Advances in Jujube Research

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 18276

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
Interests: jujube cultivar trials; cultivar selection; genotyping; nutrition; metabolomics

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Guest Editor
Chinese Jujube Research Center, College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China
Interests: nutrition and processing of jujube

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Advances in Jujube Research” is dedicated to research on jujube biology, genetics and breeding, ecology and post-harvest treatment and nutrition, but also other aspects of the life of these plants.

Jujube (Ziziphus) is an outstanding multipurpose economic plant with great potential in drought and marginal districts. Chinese jujube (Z. jujuba Mill.) and Indian jujube or ber (Z. mauritiana Lam.) are two main economically valuable species. Commercial and experimental cultivation of jujube takes place mostly in China, Pakistan, India, Iran, Korea, Japan, Australia, USA, Italy, Romania, Israel, etc. However, jujube is still an unknown and underutilized horticultural plant in the world. 

This Special Issue aims to gather the current knowledge on various aspects in jujube research. We invite researchers to submit review articles, full-length original papers, communications, short overviews, or comments presenting the various aspects of jujube biology, genetics and breeding, ecology and post-harvest treatment, nutrition and so on. 

Dr. Shengrui Yao
Dr. Zhihui Zhao
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • jujube
  • biology
  • breeding
  • genotyping
  • metabolomics
  • nutrition
  • post-harvest

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Establishment of the Biotransformation of D-Allulose and D-Allose Systems in Full-Red Jujube Monosaccharides
by Fawei Liu, Shuangjiang Chen, Fuxu Pan, Zhihui Zhao, Mengjun Liu and Lili Wang
Plants 2023, 12(17), 3084; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12173084 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 762
Abstract
In order to reduce sucrose content in jujube juice and prepare a jujube juice beverage rich in rare sugars, jujube juice was used as raw material for multienzyme catalysis in this study. The effects of single factors such as substrate, pH, DPE and [...] Read more.
In order to reduce sucrose content in jujube juice and prepare a jujube juice beverage rich in rare sugars, jujube juice was used as raw material for multienzyme catalysis in this study. The effects of single factors such as substrate, pH, DPE and L-RI addition ratio, enzyme treatment temperature, and metal ions on sucrose conversion and D-allulose formation in jujube juice were investigated. Changes in glucose, D-allulose, and D-allose contents in jujube juice before and after enzyme conversion were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that ‘Xiangfenmuzao’ was more suitable for subsequent double enzyme coupling reactions in different varieties of jujube juice at different periods. Factors such as pH, DPE and L-RI enzyme ratio, temperature, and treatment time had significant effects on sucrose conversion and D-allulose production in ‘Xiangfenmuzao’ juice (p < 0.05). When the ratio of DPE and L-RI was 1:10, pH was 7.5, and the temperature was 60 °C for 7 h, the fructose content in the full-red stage jujube juice of ‘Xiangfenmuzao’ and ‘Jinsixiaozao’ decreased gradually, and the final yield was about 53%. The yield of D-allulose was about 29%, and the yield of D-allulose was about 17%. In this study, DPE and L-RI were used to treat whole red jujube juice, which could effectively reduce sucrose content in jujube juice and obtain a functional jujube juice beverage that is low in calories and rich in rare sugar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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14 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Multiple-Genome-Based Simple Sequence Repeat Is an Efficient and Successful Method in Genotyping and Classifying Different Jujube Germplasm Resources
by Bin Li, Noor Muhammad, Shufeng Zhang, Yunxin Lan, Yihan Yang, Shoukun Han, Mengjun Liu and Meng Yang
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152885 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a commercially important tree native to China, known for its high nutritional value and widespread distribution, as well as its diverse germplasm resources. Being resilient to harsh climatic conditions, the cultivation of jujube could provide a solution [...] Read more.
