High Performance Textiles

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 30341

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Department of Material Art, Galala University, Suez, Egypt
Interests: supercritical fluid dyeing and finshing; development of new dyes; modification of fabrics and colorant to produce multifunctional textiles
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Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, ISMN–CNR, Palermo, c/o Department ChiBioFarAm, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: materials chemistry; green chemistry; nanotechnology; environmental remediation; advanced materials; functional coating; colloidal nanoparticles; smart and hi-tech textiles; (waste)water treatment; multifunctional hybrid materials and nanocomposites; sensing technologies; bio-based blended polymers; circular economy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High performance textiles are one of the most recent advance of the textile and clothing industry. With input from imenient reearchers in the field, this book contributes a critical overview of key advancement in the field. Chapters binding the utilization of high performance textiles in such areas as medicine, protective clothing, heat and fire protection, industrial filtration, geotextiles, civil engineering and sustainable energy applications. Also, included evaluation of  novel surface modification using nano particles, supercritical fluid, laser, irradiation with electron beam and plasma technologies for a wide scope of high performance textiles.

Prof. Dr. Tarek M. Abou Elmaaty
Dr. Maria Rosaria Plutino
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • modification of fabrics
  • dyeing
  • high performance textiles
  • surface modification
  • multifunctional textiles

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 7293 KiB  
Article
Combined RIS and EBG Surfaces Inspired Meta-Wearable Textile MIMO Antenna Using Viscose-Wool Felt
by Amira Nur Suraya Shamsuri Agus, Thennarasan Sabapathy, Muzammil Jusoh, Mahmoud A. Abdelghany, Kabir Hossain, Surentiran Padmanathan, Samir Salem Al-Bawri and Ping Jack Soh
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14101989 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
In this paper, we present a textile multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna designed with a metamaterial inspired reactive impedance surface (RIS) and electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) using viscose-wool felt. Rectangular RIS was used as a reflector to improve the antenna gain and bandwidth to address well [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a textile multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna designed with a metamaterial inspired reactive impedance surface (RIS) and electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) using viscose-wool felt. Rectangular RIS was used as a reflector to improve the antenna gain and bandwidth to address well known crucial challenges—maintaining gain while reducing mutual coupling in MIMO antennas. The RIS unit cell was designed to achieve inductive impedance at the center frequency of 2.45 GHz with a reflection phase of 177.6°. The improved bandwidth of 170 MHz was achieved by using a square shaped RIS under a rectangular patch antenna, and this also helped to attain an additional gain of 1.29 dBi. When the antenna was implemented as MIMO, a split ring resonator backed by strip line type EBG was used to minimize the mutual coupling between the antenna elements. The EBG offered a sufficient band gap region from 2.37 GHz to 2.63 GHz. Prior to fabrication, bending analysis was carried out to validate the performance of the reflection coefficient (S11) and transmission coefficient (S21). The results of the analysis show that bending conditions have very little impact on antenna performance in terms of S-parameters. The effect of strip line supported SRR-based EBG was further analyzed with the fabricated prototype to clearly show the advantage of the designed EBG towards the mutual coupling reduction. The designed MIMO-RIS-EBG array-based antenna revealed an S21 reduction of −9.8 dB at 2.45 GHz frequency with overall S21 of <−40 dB. The results also indicated that the proposed SRR-EBG minimized the mutual coupling while keeping the mean effective gain (MEG) variations of <3 dB at the desired operating band. The specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis showed that the proposed design is not harmful to human body as the values are less than the regulated SAR. Overall, the findings in this study indicate the potential of the proposed MIMO antenna for microwave applications in a wearable format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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20 pages, 24937 KiB  
Article
Soybean Oil-Based Biopolymers Induced by Nonthermal Plasma to Enhance the Dyeing of Para-Aramids with a Cationic Dye
by Caleb Metzcar, Xiaofei Philip Ye, Toni Wang and Christopher J. Doona
Polymers 2022, 14(3), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14030628 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
To overcome the recalcitrance of para-aramid textiles against dyeing, this study demonstrated that increasing the functionalities of soybean oil applied to the surface of para-aramids followed by a nonthermal plasma (NTP) treatment improved the dyeing color strength compared with the use of soybean [...] Read more.
