Topic Editors

1. Department of Zootechnics, School of Sciences and Technology, University of Évora, Évora, Portugal
2. Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Vila Real, Portugal
University of Trá-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal;CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Prof. Dr. Lúcio Lara Santos
1. Experimental Pathology and Therapeutics Group, Portuguese Institute of Oncology, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2. Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, 4150-353 Porto, Portugal
3. Porto Comprehensive Cancer Center (P.ccc), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal

Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment - 2nd Volume

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topic is a continuation of the previous successful Topic "Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment" (https://www.mdpi.com/topics/prostate_Cancer).

The prostate is the largest accessory gland of the male reproductive tract. Together with seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands, the prostate is responsible for the production of an alkaline fluid that forms part of the seminal fluid. The prostates of men over 40 years of age are commonly affected by several pathologies, such as benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among the male population worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the year 2020, prostate cancer affected approximately 1.41 million men worldwide. Despite significant treatment improvements having been achieved with the advent of targeted and immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-based therapies, cancer remains one of the primary causes of death worldwide. Therefore, this Topic will consider articles on all types of research on prostate cancer, including in vitro and in vivo approaches. Submission of research on the impact of the tumor macroenvironment (microbiota, diet, physical exercise) on tumor biology, as well as review studies, will also be welcome. We sincerely invite scientists to publish their excellent work in one of the following five journals: Cancers, Diagnostics, Current Oncology, BioMed, or Uro.

Dr. Ana Faustino
Dr. Paula A. Oliveira
Prof. Dr. Lúcio Lara Santos
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cancer biology
  • in vitro
  • in vivo
  • resistance
  • treatment

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
BioMed
biomed
- - 2021 27 Days CHF 1000
Cancers
cancers
5.2 7.4 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900
Current Oncology
curroncol
2.6 2.6 1994 18 Days CHF 2200
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600
Uro
uro
- - 2021 14.1 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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13 pages, 4809 KiB  
Article
Imaging GRPr Expression in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer with [68Ga]Ga-RM2—A Head-to-Head Pilot Comparison with [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11
by René Fernández, Cristian Soza-Ried, Andrei Iagaru, Andrew Stephens, Andre Müller, Hanno Schieferstein, Camilo Sandoval, Horacio Amaral and Vasko Kramer
Cancers 2024, 16(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16010173 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Background: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is highly overexpressed in several solid tumors, including treatment-naïve and recurrent prostate cancer. [68Ga]Ga-RM2 is a well-established radiotracer for PET imaging of GRPr, and [177Lu]Lu-RM2 has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for [...] Read more.
Background: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is highly overexpressed in several solid tumors, including treatment-naïve and recurrent prostate cancer. [68Ga]Ga-RM2 is a well-established radiotracer for PET imaging of GRPr, and [177Lu]Lu-RM2 has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for patients with heterogeneous and/or low expression of PSMA. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of GRPr and PSMA in a group of patients diagnosed with castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) by means of PET imaging. Methods: Seventeen mCRPC patients referred for radio-ligand therapy (RLT) were enrolled and underwent [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 and [68Ga]Ga-RM2 PET/CT imaging, 8.8 ± 8.6 days apart, to compare the biodistribution of each tracer. Uptake in healthy organs and tumor lesions was assessed by SUV values, and tumor-to-background ratios were analyzed. Results: [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 showed significantly higher uptake in tumor lesions in bone, lymph nodes, prostate, and soft tissues and detected 23% more lesions compared to [68Ga]Ga-RM2. In 4/17 patients (23.5%), the biodistribution of both tracers was comparable. Conclusions: Our results show that in our cohort of mCRPC patients, PSMA expression was higher compared to GRPr. Nevertheless, RLT with [177Lu]Lu-RM2 may be an alternative treatment option for selected patients or patients in earlier disease stages, such as biochemical recurrence. Full article
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9 pages, 5134 KiB  
Article
Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy by Lateral Approach: Technique, Reproducibility and Outcomes
by Moisés Rodríguez Socarrás, Juan Gómez Rivas, Javier Reinoso Elbers, Fabio Espósito, Luis Llanes Gonzalez, Diego M. Carrion Monsalve, Julio Fernandez Del Alamo, Sonia Ruiz Graña, Jorge Juarez Varela, Daniel Coria, Vanesa Cuadros Rivera, Richard Gastón and Fernando Gómez Sancha
Cancers 2023, 15(22), 5442; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15225442 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Background: Radical prostatectomy by lateral approach allows performing a prostatectomy through a buttonhole, with direct access to the seminal vesicle and fully sparing the anterior pubovesical complex. Our aim is to show the results of reproducing the technique of robotic radical prostatectomy by [...] Read more.