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a commercially important tree native to China, known for its high nutritional value and widespread distribution, as well as its diverse germplasm resources. Being resilient to harsh climatic conditions, the cultivation of jujube could provide a solution to food insecurity and income for people of arid and semi-arid regions in and outside of China. The evaluation of germplasm resources and genetic diversity in jujube necessitates the use of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. SSR markers are highly polymorphic and can be used to evaluate the genetic diversity within and between cultivars of Chinese jujube, and are important for conservation biology, breeding programs, and the discovery of important traits for Chinese jujube improvement in China and abroad. However, traditional methods of SSR development are time-consuming and inadequate to meet the growing research demands. To address this issue, we developed a novel approach called Multiple-Genome-Based SSR identification (MGB-SSR), which utilizes the genomes of three jujube cultivars to rapidly screen for polymorphic SSRs in the jujube genome. Through the screening process, we identified 12 pairs of SSR primers, which were then used to successfully classify 249 jujube genotypes. Based on the genotyping results, a digital ID card was established, enabling the complete identification of all 249 jujube plants. The MGB-SSR approach proved efficient in rapidly detecting polymorphic SSRs within the jujube genome. Notably, this study represents the first successful differentiation of jujube germplasm resources using 12 SSR markers, with 4 markers successfully identifying triploid jujube genotypes. These findings offer valuable information for the classification of Chinese jujube germplasm, thereby providing significant assistance to jujube researchers and breeders in identifying unknown jujube germplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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15 pages, 3000 KiB  
Article
Genotyping of Jujube (Ziziphus spp.) Germplasm in New Mexico and Southwestern Texas
by Dikshya Sapkota, Dapeng Zhang, Sunchung Park, Lyndel W. Meinhardt and Shengrui Yao
Plants 2023, 12(13), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132405 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Since the early 19th century, a substantial amount of jujube (Ziziphus spp.) germplasm has been introduced from China and Europe into the United States. However, due to a lack of passport data, cultivar mislabeling is common and the genetic background of the [...] Read more.
Since the early 19th century, a substantial amount of jujube (Ziziphus spp.) germplasm has been introduced from China and Europe into the United States. However, due to a lack of passport data, cultivar mislabeling is common and the genetic background of the introduced germplasm remains unknown. In the present study, a low-density SNP array was employed to genotype 204 jujube trees sampled from multiple locations in New Mexico, Texas, Missouri, and Kentucky. Multilocus matching of SNP profiles revealed a significant rate of genetic redundancy among these jujube samples. A total of 14 synonymous groups were detected, comprising 48 accessions. Bayesian clustering analysis and neighbor-joining tree partitioned the US jujube germplasm into two major clusters. The first cluster included cultivated genotypes (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), whereas the other major cluster comprised the wild/sour jujube (Ziziphus spinosa Hu.). The results also revealed a unique jujube population at Fabens/Tornillo, Texas, and a semi-naturalized population at Tucumcari, NM. These findings will provide valuable guidance to jujube growers and researchers on the effective utilization of jujube germplasm in the horticultural industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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20 pages, 3271 KiB  
Article
Jujube Fruit Metabolomic Profiles Reveal Cultivar Differences and Function as Cultivar Fingerprints
by Shengrui Yao, Dikshya Sapkota, Jordan A. Hungerford and Roland D. Kersten
Plants 2023, 12(12), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12122313 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Jujube is a nutritious fruit, and is high in vitamin C, fiber, phenolics, flavonoids, nucleotides, and organic acids. It is both an important food and a source of traditional medicine. Metabolomics can reveal metabolic differences between Ziziphus jujuba fruits from different jujube cultivars [...] Read more.
