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Curr. Oncol., Volume 30, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 51 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): "Breast", circa 1985, by Vancouver artist Ranjan Sen, evokes women's ongoing concerns about breast cancer. Using microsimulation, the authors modeled the effects of starting age and screening interval on breast cancer deaths averted and life–years saved. Both measures improve with annual screening beginning at age 40. Detecting small, earlier-stage cancers is key in saving lives, illustrated by mammograms of two premenopausal women (courtesy of Drs. Jean Seely and Paula Gordon). L: small, screen-detected Stage 1 cancer with excellent prognosis. R: advanced cancer, found after an unscreened woman discovered breast cancer symptoms. Earlier detection can often reduce treatment-related morbidity. Modeling also provides estimates of stage shift at diagnosis and screening efficiency, aiding the optimization of screening programs. View this paper

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10 pages, 265 KiB  
Review
Sharing Experience with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer: An Italian Expert Panel Discussion
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 10033-10042; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110729 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Background: ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment and largely improved the survival outcomes of patients with NSCLC harboring ALK rearrangements. Different ALK TKI compounds have demonstrated antitumor activity in these patients and are available in clinical practice. However, clinical expertise [...] Read more.
Background: ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment and largely improved the survival outcomes of patients with NSCLC harboring ALK rearrangements. Different ALK TKI compounds have demonstrated antitumor activity in these patients and are available in clinical practice. However, clinical expertise across countries varies according to local regulatory approval of different drugs, identifying multiple treatment scenarios to comply with international guidelines and clinical practice. Methods: A virtual webinar was held on July 2023 to discuss the state of the art and future perspectives in the treatment of ALK rearrangement in advanced NSCLC in Italy. The faculty hosting the webinar was composed of eight medical oncologists from different regions of Italy with clinical expertise in treating patients with lung cancer. Live-shared notes were used to produce a report to serve as the basis of a review manuscript on the topic. Results: Alectinib and brigatinib are the preferred front-line treatment options in Italy, pending approval of the front-line medicine lorlatinib, which would be considered among the choices. Due to a local regulatory limitation of second-line lorlatinib, which is not allowed after front-line brigatinib, alectinib is commonly the preferred front-line choice to follow a sequence of alectinib, followed by lorlatinib, followed by platinum plus pemetrexed chemotherapy. Age and performance status were not considered per se as clinical features influencing treatment choice. However, treatment compliance is deemed a relevant factor in decision making with regard to the number of pills to be administered. In general, given the availability of alternative choices, the spectrum of patients’ comorbidities and polypharmacotherapy interactions should be taken into account in treatment selection according to the toxicity profile of each compound. In addition, several issues were debated with regard to improving treatment outcomes, including testing, brain metastases, and management of an oligoprogressive disease. Conclusions: The treatment scenario of ALK-positive disease is dynamically evolving. Furthermore, not all FDA- and EMA-approved compounds are approved in Italy with the same indications. This influences therapeutic opportunities and increases the need for greater clinical expertise to help and guide treatment selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
14 pages, 1549 KiB  
Article
Clinicopathological Features of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with BRAF Mutation
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 10019-10032; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110728 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
(1) Background: BRAF mutations affect 4–5% of lung adenocarcinomas. This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological features of lung carcinomas with BRAF mutations, focusing on V600E vs. non-V600E and the presence of co-mutations. (2) Methods: All BRAF-mutated lung carcinomas were retrieved from a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: BRAF mutations affect 4–5% of lung adenocarcinomas. This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological features of lung carcinomas with BRAF mutations, focusing on V600E vs. non-V600E and the presence of co-mutations. (2) Methods: All BRAF-mutated lung carcinomas were retrieved from a molecular diagnostic unit (the reference unit for four different hospitals). The samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Statistical analyses included log-rank tests for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). (3) Results: In total, 60 BRAF-mutated lung carcinomas were retrieved: 24 (40.0%) with V600E and 36 (60.0%) with non-V600E mutations, and 21 (35.0%) with other co-mutations and 39 (65.0%) with only BRAF mutations. Survival data were available for 54/60 (90.0%) cases. Targeted therapy was documented in 11 cases. Patients with V600E mutations exhibited a better prognosis than patients with non-V600E mutations (p = 0.008 for OS, p = 0.018 for PFS); this was confirmed in PFS (p = 0.036) when considering only patients who received no targeted therapy. Patients with co-mutations displayed no prognostic difference compared to patients carrying only BRAF mutations (p = 0.590 for OS, p = 0.938 for PFS). (4) Conclusions: BRAF-mutated lung carcinomas with V600E (40.0%) had a better prognosis than those without V600E. Concomitant co-mutations (35.0%) did not affect the prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic From Basic Research to a Clinical Perspective in Oncology)
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12 pages, 6936 KiB  
Case Report
Long-Smoldering T-prolymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 10007-10018; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110727 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare malignancy of mature T-cells with distinct clinical, cytomorphological, and molecular genetic features. The disease typically presents at an advanced stage, with marked leukocytosis, B symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, and bone marrow failure. It usually follows an aggressive course from [...] Read more.