To overcome the recalcitrance of para-aramid textiles against dyeing, this study demonstrated that increasing the functionalities of soybean oil applied to the surface of para-aramids followed by a nonthermal plasma (NTP) treatment improved the dyeing color strength compared with the use of soybean oil alone, and that dyeing occurred through covalent bonding. Particularly, compared with the pretreatment using soybean oil that obtained the highest color strength of 3.89 (as K/S value determined from spectral analysis of the sample reflectance in the visible range), the present pretreatments with either acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) or a mixture of acrylic acid and soybean oil (AA/Soy) achieved K/S values higher than nine (>9.00). The NTP treatment, after the AESO or AA/Soy pretreatment, was essential in inducing the formation of a polymerized network on the surface of para-aramids that bonded the dye molecules and generating covalent bonds that anchored the polymerized network to the para-aramids, which is difficult to achieve given the high crystallinity and chemical inertness of para-aramids. As an important economic consideration, the sequential experimentation method demonstrated that a simple mixture of AA/Soy could replace the expensive AESO reagent and render a comparable performance in dyeing para-aramids. Among the auxiliary additives tested with the AESO and AA/Soy pretreatments followed by NPT treatment in this study, Polysorbate 80 as a surfactant negatively affected the dyeing, benzyl alcohol as a swelling agent had minimal effect, and NaCl as an electrolyte showed a positive effect. The dyeing method developed in this study did not compromise the strength of para-aramids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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16 pages, 6378 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional Dyeing of Wool Fabrics Using Selenium Nanoparticles
by Tarek Abou Elmaaty, Sally Raouf, Khaled Sayed-Ahmed and Maria Rosaria Plutino
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010191 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
This work aims to utilize selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) as a novel dyestuff, which endows wool fibers with an orange color because of their localized surface plasmon resonance. The color characteristics of dyed fibers were evaluated and analyzed. The color depth of the dyed [...] Read more.
This work aims to utilize selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) as a novel dyestuff, which endows wool fibers with an orange color because of their localized surface plasmon resonance. The color characteristics of dyed fibers were evaluated and analyzed. The color depth of the dyed fabrics under study was increased with the increase in Se content and dyeing temperature. The colored wool fabrics were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results indicated that spherical Se-NPs with a spherical shape were consistently deposited onto the surface of wool fibers with good distribution. In addition, the influence of high temperature on the color characteristics and imparted functionalities of the dyed fabrics were also investigated. The obtained results showed that the proposed dyeing process is highly durable to washing after 10 cycles of washes, and the acquired functionalities, mainly antimicrobial activity and UV-blocking properties, were only marginally affected, maintaining an excellent fastness property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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13 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Sonochemical Coloration and Antibacterial Functionalization of Leather with Selenium Nanoparticles (SeNPs)
by Tarek Abou Elmaaty, Khaled Sayed-Ahmed, Radwan Mohamed Ali, Kholoud El-Khodary and Shereen A. Abdeldayem
Polymers 2022, 14(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14010074 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3036
Abstract
The development of antibacterial coatings for footwear components is of great interest both from an industry and consumer point of view. In this work, the leather material was developed taking advantage of the intrinsic antibacterial activity and coloring ability of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). [...] Read more.
The development of antibacterial coatings for footwear components is of great interest both from an industry and consumer point of view. In this work, the leather material was developed taking advantage of the intrinsic antibacterial activity and coloring ability of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). The SeNPs were synthesized and implemented into the leather surface by using ultrasonic techniques to obtain simultaneous coloring and functionalization. The formation of SeNPs in the solutions was evaluated using UV/Vis spectroscopy and the morphology of the NPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The treated leather material (leather/SeNPs) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The effects of SeNPs on the coloration and antibacterial properties of the leather material were evaluated. The results revealed that the NPs were mostly spherical in shape, regularly distributed, and closely anchored to the leather surface. The particle size distribution of SeNPs at concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM was in the range of 36–77 nm and 41–149 nm, respectively. It was observed that leather/SeNPs exhibited a higher depth of shade compared to untreated ones, as well as excellent fastness properties. The results showed that leather/SeNPs can significantly enhance the antibacterial activity against model of bacteria, including Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli). Moreover, the resulting leather exhibited low cytotoxicity against HFB4 cell lines. This achievement should be quite appealing to the footwear industry as a way to prevent the spread of bacterial infection promoted by humidity, poor breathability and temperature which promote the expansion of the microflora of the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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11 pages, 2483 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Multifunctional Plasma Cured Cellulose Fibers Coated with Photo-Induced Nanocomposite toward Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Textiles
by Hany El-Hamshary, Mehrez E. El-Naggar, Tawfik A. Khattab and Ayman El-Faham
Polymers 2021, 13(21), 3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213664 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Multifunctional fibrous surfaces with ultraviolet protection, self-cleaning, or antibacterial activity have been highly attractive. Nanocomposites consisting of silver (AgNPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPs) nanoparticles (Ag/TiO2) were developed and coated onto the surface of viscose fibers employing a straightforward pad–dry–cure [...] Read more.
