High Performance Textiles II

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2023) | Viewed by 25279

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Material Art, Galala University, Galala 82822, Egypt
Interests: supercritical fluid dyeing and finishing; development of new dyes; modification of fabrics and colorant to produce multifunctional textiles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, ISMN–CNR, Palermo, c/o Department ChiBioFarAm, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: materials chemistry; green chemistry; nanotechnology; environmental remediation; advanced materials; functional coating; colloidal nanoparticles; smart and hi-tech textiles; (waste)water treatment; multifunctional hybrid materials and nanocomposites; sensing technologies; bio-based blended polymers; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-performance textiles are one of the most recent advances in the textile and clothing industry. With input from eminent researchers in the field, this book contributes a critical overview of key advancement in the field. Chapters focus on the use of high-performance textiles in such areas as medicine, protective clothing, heat and fire protection, industrial filtration, geotextiles, civil engineering, and sustainable energy applications. They also focus on the evaluation of novel surface modification using nanoparticles, supercritical fluid, laser, and irradiation with electron beam and plasma technologies for a wide scope of high-performance textiles.

Prof. Dr. Tarek M. Abou Elmaaty
Dr. Maria Rosaria Plutino
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • modification of fabrics
  • dyeing
  • high-performance textiles
  • surface modification
  • multifunctional textiles

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 4737 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Thermoplastic Composites from Basalt- and Kevlar-Woven Fabrics: Comparative Analysis of Mechanical and Thermomechanical Performance
by Hafsa Jamshaid, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Vijay Chandan, Shabnam Nazari, Muhammad Shoaib, Laurent Bizet, Petr Jirku, Miroslav Muller and Rostislav Choteborsky
Polymers 2023, 15(7), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15071744 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Current research deals with thermoplastic polyamide (PA6)-based composites reinforced with basalt and Kevlar fabrics. Hybrid composites were developed by altering the stacking sequence of basalt and two kinds of Kevlar fabrics. Pure-basalt- and pure-Kevlar-based samples were also developed for comparison purposes. The developed [...] Read more.
Current research deals with thermoplastic polyamide (PA6)-based composites reinforced with basalt and Kevlar fabrics. Hybrid composites were developed by altering the stacking sequence of basalt and two kinds of Kevlar fabrics. Pure-basalt- and pure-Kevlar-based samples were also developed for comparison purposes. The developed samples were evaluated with respect to mechanical and thermomechanical properties. Mechanical tests, e.g., tensile, flexural, and impact strength, were conducted along with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to ascertain the load-bearing and high-temperature stability of the hybrid composite samples vis-à-vis pure-basalt- and Kevlar-based samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to study the nature of fracture and failure of the composite samples. The pure-basalt-based PA6 thermoplastic composites exhibited the best mechanical performance. Hybridization with basalt proved to be beneficial for improving the mechanical performance of the composites using Kevlar fabrics. However, a proper stacking sequence and density of Kevlar fabric has to be selected. The thermogravimetric analysis showed minimal weight loss for basalt-based composites. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the composites using Kevlar fabric was improved by hybridization with basalt fabric. The thermomechanical characteristics of hybrid composites may be altered by changing the stacking order of the reinforcements. Differential scanning calorimetry further established that the hybrid composites with alternate layers of basalt and Kevlar can improve the heat flow rate and enable survivability at extreme temperatures. Such novel hybrid composites can be used for high-load-bearing and high-temperature applications, e.g., defense, aerospace, automotives, and energy applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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14 pages, 4743 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Structure of Cotton Fabrics on the Adhesion of Conductive Polymer Printed with 3D Printing Technology
by Rocio Silvestre, Eduardo Garcia-Breijo, Josué Ferri, Ignacio Montava and Eva Bou-Belda
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030668 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing technology is being increasingly applied in a multitude of sectors. However, this technology is not generally applied in the same way as in other sectors, possibly due to the difficulty of adhesion between the polymer and the textile substrate. A textile [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing technology is being increasingly applied in a multitude of sectors. However, this technology is not generally applied in the same way as in other sectors, possibly due to the difficulty of adhesion between the polymer and the textile substrate. A textile garment is subjected to wear and tear during its lifetime, and a low tensile strength or rubbing resistance hinders a garment in most of the applications of this type of research. This study examined the influence of the characteristics of the cotton textile substrate, such as the weave structure and the yarn thickness, on the tensile strength of a 3D-printed element with conductive filament. Starting from the fabric with the highest tensile strength, different prints were made using this technology to incorporate conductive and heating properties into the fabric. The results validate the possibility of providing new properties to the textile by means of this technology; however, the correct selection of the textile used as a base substrate is important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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22 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
Eco-Friendly Fibers Embedded Yarn Structure in High-Performance Fabrics to Improve Moisture Absorption and Drying Properties
by Hyun-Ah Kim
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030581 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
This study examined the perspiration absorption and drying characteristics of eco-friendly fiber-embedded fabrics with different yarn structures. The wicking and drying rates of fifteen fabrics made from quadrilobal PET, Lyocell, and bamboo fibers were measured using two evaluation methods and compared with the [...] Read more.