Jujube is a nutritious fruit, and is high in vitamin C, fiber, phenolics, flavonoids, nucleotides, and organic acids. It is both an important food and a source of traditional medicine. Metabolomics can reveal metabolic differences between Ziziphus jujuba fruits from different jujube cultivars and growth sites. In the fall of 2022, mature fresh fruit of eleven cultivars from replicated trials at three sites in New Mexico—Leyendecker, Los Lunas, and Alcalde—were sampled from September to October for an untargeted metabolomics study. The 11 cultivars were Alcalde 1, Dongzao, Jinsi (JS), Jinkuiwang (JKW), Jixin, Kongfucui (KFC), Lang, Li, Maya, Shanxi Li, and Zaocuiwang (ZCW). Based on the LC–MS/MS analysis, there were 1315 compounds detected with amino acids and derivatives (20.15%) and flavonoids (15.44%) as dominant categories. The results reveal that the cultivar was the dominant factor in metabolite profiles, while the location was secondary. A pairwise comparison of cultivar metabolomes revealed that two pairs had fewer differential metabolites (i.e., Li/Shanxi Li and JS/JKW) than all the other pairs, highlighting that pairwise metabolic comparison can be applied for cultivar fingerprinting. Differential metabolite analysis also showed that half of drying cultivars have up-regulated lipid metabolites compared to fresh or multi-purpose fruit cultivars and that specialized metabolites vary significantly between cultivars from 35.3% (Dongzao/ZCW) to 56.7% (Jixin/KFC). An exemplary analyte matching sedative cyclopeptide alkaloid sanjoinine A was only detected in the Jinsi and Jinkuiwang cultivars. Overall, our metabolic analysis of the jujube cultivar’s mature fruits provides the largest resource of jujube fruit metabolomes to date and will inform cultivar selection for nutritional and medicinal research and for fruit metabolic breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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11 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in Chinese Jujube
by Yao Zhang, Nazi Niu, Shijia Li, Yin Liu, Chaoling Xue, Huibin Wang, Mengjun Liu and Jin Zhao
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2115; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112115 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a fast and efficient method for assaying gene function in plants. At present, the VIGS system mediated by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has been successfully practiced in some species such as cotton and tomato. However, little research of [...] Read more.
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a fast and efficient method for assaying gene function in plants. At present, the VIGS system mediated by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has been successfully practiced in some species such as cotton and tomato. However, little research of VIGS systems has been reported in woody plants, nor in Chinese jujube. In this study, the TRV-VIGS system of jujube was firstly investigated. The jujube seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with a 16 h light/8 h dark cycle at 23 °C. After the cotyledon was fully unfolded, Agrobacterium mixture containing pTRV1 and pTRV2-ZjCLA with OD600 = 1.5 was injected into cotyledon. After 15 days, the new leaves of jujube seedlings showed obvious photo-bleaching symptoms and significantly decreased expression of ZjCLA, indicating that the TRV-VIGS system had successfully functioned on jujube. Moreover, it found that two injections on jujube cotyledon could induce higher silencing efficiency than once injection. A similar silencing effect was then also verified in another gene, ZjPDS. These results indicate that the TRV-VIGS system in Chinese jujube has been successfully established and can be applied to evaluate gene function, providing a breakthrough in gene function verification methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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18 pages, 2290 KiB  
Article
The Key Metabolic Network and Genes Regulating the Fresh Fruit Texture of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Revealed via Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analysis
by Shuang Song, Juan Jin, Meiyu Li, Decang Kong, Ming Cao, Xue Wang, Yingyue Li, Xuexun Chen, Xiuli Zhang, Xiaoming Pang, Wenhao Bo and Qing Hao
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112087 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
The texture of fresh jujube fruit is related to its popularity and commercial value. The metabolic networks and essential genes that regulate the texture of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit are still unknown. In this study, two jujube cultivars with significantly different [...] Read more.