T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare malignancy of mature T-cells with distinct clinical, cytomorphological, and molecular genetic features. The disease typically presents at an advanced stage, with marked leukocytosis, B symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, and bone marrow failure. It usually follows an aggressive course from presentation, and the prognosis is often considered dismal; the median overall survival is less than one year with conventional chemotherapy. This case report describes a patient with T-PLL who, after an unusually protracted inactive phase, ultimately progressed to a highly invasive, organ-involving disease. After initial treatments failed, a novel treatment approach resulted in a significant response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Haematological Neoplasms: Diagnosis and Management)
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11 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Low-Grade Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Behaving as a High-Grade Disease: A Case Series and Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9996-10006; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110726 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Patients with low-grade appendiceal mucinous carcinomas (LAMNs) treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have a favorable prognosis. However, a subgroup of patients presents a clinically aggressive course with disease progression despite receiving treatment. The purpose of this study is [...] Read more.
Patients with low-grade appendiceal mucinous carcinomas (LAMNs) treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have a favorable prognosis. However, a subgroup of patients presents a clinically aggressive course with disease progression despite receiving treatment. The purpose of this study is to report the experience of clinically aggressive LAMN patients treated by the same team, and to present a review of the literature. The cases of four patients with clinically aggressive LAMNs were reviewed. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were re-examined. Recurrences and the time of recurrence, as well as the survival time, were recorded. These patients were four men with clinically aggressive LAMNs treated with CRS plus HIPEC. One of them underwent CC-0 surgery, two underwent CC-1 surgery, and one underwent CC-3 surgery. All patients received systemic chemotherapy after surgery. Recurrence was recorded in three of the patients within 4–23 months after the initial treatment. Two of the patients underwent secondary CRS. Three patients died of disease recurrence within 13–23 months, and one is alive with a disease relapse at 49 months after his initial surgery. LAMNs were identified in both the initial specimens and the specimens obtained during reoperation. The prognosis of LAMN patients treated with CRS plus HIPEC is favorable. A small number of patients present a clinically aggressive course that is unresponsive to any treatment. Molecular and genetic studies are required to identify this group of LAMN patients who have an unfavorable prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoreductive Surgery Treatment: Advances and Obstacles)
15 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Future of Cancer Impact in Alberta: Projections and Trends 2020–2040
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9981-9995; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110725 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 887
Abstract
The impact of cancer in Alberta is expected to grow considerably, largely driven by population growth and aging. The Future of Cancer Impact (FOCI) initiative offers an overview of the present state of cancer care in Alberta and highlights potential opportunities for research [...] Read more.
The impact of cancer in Alberta is expected to grow considerably, largely driven by population growth and aging. The Future of Cancer Impact (FOCI) initiative offers an overview of the present state of cancer care in Alberta and highlights potential opportunities for research and innovation across the continuum. In this paper, we present a series of detailed projections and analyses regarding cancer epidemiological estimates in Alberta, Canada. Data on cancer incidence and mortality in Alberta (1998–2018) and limited-duration cancer prevalence in Alberta (2000–2019) were collected from the Alberta Cancer Registry. We used the Canproj package in the R software to project these epidemiological estimates up to the year 2040. To estimate the direct management costs, we ran a series of microsimulations using the OncoSim All Cancers Model. Our findings indicate that from 2020, the total number of annual new cancer cases and cancer-related deaths are projected to increase by 56% and 49% by 2040, respectively. From 2019, the five-year prevalence of all cancers in Alberta is projected to increase by 86% by 2040. In line with these trends, the overall direct cost of cancer management is estimated to increase by 53% in 2040. These estimates and projections are integral to future strategic planning and investment. Full article
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13 pages, 1279 KiB  
Communication
Concentration of Secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins (SFRPs) in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Subtypes—A Preliminary Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9968-9980; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110724 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer worldwide. Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are important tumour suppressors and antagonists of the Wnt signalling pathway, which is linked with cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations [...] Read more.
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer worldwide. Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are important tumour suppressors and antagonists of the Wnt signalling pathway, which is linked with cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of SFRP1, SFRP2, and SFRP5 proteins in tumour and non-tumour (NT) samples obtained from 65 patients with primary NSCLC. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the concentrations of SFRPs in the tissue homogenates. A significantly lower SFRP2 protein concentration was found in the total NSCLC tumour samples and the following NSCLC subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) (p > 0.05, p = 0.028 and p = 0.001, respectively). AC tumour samples had a higher SFRP1 level than NT samples (p = 0.022), while the highest SFRP1 concentration was found in NSCLC samples from patients with clinical stage T4 cancer. Increased concentrations of SFRP1 and SFRP5 were present in stage III NSCLC samples, while the tumour samples with high pleural invasion (PL2) had an increased level of SFRP2. The results from this study suggest that the tumour suppressor or oncogenic roles of SFRPs could be connected with the NSCLC subtype. The levels of SFRPs varied according to the clinicopathological parameters of NSCLC. Full article
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15 pages, 1625 KiB  
Article
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Trends and Outcomes in Canada: A Registry-Based Cohort Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9953-9967; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110723 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Background: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established therapy for hematologic malignancies and serious non-malignant blood disorders. Despite its curative potential, HCT is associated with substantial toxicity and health resource utilization. Effective delivery of HCT requires complex hospital-based care, which limits the number [...] Read more.