Background: Radical prostatectomy by lateral approach allows performing a prostatectomy through a buttonhole, with direct access to the seminal vesicle and fully sparing the anterior pubovesical complex. Our aim is to show the results of reproducing the technique of robotic radical prostatectomy by lateral approach, in terms of intraoperative, postoperative, oncological and functional parameters. Methods: We analyzed 513 patients submitted to robotic radical prostatectomy by lateral approach from January 2015 to March 2021, operated on by two surgeons in our institution. The oncological and functional results of both surgeons were compared. Results: When comparing both surgeons, the rate of positive surgical margins (PSM) was 32.87% and 37.9% and significant surgical margins (PSM > 2 mm) were 5.88% and 7.58% (p = 0.672) for surgeon 1 and surgeon 2, respectively. Immediate continence was 86% and 85% and sexual potency at one year 73% and 72%, with a similar rate of complications for surgeon 1 and 2. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy by the lateral approach technique with preservation of the anterior pubovesical complex is reproducible and offers good oncological and functional results. Full article
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9 pages, 824 KiB  
Review
A Literature Review of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer Research
by Matthieu Vermeille, Kira-Lee Koster, David Benzaquen, Ambroise Champion, Daniel Taussky, Kevin Kaulanjan and Martin Früh
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9886-9894; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110718 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Background: Despite recent awareness of institutional racism, there are still important racial disparities in prostate cancer medical research. We investigated the historical development of research on racial disparities and bias. Methods: PubMed was searched for the term ‘prostate cancer race’ and added key [...] Read more.
Background: Despite recent awareness of institutional racism, there are still important racial disparities in prostate cancer medical research. We investigated the historical development of research on racial disparities and bias. Methods: PubMed was searched for the term ‘prostate cancer race’ and added key terms associated with racial disparity. As an indicator of scientific interest in the topic, we analyzed whether the number of publications increased linearly as an indicator of growing interest. The linearity is expressed as R2. Results: The general search term “prostate cancer race” yielded 4507 publications. More specific search terms with ≥12 publications showing a higher scientific interest were found after 2005. The terms with the most publications when added to the general term were “genetic” (n = 1011), “PSA” (n = 995), and “detection” (n = 861). There was a linear increase in publications for “prostate cancer race” (R2 = 0.75) since 1980. Specific terms added to the general terms with a high linear increase (R2 ≥ 0.7) were “screening” (R2 = 0.82), “detection” (R2 = 0.72), “treatment access” (R2 = 0.71), and “trial underrepresentation” (R2 = 0.71). However, only a few studies have investigated its association with sexual activity. A combination with “sexual” showed 157 publications but only two years with ≥12 publications/year. Conclusion: The terms “genetic”, “PSA”, and “detection” have been the focus of recent research on racial differences in prostate cancer. We found that old stereotypes are still being mentioned but seem to find little interest in the current literature. Further research interest was found in “treatment access”. Recently, interest in socioeconomic factors has decreased. Full article
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15 pages, 1054 KiB  
Review
Klotho in Cancer: Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Applications
by Jucileide Mota, Alice Marques Moreira Lima, Jhessica I. S. Gomes, Marcelo Souza de Andrade, Haissa O. Brito, Melaine M. A. Lawall Silva, Ana I. Faustino-Rocha, Paula A. Oliveira, Fernanda F. Lopes and Rui M. Gil da Costa
Diagnostics 2023, 13(21), 3357; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13213357 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Klotho proteins, αKlotho, βKlotho, and γKlotho, exert tumor-suppressive activities via the fibroblast growth factor receptors and multiple cell-signaling pathways. There is a growing interest in Klotho proteins as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for multiple diseases. However, recent advances regarding their roles and [...] Read more.