The texture of fresh jujube fruit is related to its popularity and commercial value. The metabolic networks and essential genes that regulate the texture of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit are still unknown. In this study, two jujube cultivars with significantly different textures were selected by a texture analyzer. The four developmental stages of the exocarp and mesocarp of jujube fruit were studied separately using metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses. Differentially accumulated metabolites were enriched in several critical pathways related to cell wall substance synthesis and metabolism. Transcriptome analysis confirmed this by finding enriched differential expression genes in these pathways. Combined analysis showed that ‘Galactose metabolism’ was the most overlapping pathway in two omics. Genes such as β-Gal, MYB and DOF may affect fruit texture by regulating cell wall substances. Overall, this study provides an essential reference for the establishment of texture-related metabolic and gene networks of jujube fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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14 pages, 3141 KiB  
Article
Identification of High Tolerance to Jujube Witches’ Broom in Indian Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) and Mining Differentially Expressed Genes Related to the Tolerance through Transcriptome Analysis
by Yaru Xu, Chao Wang, Decang Kong, Ming Cao, Qiong Zhang, Muhammad Tahir, Ying Yang, Shuang Yang, Wenhao Bo and Xiaoming Pang
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112082 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
The jujube witches’ broom (JWB) disease is a severe threat to jujube trees, with only a few cultivars being genuinely tolerant or resistant to phytoplasma. The defense mechanism of jujube trees against phytoplasma is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
The jujube witches’ broom (JWB) disease is a severe threat to jujube trees, with only a few cultivars being genuinely tolerant or resistant to phytoplasma. The defense mechanism of jujube trees against phytoplasma is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the tolerance mechanism of Indian jujube ‘Cuimi’ to JWB and identify the key genes that contribute to JWB high tolerance. Based on the symptoms and phytoplasma concentrations after infection, we confirmed the high tolerance of ‘Cuimi’ to JWB. Comparative transcriptome analysis was subsequently performed between ‘Cuimi’ and ‘Huping’, a susceptible cultivar of Chinese jujube. Unique gene ontology (GO) terms were identified in ‘Cuimi’, such as protein ubiquitination, cell wall biogenesis, cell surface receptor signaling pathway, oxylipin biosynthetic process, and transcription factor activity. These terms may relate to the normal development and growth of ‘Cuimi’ under phytoplasma infection. We identified 194 differential expressed genes related to JWB high tolerance, involved in various processes, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+ sensors, protein kinases, transcription factors (TFs), lignin, and hormones. Calmodulin-like (CML) genes were significantly down-regulated in infected ‘Cuimi’. We speculated that the CML gene may act as a negative regulatory factor related to JWB high tolerance. Additionally, the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase-like SNL6 gene was significantly up-regulated in infected ‘Cuimi’, which may cause lignin deposition, limit the growth of phytoplasma, and mediate immune response of ‘Cuimi’ to phytoplasma. Overall, this study provides insights into the contribution of key genes to the high tolerance of JWB in Indian jujube ‘Cuimi’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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15 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Preservation of Phenols, Antioxidant Activity, and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Fruits with Different Drying Methods
by Govinda Sapkota, Efren Delgado, Dawn VanLeeuwen, F. Omar Holguin, Nancy Flores and Shengrui Yao
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091804 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Jujube, commonly known as the Chinese date, is a nutritious fruit with medicinal importance. Fresh jujube fruits have a shelf life of about ten days in ambient conditions that can be extended by drying. However, nutrition preservation varies with the drying method and [...] Read more.
Jujube, commonly known as the Chinese date, is a nutritious fruit with medicinal importance. Fresh jujube fruits have a shelf life of about ten days in ambient conditions that can be extended by drying. However, nutrition preservation varies with the drying method and parameters selected. We studied total phenolic content (TPC), proanthocyanidins (PA), vitamin C, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and antioxidant activities in jujube fruits dried with freeze-drying (FD), convective oven drying (OD) at 50 °C, 60 °C, and 75 °C, and sun drying (SD) with FD as a control. The cultivars used for this study were ‘Capri’ and ‘Xiang’ from Las Cruces in 2019, and ‘Sugarcane’, ‘Lang’, and ‘Sherwood’ from Las Cruces and Los Lunas, New Mexico, in 2020. Freeze-drying had the highest of all nutrient components tested, the best estimates of mature jujube fruits’ nutrient contents. Compared with FD, the majority of PA (96–99%) and vitamin C (90–93%) was lost during SD or OD processes. The retention rates of antioxidant activities: DPPH and FRAP were higher in OD at 50/60 °C than SD. SD retained a higher cAMP level than OD at 50/60 °C in both years. The increase in oven drying temperature from 60 °C to 75 °C significantly decreased TPC, PA, antioxidant activities, and cAMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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12 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
Composition Analysis and Nutritional Value Evaluation of Amino Acids in the Fruit of 161 Jujube Cultivars
by Xin Zhao, Bingbing Zhang, Zhi Luo, Ye Yuan, Zhihui Zhao and Mengjun Liu
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091744 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Amino acids are an essential group of compounds involved in protein synthesis and various metabolic and immune reactions in the human body. Chinese jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) are an important fruit and medicinal plant which are native to China and have been [...] Read more.
