.9 and for those without, 1.9 (p = 0.02). Patients with large worst minus average PI differences reported the least improvement, as did those with large worst/average PI ratios. Patients with pain flares and average PI ≤ 4 at admission had unchanged average PI during hospitalization, while those with pain flares and average PI > 4 experienced pain reduction (2.1, p < 0.001). Large pain flares, in absolute values and compared to background PI, were associated with inferior pain relief. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palliative Care and Supportive Medicine in Cancer)
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12 pages, 241 KiB  
Case Report
Simultaneous Occurrence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series with Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10237-10248; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120745 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of differentiated TC, while medullary TC (MTC) accounts for 4%. The concomitant presence of PTC and MTC is rare. Methods: This is a retrospective, single-center observational study conducted over 16 years (2001–2017). The [...] Read more.
Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of differentiated TC, while medullary TC (MTC) accounts for 4%. The concomitant presence of PTC and MTC is rare. Methods: This is a retrospective, single-center observational study conducted over 16 years (2001–2017). The data were collected from the clinical records of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy at the Endocrine Unit-Department of Medicine of the University Hospital of Pisa, Italy. Results: Over 690 analyzed cases, 650 (94.2%) were exclusive DTC, 19 exclusive MTC (2.75%) and 5 PTC/MTC (0.7%). No case of mixed medullary/follicular TC or hereditary MTC (familial MTC/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2) was found. Among the five PTC/MTC cases, there was a male prevalence (M:F = 3:2), and all PTC components were at stage I, whereas 40% of MTC were at stage I and III and 20% of MTC were at stage II; microPTC (mPTC) was prevalent (80%) and also microMTCs were frequent (40%); 60% of MTC patients recovered, while 40% of patients developed metastatic disease. The search for germline mutations of the RET gene resulted in being negative in all cases. Conclusions: The incidence of PTC/MTC has been increasing over the past 30 years. The etiology of PTC/MTC forms is still unknown, and although this simultaneous occurrence could be only a coincidence, we cannot exclude the hypothesis of a shared genetic origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Head and Neck Oncology)
13 pages, 1743 KiB  
Review
Patient Adherence to Oral Anticancer Agents: A Mapping Review of Supportive Interventions
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10224-10236; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120744 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
The development and use of oral anticancer agents (OAAs) continue to grow, and supporting individuals on OAAs is now a priority as they find themselves taking these drugs at home with little professional guidance. This mapping review provides an overview of the current [...] Read more.
The development and use of oral anticancer agents (OAAs) continue to grow, and supporting individuals on OAAs is now a priority as they find themselves taking these drugs at home with little professional guidance. This mapping review provides an overview of the current evidence concerning OAA-supportive adherence interventions, identifying potential gaps, and making recommendations to guide future work. Four large databases and the grey literature were searched for publications from 2010 to 2022. Quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method, theses/dissertations, reports, and abstracts were included, whereas protocols and reviews were excluded. Duplicates were removed, and the remaining publications were screened by title and abstract. Full-text publications were assessed and those meeting the inclusion criteria were retained. Data extracted included the year of publication, theoretical underpinnings, study design, targeted patients, sample size, intervention type, and primary outcome(s). 3175 publications were screened, with 435 fully read. Of these, 314 were excluded with 120 retained. Of the 120 publications, 39.2% (n = 47) were observational studies, 38.3% (n = 46) were quasi-experimental, and 16.7% (n = 20) were experimental. Only 17.5% (n = 21) were theory-based. Despite the known efficacy of multi-modal interventions, 63.7% (n = 76) contained one or two modalities, 33.3% (n = 40) included 3, and 3.3% (n = 4) contained four types of modalities. Medication adherence was measured primarily through self-report (n = 31) or chart review/pharmacy refills (n = 28). Given the importance of patient tailored interventions, future work should test whether having four intervention modalities (behavioral, educational, medical, and technological) guided by theory can optimize OAA-related outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
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13 pages, 283 KiB  
Review
Sequencing Antibody Drug Conjugates in Breast Cancer: Exploring Future Roles
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10211-10223; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120743 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) have emerged as a highly effective treatment strategy across breast cancer (BC) subtypes, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+), hormone-receptor positive (ER/PR+), and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Over the past twenty years, ADCs have undergone relevant evolutions, [...] Read more.
Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) have emerged as a highly effective treatment strategy across breast cancer (BC) subtypes, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+), hormone-receptor positive (ER/PR+), and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Over the past twenty years, ADCs have undergone relevant evolutions, from target diversity to payload ratio, to linker design, allowing for a progressive increase in their efficacy. From the first-generation ADC, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), approved in 2013 for HER2+ breast cancer, to next generation ADCs such as sacituzumab govitecan and trastuzumab deruxtecan, to emerging ADCs on the horizon, we continue to see unparalleled efficacy compared to traditional chemotherapy. However, each ADC has brought a new cadre of adverse events for clinicians and patients to manage. Importantly, with the development and approval of several ADCs to treat metastatic breast cancer, there are unanswered clinical questions surrounding how to optimally sequence treatment for patients who may be candidates for more than one ADC and, in general, how to treat patients beyond progression on ADCs. From bench to bedside, in this review, we will discuss the pharmacology and current indications for the novel ADCs trastuzumab deruxtecan and sacituzumab govitecan. Highlighting emerging ADCs and ongoing clinical trials, we will anticipate the changes in the breast cancer treatment paradigm. Lastly, we will outline the available data and current approaches for adverse event management and sequencing strategies for ADCs in clinical practice, including proposed mechanisms of resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
16 pages, 426 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Randomised Control Trial of OptiMal: A Self-Management Intervention for Cancer Survivors
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10195-10210; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120742 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
Purpose: Cancer survivors can experience symptoms such as fatigue, pain and distress that persist for many months following treatment. These enduring symptoms often impact on participation in self-care activities, returning to school and/or work, and leisure and social activities. Self-management support is increasingly [...] Read more.
Purpose: Cancer survivors can experience symptoms such as fatigue, pain and distress that persist for many months following treatment. These enduring symptoms often impact on participation in self-care activities, returning to school and/or work, and leisure and social activities. Self-management support is increasingly recognised as a core aspect of cancer survivorship care to reduce the impact of persistent symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a group-based self-management intervention, OptiMal, to improve the physical and psychological health of cancer survivors. OptiMal is a six-week intervention comprising weekly sessions on fatigue, stress and physical activity, diet and effective communication strategies. Methods: A feasibility randomised control trial was undertaken. Individuals up to two years after cancer treatment were randomised to OptiMal or usual care. Feasibility was examined through recruitment and retention metrics. Potential effectiveness was tested through patient-reported outcomes collected at baseline and three months post-intervention. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse study data. Results: Recruitment for this study was 32.5% (80/246 eligible individuals) with 77.5% retention at three-month follow-up (82.5% for intervention group and 72.5% for control group). Of those who attended the intervention, 19 (73%) attended all OptiMal sessions, indicating high adherence to the intervention. The majority of participants had breast cancer and were between 12 and 24 months post-treatment. The intervention group (n = 29) had statistically significant greater improvements in anxiety (p = 0.04) and health-related quality of life (health index score: p = 0.023, visual analogue score: p = 0.035) at three months post-intervention than the control group. Conclusions: Recruitment and retention in this study was similar to other cancer trials and the high adherence rate indicates that OptiMal is an acceptable self-management intervention for cancer survivors and warrants further investigation. OptiMal is intended to address symptoms reported across different cancer types. However, a limitation of this study was that the majority of participants had breast cancer, and therefore, generalisability of findings cannot be assumed for other cancer types. Future studies of OptiMal therefore need to use different strategies to recruit survivors of other cancer types. Full article
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16 pages, 1586 KiB  
Review
Ovarian Cancer: From Precursor Lesion Identification to Population-Based Prevention Programs
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(12), 10179-10194; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30120741 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). HGSC is often diagnosed at advanced stages and is linked to TP53 variants. While BRCA variants elevate risk, most HGSC cases occur in individuals without known genetic [...] Read more.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). HGSC is often diagnosed at advanced stages and is linked to TP53 variants. While BRCA variants elevate risk, most HGSC cases occur in individuals without known genetic variants, necessitating prevention strategies for people without known high-risk genetic variants. Effective prevention programs are also needed due to the lack of traditional screening options. An emerging primary prevention strategy is opportunistic salpingectomy, which involves removing fallopian tubes during another planned pelvic surgery. Opportunistic salpingectomy offers a safe and cost-effective preventative option that is gaining global adoption. With the publication of the first cohort study of patients who underwent salpingectomy, specifically for cancer prevention, attention has turned to broadening opportunities for salpingectomy in addition to more targeted approaches. Prevention opportunities are promising with increasing adoption of salpingectomy and the increased understanding of the etiology of the distinct histotypes of ovarian cancer. Yet, further research on targeted risk-reducing salpingectomy with thoughtful consideration of equity is necessary to reduce death and suffering from ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer in the Age of Precision Medicine)
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