Klotho proteins, αKlotho, βKlotho, and γKlotho, exert tumor-suppressive activities via the fibroblast growth factor receptors and multiple cell-signaling pathways. There is a growing interest in Klotho proteins as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for multiple diseases. However, recent advances regarding their roles and potential applications in cancer remain disperse and require an integrated analysis. The present review analyzed research articles published between 2012 and 2022 in the Cochrane and Scopus scientific databases to study the role of Klotho in cancer and their potential as tools for diagnosing specific cancer types, predicting tumor aggressiveness and prognosis. Twenty-six articles were selected, dealing with acute myeloid leukemia and with bladder, breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, ovarian, pancreatic, prostatic, pulmonary, renal, and thyroid cancers. αKlotho was consistently associated with improved prognosis and may be useful in estimating patient survival. A single study reported the use of soluble αKlotho levels in blood serum as a tool to aid the diagnosis of esophageal cancer. γKlotho was associated with increased aggressiveness of bladder, breast, and prostate cancer, and βKlotho showed mixed results. Further clinical development of Klotho-based assays will require careful identification of specific tumor subtypes where Klotho proteins may be most valuable as diagnostic or prognostic tools. Full article
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17 pages, 5059 KiB  
Article
Planning CT Identifies Patients at Risk of High Prostate Intrafraction Motion
by Hendrik Ballhausen, Minglun Li, Elia Lombardo, Guillaume Landry and Claus Belka
Cancers 2023, 15(16), 4103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15164103 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Prostate motion (standard deviation, range of motion, and diffusion coefficient) was calculated from 4D ultrasound data of 1791 fractions of radiation therapy in N = 100 patients. The inner diameter of the lesser pelvis was obtained from transversal slices through the pubic symphysis [...] Read more.
Prostate motion (standard deviation, range of motion, and diffusion coefficient) was calculated from 4D ultrasound data of 1791 fractions of radiation therapy in N = 100 patients. The inner diameter of the lesser pelvis was obtained from transversal slices through the pubic symphysis in planning CTs. On the lateral and craniocaudal axes, motility increases significantly (t-test, p < 0.005) with the inner diameter of the lesser pelvis. A diameter of >106 mm (ca. 6th decile) is a good predictor for high prostate intrafraction motion (ca. 9th decile). The corresponding area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) is 80% in the lateral direction, 68% to 80% in the craniocaudal direction, and 62% to 70% in the vertical direction. On the lateral x-axis, the proposed test is 100% sensitive and has a 100% negative predictive value for all three characteristics (standard deviation, range of motion, and diffusion coefficient). On the craniocaudal z-axis, the proposed test is 79% to 100% sensitive and reaches 95% to 100% negative predictive value. On the vertical axis, the proposed test still delivers 98% negative predictive value but is not particularly sensitive. Overall, the proposed predictor is able to help identify patients at risk of high prostate motion based on a single planning CT. Full article
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13 pages, 934 KiB  
Systematic Review
Malignancy Associated with Low-Risk HPV6 and HPV11: A Systematic Review and Implications for Cancer Prevention
by Leandro Lima da Silva, Amanda Mara Teles, Joana M. O. Santos, Marcelo Souza de Andrade, Rui Medeiros, Ana I. Faustino-Rocha, Paula A. Oliveira, Ana Paula Azevedo dos Santos, Fernanda Ferreira Lopes, Geraldo Braz, Haissa O. Brito and Rui M. Gil da Costa
Cancers 2023, 15(16), 4068; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15164068 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is etiologically related to cervical cancer, other anogenital cancers and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Low-risk HPV, especially HPV6 and HPV11, cause genital warts and laryngeal papillomas. However, the accumulating data suggests that HPV6 and HPV11 may cause malignant lesions at non-cervical [...] Read more.