This study examined the perspiration absorption and drying characteristics of eco-friendly fiber-embedded fabrics with different yarn structures. The wicking and drying rates of fifteen fabrics made from quadrilobal PET, Lyocell, and bamboo fibers were measured using two evaluation methods and compared with the pore diameter and hygroscopic characteristics of the constituent fibers in the yarns. The sheath/core yarn structure played a vital role in improving the moisture absorption and drying properties of the eco-friendly fibers embedded in high-performance fabrics, which was partly affected by the hygroscopicity and non-circular cross-section of constituent fibers in the yarns. Superior perspiration absorption and drying properties among the various eco-friendly high-performance fabrics were observed in the quadrilobal PET/Lyocell sheath/core and quadrilobal PET/bamboo spun yarn fabrics. By contrast, the PET/Lyocell Siro-fil, bamboo spun, and hi-multi PET yarn fabrics exhibited inferior moisture absorption and drying properties. In particular, the evaluated results between transverse and vertical wicking measuring methods in absorption property showed a similar trend. In contrast, the drying property measured between the drying rate (min) at a steady state and the drying rate (g) at a transient state showed a different trend. Multiple regression analysis showed that the wicking property of the eco-friendly fiber-embedded fabrics was mainly related to the pore diameter, cross-sectional shape, and absorption property of the fibers in the yarns, and it was also highly associated with the drying characteristics of the fabrics. The market application of the sheath/core yarn structure using Lyocell and bamboo fibers with quadrilobal PET is available for producing eco-friendly fabrics that can contribute to environmental improvement and wear comfort related to the moisture absorption and fast-drying properties of the woven fabrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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15 pages, 32192 KiB  
Article
Development of Embroidery-Type Sensor Capable of Detecting Respiration Using the Capacitive Method
by Ji-Seon Kim, TranThuyNga Truong and Jooyong Kim
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030503 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
This study presents a respiration sensor that is dependent on a parallel capacitor, including connection lines and electrodes embroidered on textiles. First, characterizations of the respiration capacitor using a silver thread, including a combination of porous Eco-flex simulating air in the lungs due [...] Read more.
This study presents a respiration sensor that is dependent on a parallel capacitor, including connection lines and electrodes embroidered on textiles. First, characterizations of the respiration capacitor using a silver thread, including a combination of porous Eco-flex simulating air in the lungs due to respiration, were evaluated using an LCR meter. Second, the effects of air gaps on the detection of respiration motions according to the change in electrode distance under pressure were presented. The data values were measured from 1 to 300 kHz using an LCR meter and dielectric test fixture. Third, actual breathing was examined in four patterns: normal breathing, deep breathing, hyperventilation, and apnea. The test was performed after fabricating a clothing-type breathing sensor. Finally, the change in capacitance for actual respiration was determined by wearing a clothing-type respiration sensor based on the data collected. The effectiveness of the respiration sensor was demonstrated by measuring it to discern all waveforms, cycles, and ranges associated with the breathing pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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11 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
Textile Functionalization Using LTA and FAU Zeolitic Materials
by Fabian N. Murrieta-Rico, Rosario I. Yocupicio-Gaxiola, Joel Antúnez-García, Armando Reyes-Serrato, Perla Sánchez and Vitalii Petranovskii
Polymers 2023, 15(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15010099 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
COVID-19 has drawn worldwide attention to the need for personal protective equipment. Face masks can be transformed from passive filters into active protection. For this purpose, it is sufficient to apply materials with oligodynamic effect to the fabric of the masks, which makes [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has drawn worldwide attention to the need for personal protective equipment. Face masks can be transformed from passive filters into active protection. For this purpose, it is sufficient to apply materials with oligodynamic effect to the fabric of the masks, which makes it possible to destroy infectious agents that have fallen on the mask with aerosol droplets from the air stream. Zeolites themselves are not oligodynamic materials, but can serve as carriers for nanoparticles of metals and/or compounds of silver, zinc, copper, and other materials with biocidal properties. Such a method, when the particles are immobilized on the surface of the substrate, will increase the lifetime of the active oligodynamic material. In this work, we present the functionalization of textile materials with zeolites to obtain active personal protective equipment with an extended service life. This is done with the aim to extend the synthesis of zeolitic materials to polymeric fabrics beyond cotton. The samples were characterized using XRD, SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Data of physicochemical studies of the obtained hybrid materials (fabrics with crystals grown on fibers) will be presented, with a focus on the effect of fabrics in the growth process of zeolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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10 pages, 5352 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Type of Binder Used in the Treatment of Cotton Fabric with Montmorillonite Particles on the Release of Negative Ions
by Margaux Carette, Jaime Gisbert-Payá, Lucía Capablanca and Eva Bou-Belda
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 4945; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14224945 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Throughout history, mineral clays have had a multitude of applications. With recent developments in the textile industry, they have been used for their antimicrobial properties. As a promising phyllosilicate with a negative layer charge, montmorillonite (MMT) was used in this work to treat [...] Read more.