Amino acids are an essential group of compounds involved in protein synthesis and various metabolic and immune reactions in the human body. Chinese jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) are an important fruit and medicinal plant which are native to China and have been introduced into around 50 countries. However, systematic research on the composition and content diversity of amino acids in the jujube is still lacking. In this experiment, the amino acid composition and the contents of the dominant amino acids in the fruit of 161 cultivars of jujube were determined by HPLC. Of the twenty-one kinds of amino acids detected, a total of fourteen kinds of amino acids were detected, of which eight kinds of amino acids were relatively high, including five essential amino acids (threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine) and three nonessential amino acids (glycine, alanine, and proline). However, the contents of the remaining six amino acids were relatively low (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, serine, arginine, and tryptophan). Therefore, the eight primary amino acids were used as the index to evaluate the amino acids of 161 jujube varieties. Proline accounts for 56.8% of the total amino acid content among the eight amino acids. The total content of the eight primary amino acids in most jujube varieties was 1–1.5 g/100 g, and the highest content of ‘Zaoqiangmalianzao’ was 2.356 g/100 g. The average content of proline was 6.01–14.84 times that of the other seven amino acids. According to the WHO/FAO revised model spectrum of ideal essential amino acids for humans, 19 cultivars met the E/T (essential amino acids/total amino acids) standard, and their values ranged from 35% to 45%; 12 cultivars meet E/NE (non-essential amino acids) ≥ 60%. All cultivars reached the requirement of BC (branched–chain amino acids)/E ≥ 40% with 15 cultivars over 68%. One hundred and fifty-seven cultivars reach the standard of BC/A (aromatic amino acids) ≈ 3.0~3.5. The amino acid ratio coefficient analysis showed that phenylalanine was the first limiting amino acid of all the jujube cultivars. The SRC (the score of amino acid ratio coefficient) values of 134 cultivars were between 50% and 70%, with 12 cultivars over 70%, indicating that jujube fruits are of high nutritional value in terms of amino acids. Based on the principal component analysis and comprehensive ranking of amino acid nutritional value, the top five cultivars were screened from the 161 ones tested, i.e., ‘Tengzhouchanghongzao’, ‘Xinzhengxiaoyuanzao’, ‘Hanguowudeng’, ‘Xuputiansuanzao’, and ‘Lichengxiaozao’. This study established, firstly, a complete basic data analysis of amino acid content in jujube fruit which could be used to select germplasm resources suitable for developing functional amino acid food, and provide theoretical support for the high value utilization of amino acids in jujubes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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13 pages, 3442 KiB  
Article
Autotetraploidization Alters Morphology, Photosynthesis, Cytological Characteristics and Fruit Quality in Sour Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu)
by Lihu Wang, Lixin Wang, Tingting Ye, Jin Zhao, Lili Wang, Hairong Wei, Ping Liu and Mengjun Liu
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051106 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Artificially induced polyploidization is one of the most effective techniques for improving the biological properties and creating new cultivars of fruit trees. Up to now, systematic research on the autotetraploid of sour jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu) has not been reported. [...] Read more.