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is etiologically related to cervical cancer, other anogenital cancers and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Low-risk HPV, especially HPV6 and HPV11, cause genital warts and laryngeal papillomas. However, the accumulating data suggests that HPV6 and HPV11 may cause malignant lesions at non-cervical anatomic sites. This review aims to estimate the proportions of single and dual HPV6/11 infections in multiple cancers reported in the last 10 years in the Cochrane, Embasa and PubMed databases. Secondly, the genomes of HPV6/11 were compared with the most common high-risk genotype, HPV16, to determine the similarities and differences. A total of 11 articles were selected, including between one and 334 HPV+ cancer patients. The frequencies of single or dual HPV6/11 infections ranged between 0–5.5% for penile and 0–87.5% for laryngeal cancers and were null for vulvar, vaginal and oral cancers. The genomic similarities between HPV6/11 and HPV16 mainly involved the E7 gene, indicating a limited ability to block cell differentiation. The presence of single or dual HPV6/11 infections in variable proportions of penile and laryngeal cancers support the vaccination strategies that cover these genotypes, not only for preventing genital warts but also for cancer prevention. Other risk factors and co-carcinogens are likely to participate in epithelial carcinogenesis associated with low-risk HPV. Full article
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13 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
Primary Total Prostate Cryoablation for Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: 10-Year Outcomes and Nomograms
by Chung-Hsin Chen, Chung-You Tsai and Yeong-Shiau Pu
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3873; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153873 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
The role of prostate cryoablation was still uncertain for patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC). This study was designed to investigate 10-year disease-free survival and establish a nomogram in localized high-risk PC patients. Between October 2008 and December 2020, 191 patients with high-risk [...] Read more.
The role of prostate cryoablation was still uncertain for patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC). This study was designed to investigate 10-year disease-free survival and establish a nomogram in localized high-risk PC patients. Between October 2008 and December 2020, 191 patients with high-risk PC who received primary total prostate cryoablation (PTPC) were enrolled. The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence (BCR), defined using Phoenix criteria. The performance of pre-operative and peri-operative nomograms was determined using the Harrell concordance index (C-index). Among the cohort, the median age and PSA levels at diagnosis were 71 years and 12.3 ng/mL, respectively. Gleason sum 8–10, stage ≥ T3a, and PSA > 20 ng/mL were noted in 27.2%, 74.4%, and 26.2% of patients, respectively. During the median follow-up duration of 120.4 months, BCR-free rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 92.6%, 76.6%, 66.7%, and 50.8%, respectively. The metastasis-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates were 89.5%, 97.4%, and 90.5% at 10 years, respectively. The variables in the pre-operative nomogram for BCR contained PSA at diagnosis, clinical stage, and Gleason score (C-index: 0.73, 95% CI, 0.67–0.79). The variables in the peri-operative nomogram for BCR included PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score, number of cryoprobes used, and PSA nadir (C-index: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.78–0.88). In conclusion, total prostate cryoablation appears to be an effective treatment option for selected men with high-risk PC. A pre-operative nomogram can help select patients suitable for cryoablation. A peri-operative nomogram signifies the importance of the ample use of cryoprobes and helps identify patients who may need early salvage treatment. Full article
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11 pages, 1687 KiB  
Article
‘Stealth’ Prostate Tumors
by Vinayak G. Wagaskar, Osama Zaytoun, Swati Bhardwaj and Ash Tewari
Cancers 2023, 15(13), 3487; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15133487 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the false negative rates of prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI–ultrasound (US) 12-core systematic prostate biopsy (PBx) by analyzing radical prostatectomy specimens. Methods: This retrospective study included 3600 prostate cancer (PCa) patients who [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the false negative rates of prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI–ultrasound (US) 12-core systematic prostate biopsy (PBx) by analyzing radical prostatectomy specimens. Methods: This retrospective study included 3600 prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Based on comparison of lobe-specific data on final pathology with preoperative biopsy and imaging data, the study population was subdivided into group I—contralateral (CL) benign PBx (n = 983), group II—CL and/or bilateral (BL) non-suspicious mpMRI (n = 2223) and group III—CL benign PBx + non-suspicious mpMRI (n = 688). This population was studied for the presence of PCa, clinically significant PCa (csPCa), extracapsular extension (ECE) (pathological stage pT3), positive frozen section and final positive surgical margin (PSM) in the CL lobe. Descriptive statistics were performed. Results: In subgroups I, II and III, PCa was respectively detected in 21.5%, 37.7% and 19.5% of cases, and csPCa in 11.3%, 16.3% and 10.3% of cases. CL pT3 disease was seen in 4.5%, 4% and 5.5%, and CL surgical margins and/or frozen section analysis were positive in 6%, 7% and 5% of cases in subgroups I, II and III, respectively. Conclusions: There are still significant rates of false negatives in the standard care diagnostics of PCa. Further strategies are required to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and determination of tumor location. Full article
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18 pages, 7810 KiB  
Article
Head-to-Head Comparison of [18F]F-choline and Imaging of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen, Using [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT, in Patients with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer
by Laura García-Zoghby, Cristina Lucas-Lucas, Mariano Amo-Salas, Ángel María Soriano-Castrejón and Ana María García-Vicente
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6271-6288; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070464 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Purpose: To analyse diagnostic and therapeutic impact of molecular imaging TNM (miTNM) stage obtained with [18F]DCFPyL versus [18F]F-choline in head-to-head comparison in biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods: Patients with BCR of PCa after radical [...] Read more.