Throughout history, mineral clays have had a multitude of applications. With recent developments in the textile industry, they have been used for their antimicrobial properties. As a promising phyllosilicate with a negative layer charge, montmorillonite (MMT) was used in this work to treat cotton fabric to evaluate its ability to generate negative air ions (NAIs). The MMT was dispersed with varying binder concentrations. Resins of different composition (polyurethane or acrylic) was applied to cotton fabric by padding, and the negative ion count was measured. Two types of MMT with different characteristics were tested. Electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to study the presence of MMT particles on the cotton fabric surface, and the colors of the samples were tested. It was observed that the composition of the binder used had a significant influence on the number of negative ions released by the treated sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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13 pages, 15857 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Cyclodextrin Coated Red Phosphorus Double−Shell Microcapsules and Its Application in Flame Retardant Polyamide6
by Shangkai Lu, Junbang Liu, Lijuan Zeng, Lianghui Ai and Ping Liu
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4101; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194101 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Using the melamine borate and crosslinked β−cyclodextrin as shell materials, the double−shell microcapsules (Mic−DP) of red phosphorus (RP) was prepared, and its flame−retardant effect on polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated. Compared with RP, Mic−DP showed lower hygroscopic and better inoxidizability. The limiting oxygen [...] Read more.
Using the melamine borate and crosslinked β−cyclodextrin as shell materials, the double−shell microcapsules (Mic−DP) of red phosphorus (RP) was prepared, and its flame−retardant effect on polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated. Compared with RP, Mic−DP showed lower hygroscopic and better inoxidizability. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of PA6/13%Mic−DP was 27.8%, and PA6/13%Mic−DP reached V−0 rating. After the addition of 13% Mic−DP, the total exothermic (THR), peak exothermic (PK−HRR), and average effective thermal combustion (AV−EHC) rates of PA6 decreased. In addition, in order to investigate its flame−retardant mechanism, the pyrolysis gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (Py−GC−MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT−IR) methods were used, and the results showed that mic DP acted as a flame retardant in the gas and condensed phases. The Mic−DP exhibited good compatibility and dispersibility in PA6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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14 pages, 3369 KiB  
Article
Bio-Based Healable 2K PU Textile Coating for Durable Applications
by David De Smet and Myriam Vanneste
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4014; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194014 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
A biobased healable 2K polyurethane (PU) coating incorporating a Schiff base was synthesized and applied as a thin coating on textiles. The Schiff base, made out of cystine and vanillin, contained reversible imine and disulfide bonds and was used as a chain extender [...] Read more.