Background: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established therapy for hematologic malignancies and serious non-malignant blood disorders. Despite its curative potential, HCT is associated with substantial toxicity and health resource utilization. Effective delivery of HCT requires complex hospital-based care, which limits the number of HCT centres in Canada. In Canada, the quantity, indications, temporal trends, and outcomes of patients receiving HCT are not known. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of first transplants reported to the Cell Therapy Transplant Canada (CTTC) registry between 2000 and 2019. We determined overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM), categorizing the cohort into early (2000–2009) and later (2010–2019) eras to investigate temporal changes. Results: Of 18,046 transplants, 7571 were allogeneic and 10,475 were autologous. Comparing the two eras, allogeneic transplants increased in number by 22.3%, with greater use of matched unrelated donors in the later era. Autologous transplants increased by 10.9%. Temporal improvements in NRM were observed in children and adults. OS improved in pediatric patients and in adults receiving autologous HCT. In adults receiving allogeneic HCT, OS was stable despite the substantially older age of patients in the later era. Interpretation: HCT is an increasingly frequent procedure in Canada which has expanded to serve older adults. Noted improvements in NRM and OS reflect progress in patient and donor selection, preparation for transplant, and post-transplant supportive care. In allogeneic HCT, unrelated donors have become the most frequent donor source, highlighting the importance of the continued growth of volunteer donor registries. These results serve as a baseline measure for quality improvement and health services planning in Canada. Full article
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13 pages, 953 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy and Safety of Programmed Death-1/Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Inhibitor for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9940-9952; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110722 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). Methods: A literature search was conducted of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library [...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). Methods: A literature search was conducted of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library and was limited to the English literature. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to July 2022 were considered for inclusion. The outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and grade ≥ 3 treatment-related AEs (TRAE). Subgroup analysis was performed based on the PD-L1 expression status, and the differences between first- and second-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were estimated. Results: We included five RCTs comprising 3584 patients in the analysis. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as monotherapy did not significantly prolong OS [hazard ratios (HR), 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81–1.00] or PFS (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.95–1.32). However, the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor combined with chemotherapy significantly improved both OS (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74–0.96) and PFS (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71–0.90). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that in mUC with PD-L1 expression ≥ 5%, treatment with the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor alone did not reduce the risk of death. Safety analysis showed that the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor alone did not significantly increase the incidence rates of grade ≥ 3 TRAEs. Conclusions: The results show that use of the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor alone as first-line treatment is similar to chemotherapy in terms of both survival and response rates. However, the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor plus chemotherapy has a significant benefit in terms of PFS or OS. Nonetheless, more RCTs are warranted to evaluate efficiency and safety in the combination regimen of chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Full article
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11 pages, 3182 KiB  
Article
Poor Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Plus Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer Patients with EGFR/ERBB2 Exon 20 Insertion
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9929-9939; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110721 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Background: EGFR and ERBB2 exon 20 insertion (Ex20ins) account for a small fraction of patients with EGFR mutations. The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for these patients was still controversial. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled lung cancer patients harboring either EGFR or [...] Read more.
Background: EGFR and ERBB2 exon 20 insertion (Ex20ins) account for a small fraction of patients with EGFR mutations. The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for these patients was still controversial. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled lung cancer patients harboring either EGFR or ERBB2 Ex20ins mutations. All the patients were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy plus ICIs, or platinum-based chemotherapy. The demographic features and clinical outcome of each patient were reviewed and analyzed. Results: When treated with immunochemotherapy, patients with EGFR/ERBB2 Ex20ins mutations (n = 31) had poor PFS compared with those without EGFR mutations (n = 141, 5.0 mon and 11.2 mon, p < 0.001). When compared with those with EGFR classic mutations who received immunotherapy as the salvage therapy (n = 24), these patients with EGFR/ERBB2 Ex20ins mutations had similar PFS (5.0 mon and 4.1 mon, p = 0.625), ORR (37.5% vs. 48.4%), and DCR (70.8% vs. 77.4%). In the patients with EGFR/ERBB2 Ex20ins mutations, the PFS of those treated with chemotherapy (n = 54) and those treated with immunochemotherapy (n = 31) was 6.5 mon vs. 5.0 mon (p = 0.066). In the EGFR Ex20ins subgroup, the PFS of addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy (n = 20) and chemotherapy alone (n = 16) was 8.8 mon and 5.2 mon, respectively (p = 0.082) or immunochemotherapy (n = 15, 8.8 mon and 5.0 mon, p = 0.097). Similarly, in the ERBB2 subgroup, the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy achieved a numerically longer PFS over chemotherapy alone (9.1 mon and 4.5 mon, p = 0.253), but there was no statistical significance. Conclusions: This study showed that platinum-based chemotherapy plus ICIs had limited efficiency compared to platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with EGFR/ERBB2 Ex20ins. Chemotherapy plus bevacizumab may be a potential scheme for these patients. Full article
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23 pages, 794 KiB  
Systematic Review
Clinical and Molecular Features of Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9906-9928; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110720 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, with a lifetime risk currently approaching up to 40% in Caucasians. Among these, some clinical and pathological BCC variants pose a higher risk due to their more aggressive biological behavior. Morpheaform BCC (morBCC), [...] Read more.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, with a lifetime risk currently approaching up to 40% in Caucasians. Among these, some clinical and pathological BCC variants pose a higher risk due to their more aggressive biological behavior. Morpheaform BCC (morBCC), also known as sclerosing, fibrosing, or morpheic BCC, represents up to 5–10% of all BCC. Overall, morBCC carries a poorer prognosis due to late presentation, local tissue destruction, tumor recurrence, and higher frequency of metastasis. In this systematic review, we review the epidemiological, clinical, morphological, dermatoscopical, and molecular features of morBCC. After the title and abstract screening of 222 studies and the full-text review of 84 studies, a total of 54 studies met the inclusion criteria and were thus included in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dermato-Oncology)