Purpose: To analyse diagnostic and therapeutic impact of molecular imaging TNM (miTNM) stage obtained with [18F]DCFPyL versus [18F]F-choline in head-to-head comparison in biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods: Patients with BCR of PCa after radical treatment with previous [18F]F-choline-PET/CT (negative or oligometastatic disease) were recruited to [18F]DCFPyL-PET/CT. Patients were classified according to: grade group, European Association of Urology classification, PSA, PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel). The overall detection rate (DR) and miTNM stage according to PROMISE criteria were assessed for both radiotracers and also correlated (Kappa). The influence of PSA and kinetics on both PET/CT (DR and miTNM) and predictive value of unfavourable kinetics on miTNM were determined. Cut-off PSA, PSAdt and PSAvel values able to predict PET/CT results were determined. Change in miTNM and treatment derived from [18F]DCFPyL information compared with [18F]F-choline were also evaluated. Results: We studied 138 patients. [18F]DCFPyL showed a higher DR than [18F]F-choline (64.5% versus 33.3%) with a fair agreement. [18F]DCFPyL and [18F]F-choline detected T in 33.3% versus 19.6%, N in 27.5% versus 13.8%, and M in 30.4% versus 8.7%. Both tracers’ DR showed significant associations with PSA and PSAvel. Significant association was only found between miTNM and PSA on [18F]F-choline-PET/CT (p = 0.033). For [18F]F-choline and [18F]DCFPyL-PET/CT, a PSAdt cut-off of 4.09 and 5.59 months, respectively, were able to predict M stage. [18F]DCFPyL changed therapeutic management in 40/138 patients. Conclusions: [18F]DCFPyL provides a higher DR and superior miTNM staging than [18F]F-choline in restaging BCR, especially with high PSA and unfavourable PSA kinetics, showing a fair agreement to [18F]F-choline. Full article
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14 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Research of Prostate Cancer Urinary Diagnostic Biomarkers by Proteomics: The Noteworthy Influence of Inflammation
by Elisa Bellei, Stefania Caramaschi, Giovanna A. Giannico, Emanuela Monari, Eugenio Martorana, Luca Reggiani Bonetti and Stefania Bergamini
Diagnostics 2023, 13(7), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13071318 - 01 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Nowadays, in the case of suspected prostate cancer (PCa), tissue needle biopsy remains the benchmark for diagnosis despite its invasiveness and poor tolerability, as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is limited by low specificity. The aim of this proteomic study was to identify new [...] Read more.
Nowadays, in the case of suspected prostate cancer (PCa), tissue needle biopsy remains the benchmark for diagnosis despite its invasiveness and poor tolerability, as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is limited by low specificity. The aim of this proteomic study was to identify new diagnostic biomarkers in urine, an easily and non-invasively available sample, able to selectively discriminate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), evaluating whether the presence of inflammation may be a confounding parameter. The analysis was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) on urine samples from PCa and BPH patients, divided into subgroups based on the presence or absence of inflammation. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were found in the urinary proteomic profile of PCa and BPH groups. Of the nine differentially expressed proteins, only five can properly be considered potential biomarkers of PCa able to discriminate the two diseases, as they were not affected by the inflammatory process. Therefore, the proteomic research of novel and reliable urinary biomarkers of PCa should be conducted considering the presence of inflammation as a realistic interfering element, as it could hinder the detection of important protein targets. Full article
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8 pages, 444 KiB  
Communication
PARP Inhibitors in the Management of BRCA-Positive Prostate Cancer: An Overview
by Islam Kourampi, Ioannis-Panagiotis Tsetzan, Panagiota Kappi and Nityanand Jain
Uro 2023, 3(1), 40-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro3010006 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2775
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men and the fifth leading cause of death among men worldwide. Men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) often have BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 gene mutations which can make them sensitive to poly-(ADP-ribose) [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men and the fifth leading cause of death among men worldwide. Men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) often have BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 gene mutations which can make them sensitive to poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors or PARP inhibitors (PARPi), such as Olaparib, Rucaparib, and Niraparib. Although significant advances have been made with PARPi and the prognosis of patients with mCRPC has improved dramatically, resistance often constitutes a challenge that frequently results in tumor escape. This present communication paper explores the role of PARPi in BRCA-positive prostate cancer and sheds light on numerous published and ongoing clinical trials that will determine the future of PARPi at various tumor stages as a monotherapy or polytherapy regime. Full article
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11 pages, 1555 KiB  
Article
A Single Dose of Novel PSMA-Targeting Radiopharmaceutical Agent [177Lu]Ludotadipep for Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Phase I Clinical Trial
by Dongho Shin, Seunggyun Ha, Joo Hyun O, Seung ah Rhew, Chang Eil Yoon, Hyeok Jae Kwon, Hyong Woo Moon, Yong Hyun Park, Sonya Youngju Park, Chansoo Park, Dae Yoon Chi, Ie Ryung Yoo and Ji Youl Lee