Multifunctional fibrous surfaces with ultraviolet protection, self-cleaning, or antibacterial activity have been highly attractive. Nanocomposites consisting of silver (AgNPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPs) nanoparticles (Ag/TiO2) were developed and coated onto the surface of viscose fibers employing a straightforward pad–dry–cure procedure. The morphologies and elemental compositions were evaluated by scan electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectra (FTIR), and energy-dispersion X-ray spectra (EDS). The resultant multifunctional textile materials displayed antibacterial and photo-induced catalytic properties. The photocatalyzed self-cleaning properties were investigated employing the photochemical decay of methylthioninium chloride, whereas the antibacterial properties were studied versus E. coli. The viscose fibers coated with Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite demonstrated improved efficiency compared with viscose fibers coated with pure anatase TiO2 nano-scaled particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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17 pages, 52926 KiB  
Article
Influence of Structure and Composition of Woven Fabrics on the Conductivity of Flexography Printed Electronics
by Ana María Rodes-Carbonell, Josué Ferri, Eduardo Garcia-Breijo, Ignacio Montava and Eva Bou-Belda
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183165 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
The work is framed within Printed Electronics, an emerging technology for the manufacture of electronic products. Among the different printing methods, the roll-to-roll flexography technique is used because it allows continuous manufacturing and high productivity at low cost. Nevertheless, the incorporation of the [...] Read more.
The work is framed within Printed Electronics, an emerging technology for the manufacture of electronic products. Among the different printing methods, the roll-to-roll flexography technique is used because it allows continuous manufacturing and high productivity at low cost. Nevertheless, the incorporation of the flexography printing technique in the textile field is still very recent due to technical barriers such as the porosity of the surface, the durability and the ability to withstand washing. By using the flexography printing technique and conductive inks, different printings were performed onto woven fabrics. Specifically, the study is focused on investigating the influence of the structure of the woven fabric with different weave construction, interlacing coefficient, yarn number and fabric density on the conductivity of the printing. In the same way, the influence of the weft composition was studied by a comparison of different materials (cotton, polyester, and wool). Optical, SEM, color fastness to wash, color measurement using reflection spectrophotometer and multi-meter analyses concluded that woven fabrics have a lower conductivity due to the ink expansion through the inner part of the textile. Regarding weft composition, cotton performs worse due to the moisture absorption capacity of cellulosic fiber. A solution for improving conductivity on printed electronic textiles would be pre-treatment of the surface substrates by applying different chemical compounds that increase the adhesion of the ink, avoiding its absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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12 pages, 6393 KiB  
Article
One Surface Treatment, Multiple Possibilities: Broadening the Use-Potential of Para-Aramid Fibers with Mechanical Adhesion
by Sarianna Palola, Farzin Javanshour, Shadi Kolahgar Azari, Vasileios Koutsos and Essi Sarlin
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3114; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183114 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Aramid fibers are high-strength and high-modulus technical fibers used in protective clothing, such as bulletproof vests and helmets, as well as in industrial applications, such as tires and brake pads. However, their full potential is not currently utilized due to adhesion problems to [...] Read more.