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11 pages, 463 KiB  
Systematic Review
Combination of Electrochemotherapy with Radiotherapy: A Comprehensive, Systematic, PRISMA-Compliant Review of Efficacy and Potential Radiosensitizing Effects in Tumor Control
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9895-9905; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110719 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Radiotherapy (RT) and electrochemotherapy (ECT) are established local treatments for cancer. While effective, both therapies have limitations, especially in treating bulky and poorly oxygenated tumors. ECT has emerged as a promising palliative treatment, raising interest in exploring its combination with RT to enhance [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy (RT) and electrochemotherapy (ECT) are established local treatments for cancer. While effective, both therapies have limitations, especially in treating bulky and poorly oxygenated tumors. ECT has emerged as a promising palliative treatment, raising interest in exploring its combination with RT to enhance tumor response. However, the potential benefits and challenges of combining these treatments remain unclear. A systematic review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane libraries were searched. Studies were screened and selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ten studies were included, comprising in vitro and in vivo experiments. Different tumor types were treated with ECT alone or in combination with RT. ECT plus RT demonstrated superior tumor response compared to that under single therapies or other combinations, regardless of the cytotoxic agent and RT dose. However, no study demonstrated a clear superadditive effect in cell survival curves, suggesting inconclusive evidence of specific ECT-induced radiosensitization. Toxicity data were limited. In conclusion, the combination of ECT and RT consistently improved tumor response compared to that with individual therapies, supporting the potential benefit of their combination. However, evidence for a specific ECT-induced radiosensitization effect is currently lacking. Additional investigations are necessary to elucidate the potential benefits of this combination therapy. Full article
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9 pages, 824 KiB  
Review
A Literature Review of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer Research
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9886-9894; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110718 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Background: Despite recent awareness of institutional racism, there are still important racial disparities in prostate cancer medical research. We investigated the historical development of research on racial disparities and bias. Methods: PubMed was searched for the term ‘prostate cancer race’ and added key [...] Read more.
Background: Despite recent awareness of institutional racism, there are still important racial disparities in prostate cancer medical research. We investigated the historical development of research on racial disparities and bias. Methods: PubMed was searched for the term ‘prostate cancer race’ and added key terms associated with racial disparity. As an indicator of scientific interest in the topic, we analyzed whether the number of publications increased linearly as an indicator of growing interest. The linearity is expressed as R2. Results: The general search term “prostate cancer race” yielded 4507 publications. More specific search terms with ≥12 publications showing a higher scientific interest were found after 2005. The terms with the most publications when added to the general term were “genetic” (n = 1011), “PSA” (n = 995), and “detection” (n = 861). There was a linear increase in publications for “prostate cancer race” (R2 = 0.75) since 1980. Specific terms added to the general terms with a high linear increase (R2 ≥ 0.7) were “screening” (R2 = 0.82), “detection” (R2 = 0.72), “treatment access” (R2 = 0.71), and “trial underrepresentation” (R2 = 0.71). However, only a few studies have investigated its association with sexual activity. A combination with “sexual” showed 157 publications but only two years with ≥12 publications/year. Conclusion: The terms “genetic”, “PSA”, and “detection” have been the focus of recent research on racial differences in prostate cancer. We found that old stereotypes are still being mentioned but seem to find little interest in the current literature. Further research interest was found in “treatment access”. Recently, interest in socioeconomic factors has decreased. Full article
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14 pages, 1297 KiB  
Article
Cancer Center Staff Satisfaction: Descriptive Results of a Canadian Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9872-9885; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110717 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Caring for cancer patients is generally considered very rewarding work, but it can also be stressful and demanding. Therefore, it is important for oncology healthcare professionals to feel satisfied with their work environment in order to provide the best care possible. An ethics-approved [...] Read more.
Caring for cancer patients is generally considered very rewarding work, but it can also be stressful and demanding. Therefore, it is important for oncology healthcare professionals to feel satisfied with their work environment in order to provide the best care possible. An ethics-approved 61-item staff satisfaction survey was developed in-house to gain insights regarding workplace satisfaction among all staff at The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Center. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the responses. A total of 478 individuals completed the online survey, with 75.1% women, 23.2% men, and 1.7% preferring not to say. This represented the vast majority (>75%) of cancer center staff. The approximate breakdown according to healthcare professional type was as follows: 21% nurses, 20% radiation therapists, 18% physicians, 13% clerical staff, and 28% other types of staff. Almost all (97.4%) generally enjoyed their work, with 60% stating “very much” and 37.4% stating “a little bit”, and 93.3% found working with cancer patients rewarding. The overall satisfaction level at work was high, with 30.1% reporting “very satisfied” and 54.2% “somewhat satisfied”. However, in terms of their work being stressful, 18.6% stated it was “very much” and 62.1% “a little bit”. Also, in terms of their workload, 61.3% stated it was “very busy” and 10% stated it was “excessively busy”. The most enjoyable aspects of work were listed as interactions with colleagues, interactions with patients, and learning new things. The least enjoyable aspects of work were excessive workload, a perceived unsupportive work environment, and technology problems. Levels of satisfaction and stress at work varied according to role at the cancer center. Most cancer center staff seem to enjoy their work and find it rewarding. However, the work environment can be challenging and stressful. Areas for improvement include managing workloads, ensuring staff feel supported, and improving the user-friendliness of technology. Full article
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12 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Features of Male Breast Cancer: A Multicenter Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9860-9871; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110716 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
Male breast cancer (BC) represents less than 1% of male tumors. Little is known about male BC characteristics, management, and survival, with many studies based on a small number of cases. Consequently, the treatment of male BC lacks specific guidelines. The aims of [...] Read more.