A biobased healable 2K polyurethane (PU) coating incorporating a Schiff base was synthesized and applied as a thin coating on textiles. The Schiff base, made out of cystine and vanillin, contained reversible imine and disulfide bonds and was used as a chain extender in PU synthesis. The FT-IR analysis indicated the successful incorporation of the Schiff base in the PU backbone. Compared with control PU coatings, the healable bio-based PU coating with the Schiff base showed very good healing properties using heat as external stimuli: a healing recovery of 75% was obtained after applying a 2 N scratch and complete recovery of the resistance to hydrostatic pressure. SEM analysis revealed complete closure of the scratch after healing for 30 min at 90 °C. The healing properties are attributed to the synergy of the dual-dynamic metatheses of the imine and disulfide bonds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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20 pages, 9444 KiB  
Article
Effect of Interlaminar Toughness on the Residual Compressive Capacity of Carbon Fiber Laminates with Different Types of Delamination
by Yao Zhang, Deng’an Cai, Yanpeng Hu, Nan Zhang and Jinfeng Peng
Polymers 2022, 14(17), 3560; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14173560 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of interlaminar properties and the type of delamination defects on the residual compression properties of carbon fiber laminates were experimentally investigated. A new method, which employed magnetic force to guide the arrangement direction of stainless steel particles between [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of interlaminar properties and the type of delamination defects on the residual compression properties of carbon fiber laminates were experimentally investigated. A new method, which employed magnetic force to guide the arrangement direction of stainless steel particles between layers of laminates, was adopted to improve the interlayer toughness. The digital image correlation, C-scan, and micro-CT were used to measure and identify the compression failure damages. Test results showed that the compressive strength of the intact carbon fiber laminates was 299.37 MPa, and the one of specimens containing the deeply buried delamination, the through-width delamination, and the surface delamination decreased by 55.98 MPa, 58.69 MPa, and 60.23 MPa, respectively. The compressive strength of the specimens containing the deeply buried delamination only decreased by 14.01 MPa when the mode I toughness increased by 81.88%, and the specimen containing the surface delamination only decreased by 30.86 MPa when the mode II fracture toughness increased by 87.72%. However, improving the fracture toughness could not strengthen the specimens containing the through-width delamination. Moreover, a qualitative dynamic damage relationship, which described the relationship between delamination expansion and compression damage vividly, was proposed. The reason the increase of the toughness could improve the residual compression performance of the laminates containing delamination was that the higher fracture toughness hindered the secondary expansion of the delamination during the compression process so that the delamination area could almost remain unchanged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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14 pages, 4959 KiB  
Article
Sol-Gel Assisted Immobilization of Alizarin Red S on Polyester Fabrics for Developing Stimuli-Responsive Wearable Sensors
by Valentina Trovato, Alessio Mezzi, Marco Brucale, Hamed Abdeh, Dario Drommi, Giuseppe Rosace and Maria Rosaria Plutino
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142788 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3935
Abstract
In the field of stimuli-responsive materials, introducing a pH-sensitive dyestuff onto textile fabrics is a promising approach for the development of wearable sensors. In this paper, the alizarin red S dyestuff bonded with a sol-gel precursor, namely trimethoxy-[3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl]silane, was used to functionalize polyethylene [...] Read more.
In the field of stimuli-responsive materials, introducing a pH-sensitive dyestuff onto textile fabrics is a promising approach for the development of wearable sensors. In this paper, the alizarin red S dyestuff bonded with a sol-gel precursor, namely trimethoxy-[3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl]silane, was used to functionalize polyethylene terephthalate fabrics, a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polyester largely used in the healthcare sector mainly due to its advantages, including mechanical strength, biocompatibility and resistance against abrasion and chemicals. The obtained hybrid halochromic silane-based coating on polyester fabrics was investigated with several chemical characterization techniques. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of the dyestuff-based silane matrix onto polyethylene terephthalate samples through self-condensation of hydrolyzed silanols under the curing process. The reversibility and repeatability of pH-sensing properties of treated polyester fabrics in the pH range 2.0–8.0 were confirmed with diffuse reflectance and CIELAB color space characterizations. Polyester fabric functionalized with halochromic silane-based coating shows the durability of halochromic properties conversely to fabric treated with plain alizarin red S, thus highlighting the potentiality of the sol-gel approach in developing durable halochromic coating on synthetic substrates. The developed wearable pH-meter device could find applications as a non-invasive pH sensor for wellness and healthcare fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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Review

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17 pages, 1081 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Functionalization of Cotton Fabrics with Nanotechnology
by Tarek M. Abou Elmaaty, Hanan Elsisi, Ghada Elsayad, Hagar Elhadad and Maria Rosaria Plutino
Polymers 2022, 14(20), 4273; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14204273 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4339
Abstract
Nowadays, consumers understand that upgrading their traditional clothing can improve their lives. In a garment fabric, comfort and functional properties are the most important features that a wearer looks for. A variety of textile technologies are being developed to meet the needs of [...] Read more.
Nowadays, consumers understand that upgrading their traditional clothing can improve their lives. In a garment fabric, comfort and functional properties are the most important features that a wearer looks for. A variety of textile technologies are being developed to meet the needs of customers. In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most important areas of research. Nanotechnology’s unique and useful characteristics have led to its rapid expansion in the textile industry. In the production of high-performance textiles, various finishing, coating, and manufacturing techniques are used to produce fibers or fabrics with nano sized (10−9) particles. Humans have been utilizing cotton for thousands of years, and it accounts for around 34% of all fiber production worldwide. The clothing industry, home textile industry, and healthcare industry all use it extensively. Nanotechnology can enhance cotton fabrics’ properties, including antibacterial activity, self-cleaning, UV protection, etc. Research in the field of the functionalization of nanotechnology and their integration into cotton fabrics is presented in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles II)
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