Aramid fibers are high-strength and high-modulus technical fibers used in protective clothing, such as bulletproof vests and helmets, as well as in industrial applications, such as tires and brake pads. However, their full potential is not currently utilized due to adhesion problems to matrix materials. In this paper, we study how the introduction of mechanical adhesion between aramid fibers and matrix material the affects adhesion properties of the fiber in both thermoplastic and thermoset matrix. A microwave-induced surface modification method is used to create nanostructures to the fiber surface and a high throughput microbond method is used to determine changes in interfacial shear strength with an epoxy (EP) and a polypropylene (PP) matrix. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the surface morphology of the fibers and differences in failure mechanism at the fiber-matrix interface. We were able to increase interfacial shear strength (IFSS) by 82 and 358%, in EP and PP matrix, respectively, due to increased surface roughness and mechanical adhesion. Also, aging studies were conducted to confirm that no changes in the adhesion properties would occur over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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12 pages, 54627 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of New Multifunctional Cotton/Lycra Composites Protective Textiles through Deposition of Nano Silica Coating
by Tarek Abou Elmaaty, Hanan G. Elsisi, Ghada M. Elsayad, Hagar H. Elhadad, Khaled Sayed-Ahmed and Maria Rosaria Plutino
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172888 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
This study aims to develop multifunctional pile cotton fabrics by implementing different compositions of lycra yarns with different densities of the cotton fabric under study. Highly dispersed silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) with small sizes—in the range of 10–40 nm—were successfully prepared and [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop multifunctional pile cotton fabrics by implementing different compositions of lycra yarns with different densities of the cotton fabric under study. Highly dispersed silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) with small sizes—in the range of 10–40 nm—were successfully prepared and were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size distribution of nano silica was determined via dynamic laser scattering (DLS) and measurements of its zeta potential. Cotton/lycra fabrics were treated using prepared SiO2 NPs in presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a crosslinking agent. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the nano-treated fabrics and assure homogeneous dispersion of SiO2 NPs on the cotton/lycra composites. Additionally, the nanoparticles were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against human pathogens such as Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The functional properties of the new composite pile cotton fabrics include excellent antibacterial, highly self-cleaning, and excellent UV protection factor (UPF) properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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18 pages, 10192 KiB  
Article
A Negative Index Nonagonal CSRR Metamaterial-Based Compact Flexible Planar Monopole Antenna for Ultrawideband Applications Using Viscose-Wool Felt
by Kabir Hossain, Thennarasan Sabapathy, Muzammil Jusoh, Mahmoud A. Abdelghany, Ping Jack Soh, Mohamed Nasrun Osman, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin, Hasliza A. Rahim and Samir Salem Al-Bawri
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13162819 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
In this paper, a compact textile ultrawideband (UWB) planar monopole antenna loaded with a metamaterial unit cell array (MTMUCA) structure with epsilon-negative (ENG) and near-zero refractive index (NZRI) properties is proposed. The proposed MTMUCA was constructed based on a combination of a rectangular- [...] Read more.
In this paper, a compact textile ultrawideband (UWB) planar monopole antenna loaded with a metamaterial unit cell array (MTMUCA) structure with epsilon-negative (ENG) and near-zero refractive index (NZRI) properties is proposed. The proposed MTMUCA was constructed based on a combination of a rectangular- and a nonagonal-shaped unit cell. The size of the antenna was 0.825 λ0 × 0.75 λ0 × 0.075 λ0, whereas each MTMUCA was sized at 0.312 λ0 × 0.312 λ0, with respect to a free space wavelength of 7.5 GHz. The antenna was fabricated using viscose-wool felt due to its strong metal–polymer adhesion. A naturally available polymer, wool, and a human-made polymer, viscose, that was derived from regenerated cellulose fiber were used in the manufacturing of the adopted viscose-wool felt. The MTMUCA exhibits the characteristics of ENG, with a bandwidth (BW) of 11.68 GHz and an NZRI BW of 8.5 GHz. The MTMUCA was incorporated on the planar monopole to behave as a shunt LC resonator, and its working principles were described using an equivalent circuit. The results indicate a 10 dB impedance fractional bandwidth of 142% (from 2.55 to 15 GHz) in simulations, and 138.84% (from 2.63 to 14.57 GHz) in measurements obtained by the textile UWB antenna. A peak realized gain of 4.84 dBi and 4.4 dBi was achieved in simulations and measurements, respectively. A satisfactory agreement between simulations and experiments was achieved, indicating the potential of the proposed negative index metamaterial-based antenna for microwave applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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13 pages, 4120 KiB  
Article
Coloration and Multi-Functionalization of Polypropylene Fabrics with Selenium Nanoparticles
by Tarek AbouElmaaty, Shereen A. Abdeldayem, Shaimaa M. Ramadan, Khaled Sayed-Ahmed and Maria Rosaria Plutino