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6225; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246225 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
[177Lu]Ludotadipep, which enables targeted delivery of beta-particle radiation to prostate tumor cells, had been suggested as a promising therapeutic option for mCRPC. From November 2020 to March 2022, a total of 30 patients were enrolled for single dose of [177 [...] Read more.
[177Lu]Ludotadipep, which enables targeted delivery of beta-particle radiation to prostate tumor cells, had been suggested as a promising therapeutic option for mCRPC. From November 2020 to March 2022, a total of 30 patients were enrolled for single dose of [177Lu]Ludotadipep RPT, 6 subjects in each of the 5 different activity groups of 1.9 GBq, 2.8 GBq, 3.7 GBq, 4.6 GBq, and 5.6 GBq. [177Lu]Ludotadipep was administered via venous injection, and patients were hospitalized for three days to monitor for any adverse effects. Serum PSA levels were followed up at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12, and PSMA PET/CT with [18F]Florastamin was obtained at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. The subjects required positive PSMA PET/CT prior to [177Lu]Ludotadipep administration. Among the 29 subjects who received [177Lu]Ludotadipep, 36 treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 17 subjects (58.6%) and 4 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in 3 subjects (10.3%). Of the total 24 subjects who had full 12-week follow-up data, 16 (66.7%) showed decrease in PSA of any magnitude, and 9 (37.5%) showed a decrease in PSA by 50% or greater. A total of 5 of the 24 patients (20.8%) showed disease progression (PSA increase of 25% or higher from the baseline) at the 12th week following single dose of [177Lu]Ludotadipep. These data thus far suggest that [177Lu]Ludotadipep could be a promising RPT agent with low toxicity in mCRPC patients who have not been responsive to conventional treatments. Full article
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10 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Evaluation of Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer and Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer with [68Ga]Ga DOTATATE PET-CT
by Mehmet Asim Bilen, Akinyemi Akintayo, Yuan Liu, Olayinka Abiodun-Ojo, Omer Kucuk, Bradley C. Carthon, David M. Schuster and Ephraim E. Parent
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6039; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246039 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Objectives: Prostate cancer is well known to express high levels of somatostatin receptors and preliminary data suggests that PET imaging with the somatostatin analog, [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE, may allow for whole body staging of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and [...] Read more.
Objectives: Prostate cancer is well known to express high levels of somatostatin receptors and preliminary data suggests that PET imaging with the somatostatin analog, [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE, may allow for whole body staging of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NePC). This study explores the utility of [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT to identify metastatic deposits in men with mCRPC and NePC and prognosticate disease progression. Methods: [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT was performed in 17 patients with mCRPC and of those, 2/17 had NePC. A semiquantitative analysis with standardized uptake values (SUV) (e.g., SUVmax, SUVmean) was performed for each metastatic lesion and reference background tissues. [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE uptake in metastatic deposits was further classified as: mild (less than liver), moderate (up to liver average), or marked (greater than liver). Serial prostate-specific antigen measurements and patient survival were followed up to 3 years after PET imaging to assess response to standard of care treatment. Results: All patients had at least one metastatic lesion with identifiable [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE uptake. Marked [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE uptake was found in 7/17 patients, including both NePC patients, and all were non-responders to systemic therapy and died within the follow up period, with a mean time to death of 8.1 months. Three patients had mild [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE uptake, and all were responders to systemic therapy and were alive 36 months after [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE imaging. Conclusions: [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE is able to identify mCRPC and NePC metastatic deposits, and lesions with [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE uptake > liver may portend poor outcomes in patients with mCRPC. Full article
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9 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
Clinical Analysis of Perioperative Outcomes on Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy before Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgery for Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer in a Chinese Cohort
by Guangyu Sun, Zhengxin Liang, Yuchen Jiang, Shenfei Ma, Shuaiqi Chen and Ranlu Liu
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(11), 8668-8676; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29110683 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the perioperative outcomes of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) before laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery for localized high-risk prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort. Methods: The clinical data of 385 patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in [...] Read more.