Artificially induced polyploidization is one of the most effective techniques for improving the biological properties and creating new cultivars of fruit trees. Up to now, systematic research on the autotetraploid of sour jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Cheng et Liu) has not been reported. ‘Zhuguang’ is the first released autotetraploid sour jujube induced with colchicine. The objective of this study was to compare the differences in the morphological, cytological characteristics, and fruit quality between diploid and autotetraploid. Compared with the original diploid, ‘Zhuguang’ showed dwarf phenotypes and decreased tree vigor. The sizes of the flowers, pollen, stomata, and leaves of ‘Zhuguang’ were larger. Perceptible darker green leaves were observed in ‘Zhuguang’ trees owing to increased chlorophyll contents, which led to higher photosynthesis efficiency and bigger fruit. The pollen activities and the contents of ascorbic acid, titratable acid, and soluble sugar in the autotetraploid were lower than those in diploids. However, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate content in autotetraploid fruit was significantly higher. The sugar/acid ratio of autotetraploid fruit was higher than that of diploid fruit, which made the autotetraploid fruit taste different and better. The results indicated that the autotetraploid we generated in sour jujube could greatly meet the goals of our multi-objective optimized breeding strategies for improving sour jujube, which includes tree dwarfing, increased photosynthesis efficiency, and better nutrient values and flavors as well as more bioactive compounds. Needless to say, the autotetraploid can also serve as material for generating valuable triploids or other types of polyploids and are also instrumental in studying the evolution of both sour jujube and Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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13 pages, 2802 KiB  
Article
Genomic C-Value Variation Analysis in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) in the Middle Yellow River Basin
by Hao Wu, Wanlong Su, Meijuan Shi, Xiaofang Xue, Haiyan Ren, Yongkang Wang, Ailing Zhao, Dengke Li and Mengjun Liu
Plants 2023, 12(4), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040858 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) originated in the Yellow River basin (YRB) of the Shanxi–Shaanxi region. The genomic C-value is a crucial indicator for plant breeding and germplasm evaluation. In this study, we used flow cytometry to determine the genomic C-values of [...] Read more.
Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) originated in the Yellow River basin (YRB) of the Shanxi–Shaanxi region. The genomic C-value is a crucial indicator for plant breeding and germplasm evaluation. In this study, we used flow cytometry to determine the genomic C-values of jujube germplasms in the YRB of the Shanxi–Shaanxi region and evaluated their differences in different sub-regions. Of the 29 sub-regions, the highest and lowest variations were in Linxian and Xiaxian, respectively. The difference between jujube germplasms was highly significant (F = 14.89, p < 0.0001) in Linxian. Cluster analysis showed that both cluster 2 and 4 belonged to Linxian, which were clearly separated from other taxa but were cross-distributed in them. Linxian County is an important gene exchange center in the YRB of the Shanxi–Shaanxi region. Principal component analysis showed that cluster 1 had low genomic C-values and single-fruit weights and cluster 2 had high genomic C-values and vitamin C contents. The genomic C-value was correlated with single-fruit weight and vitamin C content. In addition, the genomic C-value was used to predict fruit agronomic traits, providing a reference for shortening the breeding cycle and genetic diversity-related studies of jujube germplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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Review

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25 pages, 2113 KiB  
Review
Triterpenoids in Jujube: A Review of Composition, Content Diversity, Pharmacological Effects, Synthetic Pathway, and Variation during Domestication
by Fuxu Pan, Xuan Zhao, Fawei Liu, Zhi Luo, Shuangjiang Chen, Zhiguo Liu, Zhihui Zhao, Mengjun Liu and Lili Wang
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071501 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and its wild ancestor, sour jujube (Z. acidojujuba C.Y. Cheng & M.J. Liu), is a Ziziphus genus in the Rhamnaceae family. ZJ and ZA are rich in a variety of active ingredients, with triterpenoids being a [...] Read more.
Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and its wild ancestor, sour jujube (Z. acidojujuba C.Y. Cheng & M.J. Liu), is a Ziziphus genus in the Rhamnaceae family. ZJ and ZA are rich in a variety of active ingredients, with triterpenoids being a unique active ingredient, which are present in the fruit, leaves, branches, and roots. More than 120 triterpenoids have been identified in ZJ and ZA, and have various biological activities. For example, betulinic and ursolic acids have anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. ceanothic, alphitolic, and zizyberanalic acids possess anti-inflammatory activities. The MVA pathway is a synthetic pathway for triterpenoids in ZJ and ZA, and 23 genes of the MVA pathway are known to regulate triterpene synthesis in ZJ and ZA. In order to better understand the basic situation of triterpenoids in ZJ and ZA, this paper reviews the types, content dynamic changes, activities, pharmacokinetics, triterpenoid synthesis pathways, and the effects of domestication on triterpenoids in ZJ and ZA, and provides some ideas for the future research of triterpenoids in ZJ and ZA. In addition, there are many types of ZJ and ZA triterpenoids, and most of the studies on their activities are on lupane- and ursane-type triterpenes, while the activities of the ceanothane-type and saponin are less studied and need additional research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Jujube Research)
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