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152483 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
In this study, we developed a new approach for depositing selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) into polypropylene (PP) fabrics via a one-step process under hydrothermal conditions by using an IR-dyeing machine to incorporate several functionalities, mainly coloration, antibacterial activity and ultraviolet (UV) protection. The formation, [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a new approach for depositing selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) into polypropylene (PP) fabrics via a one-step process under hydrothermal conditions by using an IR-dyeing machine to incorporate several functionalities, mainly coloration, antibacterial activity and ultraviolet (UV) protection. The formation, size distribution, and dispersion of the SeNPs were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the color strength, fastness, antibacterial properties, and UV protection of the treated fabrics were also explored. The UV-Vis spectra and TEM analysis confirmed the synthesis of spherical well-dispersed SeNPs and the XRD analysis showed the successful deposition of SeNPs into PP fabrics. The obtained results demonstrate that the SeNPs-PP fabrics is accompanied by a noticeable enhancement in measurements of color strength, fastness, and UV-protection factor (UPF), as well as excellent antibacterial activity. Viability studies showed that SeNPs-PP fabrics are non-toxic against wi-38cell line. In addition, the treated SeNPs-PP fabrics showed an increase in conductivity. The obtained multifunctional fabrics are promising for many industrial applications such as the new generation of curtains, medical fabrics, and even automotive interior parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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17 pages, 16527 KiB  
Article
Dyeing Para-Aramid Textiles Pretreated with Soybean Oil and Nonthermal Plasma Using Cationic Dye
by Mary Morris, Xiaofei Philip Ye and Christopher J. Doona
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091492 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
The increasing use of functional aramids in a wide array of applications and the inert nature of aramids against conventional dye and print methods requires developing new dyeing methods. This study aims to use environmentally friendly method with a cationic dye as an [...] Read more.
The increasing use of functional aramids in a wide array of applications and the inert nature of aramids against conventional dye and print methods requires developing new dyeing methods. This study aims to use environmentally friendly method with a cationic dye as an alternative for dyeing para-aramid fabrics. Experiments used a multi-factorial design with functions of pretreatment, dye solvent (water and/or glycerol) and auxiliary chemical additives (swelling agent and surfactant) and a sequential experimentation methodology. The most effective dyeing procedures involved the following steps: (i) pretreatments of the fabrics with soybean oil and nonthermal plasma (NTP), (ii) using water at T = 100 °C as the dye solvent, and (iii) omitting other chemical additives. With a commercial cationic dye, these conditions achieved a color strength in K/S value of 2.28, compared to ~1 for untreated samples. FTIR analysis revealed that a functional network formed on the fibers and yarns of the fabrics by chemical reactions of excited plasma species with double bonds in the soybean oil molecules was responsible for significantly improving the color strength. These results extend the potential uses of a renewable material (soybean oil) and an environmentally friendly technology (NTP) to improve the dyeing of para-aramid textiles and reduce the use of harsh dye chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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15 pages, 4130 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Wave-Absorbing and Bending Properties of Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Woven Composites
by Li-Hua Lyu, Wen-Di Liu and Bao-Zhong Sun
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091485 - 5 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
To avoid the delamination of the traditional three-dimensional (3-D) honeycomb electromagnetic (EM) absorbing composites and improving the defects of low mechanical properties, the 3-D honeycomb woven fabrics were woven on the ordinary loom by practical design. The fabrication of 3-D honeycomb woven EM [...] Read more.
To avoid the delamination of the traditional three-dimensional (3-D) honeycomb electromagnetic (EM) absorbing composites and improving the defects of low mechanical properties, the 3-D honeycomb woven fabrics were woven on the ordinary loom by practical design. The fabrication of 3-D honeycomb woven EM absorbing composites was based on carbon black/carbonyl iron powder/basalt fiber/carbon fiber/epoxy resin (CB/CIP/BF/CF/EP) by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. A CB/CIP composite absorbent study showed that CB/CIP composite absorbent belongs to a magnetic loss type absorbent. Adding CB/CIP significantly improved the absorption performance of composite, increased the absorption peak and the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB), but the bending performance decreased. The normalization analysis results showed that when the thickness was 15 mm, the mechanical properties and EM wave-absorbing properties of the 3-D honeycomb woven composite were the best matches. The morphological characteristics and displacement load curves of the composite after fracture were analyzed. The bending failure modes were brittle fracture of the fiber bundle, matrix cracking, and typical shear failure. Despite the above failure mechanism, the 3-D honeycomb woven EM absorbing composites still has good integrity without delamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Textiles)
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