Male breast cancer (BC) represents less than 1% of male tumors. Little is known about male BC characteristics, management, and survival, with many studies based on a small number of cases. Consequently, the treatment of male BC lacks specific guidelines. The aims of the study are to compare male and female breast cancer (FBC) in terms of cancer clinical and anatomopathological features and treatment approach, and to identify differences between male BC and FBC in terms of survival. Patients and methods: Data from 2006 to 2018 were retrospectively acquired. Amounts of 49 males and 680 postmenopausal females with primary non-metastatic BC who underwent breast surgery at Mauriziano Hospital or IRCCS Candiolo (TO—Italy) were included. The mean age at diagnosis for male BC was 68.6 years, and males presented a smaller tumor size than women (p < 0.05) at diagnosis. Most male BC patients received adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) with tamoxifen (73.5%). AET drop-out rate due to side effects was 16.3% for males compared to 7.6% for women (p = 0.04). Comparing FBC and male BC, no differences have been identified in terms of DFS and OS, with a similar 10-year-relapse rate (12% male BC vs. 12.4% FBC). Propensity Score Matching by age, nodal status, pT, and molecular subtype had been performed and no differences in OS and DFS were seen between male BC and FBC. In conclusion, male BC and FBC have similar prognostic factors and survival outcomes. The drop-out rate of AET was higher in males, and side effects were the main reason for drug discontinuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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11 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Creation of a Métis-Specific Instrument for Cancer Screening: A Scoping Review of Cancer-Screening Programs and Instruments
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9849-9859; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110715 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Understanding the barriers to and facilitators of cancer screening programs among Indigenous populations remains limited. In the spirit of mutual respect, this co-led, collaborative project was carried out between the Métis Nation of Alberta and Screening Programs from Alberta Health Services (AHS). This [...] Read more.
Understanding the barriers to and facilitators of cancer screening programs among Indigenous populations remains limited. In the spirit of mutual respect, this co-led, collaborative project was carried out between the Métis Nation of Alberta and Screening Programs from Alberta Health Services (AHS). This scoping review assessed the cancer screening literature for available questionnaires and then identified themes and suitable questions for a Métis-specific cancer screening questionnaire. Literature searches on cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening programs and related concepts were conducted in electronic databases, including the Native Health Database, MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO, PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ebsco), Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, and Web of Science. Grey literature was collected from AHS Insite, Open Archives Initiative repository, American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society of Medical Oncology, Google, and Google Scholar. 135 articles were screened based on the eligibility criteria with 114 articles selected, including 14 Indigenous-specific ones. Knowledge, attitude, belief, behaviour, barrier, and facilitator themes emerged from the review, but no Métis-specific cancer screening instruments were found. Thus, one was developed using existing cancer screening instruments, with additional questions created by the project team. A survey of the Métis population in Alberta will use this questionnaire and provide data to address the burden of cancer among Métis people. Full article
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13 pages, 888 KiB  
Article
Iron Surveillance and Management in Gastro-Intestinal Oncology Patients: A National Physician Survey
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9836-9848; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110714 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Purpose: Iron deficiency (ID) is a complication of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers that may manifest as iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Serum ferritin monitoring and oral iron supplementation have the limitations of being falsely elevated and poorly absorbed, respectively. This study aims to assess the [...] Read more.
Purpose: Iron deficiency (ID) is a complication of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers that may manifest as iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Serum ferritin monitoring and oral iron supplementation have the limitations of being falsely elevated and poorly absorbed, respectively. This study aims to assess the discordance in surveillance, treatment practices, and awareness of ID/IDA in GI cancer patients by Canadian physicians treating these patients. Methods: From February 2020 to September 2021, a 22-question electronic survey was sent to medical oncologists (MOs), surgical oncologists (SOs), and gastroenterologists (GEs). The survey collected information about four domains: physician demographics, surveillance practices, treatment practices, and awareness of ID/IDA in GI cancer patients and ASCO/ASH guidelines. Results: A total of 108 (34 MOs, 19 SOs, and 55 GEs) of the 872 (12.4%) invited physicians completed the survey. Of these, 26.5% of MOs, 36.8% of SOs, and 70.9% of GEs measured baseline iron parameters, with few continuing surveillance throughout treatment. Ferritin was widely measured by MOs (88.9%), SOs (100%), and GEs (91.4%). Iron was supplemented if ID/IDA was identified pre-treatment by 66.7% of MOs, 85.7% of SOs, and 94.2% of GEs. Parenteral iron was prescribed by SOs (100%), while oral iron was prescribed by MOs (83.3%) and GEs (87.9%). Only 18.6% of physicians were aware of the ASCO/ASH guidelines regarding erythropoiesis-stimulating agents with parenteral iron for treating chemotherapy-induced anemia. Conclusion: Results illustrate variations in practice patterns for IDA management across the different physician specialties. Moreover, there appeared to be gaps in the knowledge and care surrounding evidence-based IDA management principles which may contribute to poor clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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12 pages, 255 KiB  
Review
Clinical Efficacy and Openness to New Challenges of Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9824-9835; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110713 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Over a century ago, low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy was introduced to treat prostate cancer (PCa). Since then, it has been widely applied worldwide, including in East Asia. LDR brachytherapy has been performed in 88 institutes in Japan. Beneficial clinical outcomes of LDR brachytherapy for [...] Read more.