Objective: To analyze the perioperative outcomes of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) before laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery for localized high-risk prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort. Methods: The clinical data of 385 patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in our hospital from January 2019 to June 2021 were analyzed retrospectively, including 168 patients with preoperative NHT and 217 patients with simple surgery. Clinical characteristics were compared in the above two groups, the laparoscopic RP (LRP) cohort (n = 234) and the robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) cohort (n = 151), respectively. Results: In the overall cohort, compared with the control group, the NHT group had a shorter operative time, less blood loss, a lower positive surgical margin rate, and a higher proportion of Gleason score (GS) downgrading after the operation (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in hospitalization time, biochemical recurrence, urine leakage, urinary continence, or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (p > 0.05). In the LRP cohort, it was found that the NHT group also had shorter operative time, less blood loss, lower positive surgical margin rate, a higher proportion of GS downgrading after the operation, and faster recovery of urinary control than the control group (p < 0.05). There was no marked difference in hospitalization time, biochemical recurrence, urinary leakage, or PSA progression-free survival. However, in the RALP cohort, the NHT group had a significant difference in the GS downgrading after the operation compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In the overall cohort, multiple analyses showed that initial PSA level, GS at biopsy, clinical T stage, lymph node invasion, use of NHT, and surgical methods were significantly associated with positive surgical margin (p < 0.05) while NHT did not account for biochemical recurrence (p > 0.05). Conclusions: NHT can lower the difficulty of surgery, reduce positive surgical margin rate, and help recovery in short-term urinary control in patients with high-risk prostate cancer after LRP. However, we do not have evidence on the benefit of NHT in high-risk PCa patients treated with RALP. For these patients, surgery can be performed as early as possible. Full article
17 pages, 1604 KiB  
Article
Patient-Factors Influencing the 2-Year Trajectory of Mental and Physical Health in Prostate Cancer Patients
by Alessandro Cicchetti, Marianna Noale, Paola Dordoni, Barbara Noris Chiorda, Letizia De Luca, Lara Bellardita, Rodolfo Montironi, Filippo Bertoni, Pierfrancesco Bassi, Riccardo Schiavina, Mauro Gacci, Sergio Serni, Francesco Sessa, Marco Maruzzo, Stefania Maggi and Riccardo Valdagni
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(11), 8244-8260; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29110651 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the physical and mental Quality of Life (QoL) trajectories in prostate cancer (PCa) patients participating in the Pros-IT CNR study. QoL was assessed using the Physical (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) of Short-Form Health Survey upon diagnosis [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the physical and mental Quality of Life (QoL) trajectories in prostate cancer (PCa) patients participating in the Pros-IT CNR study. QoL was assessed using the Physical (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) of Short-Form Health Survey upon diagnosis and two years later. Growth mixture models were applied on 1158 patients and 3 trajectories over time were identified for MCS: 75% of patients had constantly high scores, 13% had permanently low scores and 12% starting with low scores had a recovery; the predictors that differentiated the trajectories were age, comorbidities, a family history of PCa, and the bowel, urinary and sexual functional scores at diagnosis. In the physical domain, 2 trajectories were defined: 85% of patients had constantly high scores, while 15% started with low scores and had a further slight decrease. Two years after diagnosis, the psychological and physical status was moderately compromised in more than 10% of PCa patients. For mental health, the trajectory analysis suggested that following the compromised patients at diagnosis until treatment could allow identification of those more vulnerable, for which a level 2 intervention with support from a non-oncology team supervised by a clinical psychologist could be of help. Full article
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