Over a century ago, low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy was introduced to treat prostate cancer (PCa). Since then, it has been widely applied worldwide, including in East Asia. LDR brachytherapy has been performed in 88 institutes in Japan. Beneficial clinical outcomes of LDR brachytherapy for intermediate-to-high-risk PCa have been demonstrated in large clinical trials. These clinical outcomes were achieved through advances in methods, such as urological precise needle puncture and seed placement, and the quantitative decision making regarding radiological parameters by radiation oncologists. The combined use of LDR brachytherapy with other therapeutic modalities, such as external beam radiation and androgen deprivation therapy, for the clinical risk classification of PCa has led to better anticancer treatment efficacy. In this study, we summarized basic LDR brachytherapy findings that should remain unchanged and be passed down in urology departments. We also discussed the applications of LDR brachytherapy for PCa in various clinical settings, including focal and salvage therapies. In addition, we highlighted technologies associated with brachytherapy that are under development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiotherapy for Genitourinary Cancer)
11 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma in Italy: A Tertiary Care, Single-Center Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9813-9823; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110712 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Data on primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCLs) patients in the Italian population are limited, and, despite the existence of several treatment options, the management of those patients remains challenging. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical and therapeutic features of PCL patients in a [...] Read more.
Data on primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCLs) patients in the Italian population are limited, and, despite the existence of several treatment options, the management of those patients remains challenging. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical and therapeutic features of PCL patients in a referral center in Italy. We conducted a retrospective study on 100 consecutive PCL patients between January 2017 and December 2022. The mean (SD) age of our cohort was 70.33 (14.14) years. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) represented 65% of all cases; the majority were mycosis fungoides (42%), followed by cases of Sezary syndrome (10%) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (4%). Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCLs) accounted for 35 % of PCLs, with 15 cases of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma, 10 cases of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma leg type, and 9 cases of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. A higher frequency of pruritus (p = 0.008) and higher peripheral blood levels of beta-2 microglobulin (p ≤ 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.025) were found in CTCLs compared to those of CBCLs. Considering all therapeutic lines performed, treatments were extremely heterogeneous and skin-directed therapies represented the most frequently used approach. Our study confirms the distribution of PCL subtypes formerly reported in the literature and highlights the utility of real-life data in treatments to improve the current management of PCL patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dermato-Oncology)
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24 pages, 1175 KiB  
Review
Advances in Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9789-9812; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110711 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than half of patients with HCC present with advanced stage, and highly active systemic therapies are crucial for improving outcomes. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapies have emerged [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than half of patients with HCC present with advanced stage, and highly active systemic therapies are crucial for improving outcomes. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapies have emerged as novel therapy options for advanced HCC. Only one third of patients achieve an objective response with ICI-based therapies due to primary resistance or acquired resistance. The liver tumor microenvironment is naturally immunosuppressive, and specific mutations in cell signaling pathways allow the tumor to evade the immune response. Next, gene sequencing of the tumor tissue or circulating tumor DNA may delineate resistance mechanisms to ICI-based therapy and provide a rationale for novel combination therapies. In this review, we discuss the results of key clinical trials that have led to approval of ICI-based therapy options in advanced HCC and summarize the ongoing clinical trials. We review resistance mechanisms to ICIs and discuss how immunotherapies may be optimized based on the emerging research of tumor biomarkers and genomic alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy for Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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3 pages, 157 KiB  
Editorial
Advances and Future Directions in Hepatobiliary Malignancies
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9786-9788; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110710 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 644
Abstract
I am delighted to present this Special Issue of our journal, focusing on “Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
14 pages, 1579 KiB  
Systematic Review
Surgical Management of Adult Brainstem Gliomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9772-9785; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110709 - 07 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
The present review aims to investigate the survival and functional outcomes in adult high-grade brainstem gliomas (BGSs) by comparing data from resective surgery and biopsy. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were screened to conduct a systematic review of the literature, according to the [...] Read more.
The present review aims to investigate the survival and functional outcomes in adult high-grade brainstem gliomas (BGSs) by comparing data from resective surgery and biopsy. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were screened to conduct a systematic review of the literature, according to the PRISMA statement. Analysis was limited to articles including patients older than 18 years of age and those published from 1990 to September 2022. Case reports, review articles, meta-analyses, abstracts, reports of aggregated data, and reports on multimodal therapy where surgery was not the primary treatment were excluded. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the risk of bias. Six studies were ultimately considered for the meta-analysis. The resective group was composed of 213 subjects and the bioptic group comprised 125. The analysis demonstrated a survival benefit in those patients in which an extensive resection was possible (STR HR 0.59 (95% CI 0.42, 0.82)) (GTR HR 0.63 (95% CI 0.43, 0.92)). Although surgical resection is associated with increased survival, the significantly higher complication rate makes it difficult to recommend surgery instead of biopsy for BSGs. Future investigations combining volumetric data and molecular profiles could add important data to better define the proper indication between resection and biopsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment for Glioma: Retrospect and Prospect)
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12 pages, 11629 KiB  
Article
Photon Absorption Remote Sensing Imaging of Breast Needle Core Biopsies Is Diagnostically Equivalent to Gold Standard H&E Histologic Assessment
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9760-9771; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110708 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Photon absorption remote sensing (PARS) is a new laser-based microscope technique that permits cellular-level resolution of unstained fresh, frozen, and fixed tissues. Our objective was to determine whether PARS could provide an image quality sufficient for the diagnostic assessment of breast cancer needle [...] Read more.
Photon absorption remote sensing (PARS) is a new laser-based microscope technique that permits cellular-level resolution of unstained fresh, frozen, and fixed tissues. Our objective was to determine whether PARS could provide an image quality sufficient for the diagnostic assessment of breast cancer needle core biopsies (NCB). We PARS imaged and virtually H&E stained seven independent unstained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast NCB sections. These identical tissue sections were subsequently stained with standard H&E and digitally scanned. Both the 40× PARS and H&E whole-slide images were assessed by seven breast cancer pathologists, masked to the origin of the images. A concordance analysis was performed to quantify the diagnostic performances of standard H&E and PARS virtual H&E. The PARS images were deemed to be of diagnostic quality, and pathologists were unable to distinguish the image origin, above that expected by chance. The diagnostic concordance on cancer vs. benign was high between PARS and conventional H&E (98% agreement) and there was complete agreement for within-PARS images. Similarly, agreement was substantial (kappa > 0.6) for specific cancer subtypes. PARS virtual H&E inter-rater reliability was broadly consistent with the published literature on diagnostic performance of conventional histology NCBs across all tested histologic features. PARS was able to image unstained tissues slides that were diagnostically equivalent to conventional H&E. Due to its ability to non-destructively image fixed and fresh tissues, and the suitability of the PARS output for artificial intelligence assistance in diagnosis, this technology has the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer, Biology and Oncology)
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14 pages, 540 KiB  
Article
Predictive Factors Associated with Declining Psycho-Oncological Support in Patients with Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9746-9759; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110707 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
(1) Background: International cancer treatment guidelines recommend low-threshold psycho-oncological support based on nurses’ routine distress screening (e.g., via the distress thermometer and problem list). This study aims to explore factors which are associated with declining psycho-oncological support in order to increase nurses’ efficiency [...] Read more.
(1) Background: International cancer treatment guidelines recommend low-threshold psycho-oncological support based on nurses’ routine distress screening (e.g., via the distress thermometer and problem list). This study aims to explore factors which are associated with declining psycho-oncological support in order to increase nurses’ efficiency in screening patients for psycho-oncological support needs. (2) Methods: Using machine learning, routinely recorded clinical data from 4064 patients was analyzed for predictors of patients declining psycho-oncological support. Cross validation and nested resampling were used to guard against model overfitting. (3) Results: The developed model detects patients who decline psycho-oncological support with a sensitivity of 89% (area under the cure of 79%, accuracy of 68.5%). Overall, older patients, patients with a lower score on the distress thermometer, fewer comorbidities, few physical problems, and those who do not feel sad, afraid, or worried refused psycho-oncological support. (4) Conclusions: Thus, current screening procedures seem worthy to be part of daily nursing routines in oncology, but nurses may need more time and training to rule out misconceptions of patients on psycho-oncological support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
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12 pages, 525 KiB  
Review
Estrogen-Receptor-Low-Positive Breast Cancer: Pathological and Clinical Perspectives
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9734-9745; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110706 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in breast cancer (BC) represents a strong prognostic and predictive biomarker and directs therapeutic decisions in early and advanced stages. ER-low-positive BC, defined by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of ERs from 1% to 9%, constitutes a distinct [...] Read more.
The expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in breast cancer (BC) represents a strong prognostic and predictive biomarker and directs therapeutic decisions in early and advanced stages. ER-low-positive BC, defined by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of ERs from 1% to 9%, constitutes a distinct subset of total BC cases. Guidelines recommend that a low expression of ERs be reported in pathology reports since the benefit of endocrine therapy in patients with ER-low-positive BC is uncertain. Recently, several cohorts, mostly of a retrospective nature, have been published, reporting the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of ER-low-positive BC. However, the majority of the data focus on early-stage BC and the use of (neo)adjuvant therapy, and there is a significant lack of data regarding metastatic ER-low-positive BC. Further factors, including tumor heterogeneity as well as the potential loss of ER expression due to endocrine resistance, should be considered. Including patients with ER-low-positive BC in clinical trials for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) might improve the understanding of this entity and allow novel therapeutic approaches. The design and conduction of randomized clinical trials regarding this subgroup of patients are greatly anticipated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach from Imaging to Therapy)
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24 pages, 386 KiB  
Systematic Review
Multiple Myeloma in 2023 Ways: From Trials to Real Life
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9710-9733; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110705 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Multiple myeloma is a chronic hematologic malignancy that obstinately tends to relapse. Basic research has made giant strides in better characterizing the molecular mechanisms of the disease. The results have led to the manufacturing of new, revolutionary drugs which have been widely tested [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma is a chronic hematologic malignancy that obstinately tends to relapse. Basic research has made giant strides in better characterizing the molecular mechanisms of the disease. The results have led to the manufacturing of new, revolutionary drugs which have been widely tested in clinical trials. These drugs have been approved and are now part of the therapeutic armamentarium. As a consequence, it is essential to combine what we know from clinical trials with real-world data in order to improve therapeutic strategies. Starting with this premise, our review aims to describe the currently employed regimens in multiple myeloma and compare clinical trials with real-life experiences. We also intend to put a spotlight on promising therapies such as T-cell engagers and chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T) which are proving to be effective in changing the course of advanced-stage disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Haematological Neoplasms: Diagnosis and Management)
9 pages, 234 KiB  
Commentary
Deprescribing: A Prime Opportunity to Optimize Care of Cancer Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9701-9709; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110704 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Patients with incurable cancers have an increasing number of comorbidities, which can lead to polypharmacy and its associated adverse events (drug-to-drug interaction, prescription of a potentially inappropriate medication, adverse drug event). Deprescribing is a patient-centered process aimed at optimizing patient outcomes by discontinuing [...] Read more.
Patients with incurable cancers have an increasing number of comorbidities, which can lead to polypharmacy and its associated adverse events (drug-to-drug interaction, prescription of a potentially inappropriate medication, adverse drug event). Deprescribing is a patient-centered process aimed at optimizing patient outcomes by discontinuing medication(s) deemed no longer necessary or potentially inappropriate. Improved patient quality of life, risk reduction of side effects or worse clinical outcomes, and a decrease in healthcare costs are well-documented benefits of deprescribing. Deprescribing and advance care planning both require consideration of patients’ values, preferences, and care goals. Here, we provide an overview of comorbidities and associated polypharmacy risks in cancer patients, as well as useful tools and resources for deprescribing in daily practice, and we shed light on how deprescribing can facilitate advance care planning discussions with patients who have advanced cancer or a limited life expectancy. Full article
12 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
Seven-Year Single-Center Experience of the Efficacy and Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Cancer Patients with Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9689-9700; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110703 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Anemia remains an essential concern affecting the quality of life and the survival of cancer patients. Although there are different approaches to treating anemia in cancer patients, the number of studies reporting the efficacy of iron replacement in cancer patients is limited. In [...] Read more.
Anemia remains an essential concern affecting the quality of life and the survival of cancer patients. Although there are different approaches to treating anemia in cancer patients, the number of studies reporting the efficacy of iron replacement in cancer patients is limited. In this study, the efficacy and safety of iron carboxymaltose, a parenteral iron treatment option, in the treatment of anemia, were examined retrospectively. A total of 1102 adult patients who received IV ferric carboxymaltose treatment at Hacettepe Oncology Hospital between 2014 and 2020 were included. The mean hemoglobin change observed at the end of the 12th week was 1.8 g/dL, and the rate of patients with an increase in hemoglobin of 1 g/dL or more was 72.1%. It was observed that the treatment demonstrated effectiveness in patients receiving active cancer treatment in all tumor types. The treatment was generally safe, and no grade 3–5 side effects were observed in the patients included in the study. According to one of the most extensive series published in the literature, iron carboxymaltose is an efficient and safe alternative for cancer patients with iron-deficiency anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Palliative and Supportive Care)
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13 pages, 1555 KiB  
Review
Proteasome Inhibitors against Glioblastoma—Overview of Molecular Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity, Progress in Clinical Trials, and Perspective for Use in Personalized Medicine
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9676-9688; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110702 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Proteasome inhibitors are moieties targeting the proteolytic activity of a proteasome, with demonstrated efficacy in certain hematological malignancies and candidate drugs in other types of cancer, including glioblastoma (GBM). They disturb the levels of proteasome-regulated proteins and lead to the cell cycle inhibition [...] Read more.
Proteasome inhibitors are moieties targeting the proteolytic activity of a proteasome, with demonstrated efficacy in certain hematological malignancies and candidate drugs in other types of cancer, including glioblastoma (GBM). They disturb the levels of proteasome-regulated proteins and lead to the cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis of GBM cells. The accumulation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, and decreased levels of prosurvival molecules NFKB, survivin, and MGMT, underlie proteasome inhibitors’ cytotoxicity when used alone or in combination with the anti-GBM cytostatic drug temozolomide (TMZ). The evidence gathered in preclinical studies substantiated the design of clinical trials that employed the two most promising proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and marizomib. The drug safety profile, maximum tolerated dose, and interaction with other drugs were initially evaluated, mainly in recurrent GBM patients. A phase III study on newly diagnosed GBM patients who received marizomib as an adjuvant to the Stupp protocol was designed and completed in 2021, with the Stupp protocol receiving patients as a parallel control arm. The data from this phase III study indicate that marizomib does not improve the PFS and OS of GBM patients; however, further analysis of the genetic and epigenetic background of each patient tumor may shed some light on the sensitivity of individual patients to proteasome inhibition. The mutational and epigenetic makeup of GBM cells, like genetic alterations to TP53 and PTEN, or MGMT promoter methylation levels may actually determine the response to proteasome inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma in Adults: Current Management and Future Directions)
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6 pages, 219 KiB  
Editorial
Transitioning from Traditional Academic Decision Making to Patient-Centric Healthcare Choices: The Example of Thyroid Thermal Ablation Techniques for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9670-9675; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110701 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Percutaneous thermal ablation techniques (TATs) have contributed to improving thyroid tumor management for almost twenty years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights into Special Novelties in Thyroid Oncology Management)
10 pages, 251 KiB  
Review
Future Role of Health Technology Assessment for Genomic Medicine in Oncology: A Canadian Laboratory Perspective
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9660-9669; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110700 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Genome-based testing in oncology is a rapidly expanding area of health care that is the basis of the emerging area of precision medicine. The efficient and considered adoption of novel genomic medicine testing is hampered in Canada by the fragmented nature of health [...] Read more.
Genome-based testing in oncology is a rapidly expanding area of health care that is the basis of the emerging area of precision medicine. The efficient and considered adoption of novel genomic medicine testing is hampered in Canada by the fragmented nature of health care oversight as well as by lack of clear and transparent processes to support rapid evaluation, assessment, and implementation of genomic tests. This article provides an overview of some key barriers and proposes approaches to addressing these challenges as a potential pathway to developing a national approach to genomic medicine in oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health System Readiness for Genomic Medicine in Oncology)
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