Effects of Phytochemicals on Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 1241

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Interests: early-life nutrition; phytochemicals; DNA methylation; epigenome reprogramming; breast cancer; stem cell differentiation; bioinformatics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pytochemicals, in which “phyto” means “plant” in Greek, are secondary metabolites produced by living plants to protect themselves against environmental hazards. Increasing study demonstrated that phytochemicals provide considerable beneficial effects in many ways. For example, phytochemicals could serve as cofactors or inhibitors of enzymatic reactions, substrates for biochemical reactions, scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals and growth factors for beneficial gastrointestinal bacteria. Some phytochemicals showed anticancer properties through reducing inflammation and blocking compounds from becoming carcinogens. In addition, certain phytochemicals can decrease oxidative damage to prevent various chronic diseases. Of great interest is that a number of bioactive dietary components have been shown to improve individual health through modifying the epigenome. In this context, a Special Issue summarizing recent advancement that focus on the relationship of phytochemicals with human health would be very interesting to the readers.

This Special Issue will provide new insights towards the understanding of the role of dietary phytochemical in human health. I encourage authors to submit their original research on this attractive topic. An up-to-data review describing the association of dietary phytochemicals with any aspect of human health improvement would also fit this Special Issue. Any other suggestions from experts in the field are more than welcome.

Dr. Shizhao Li
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • human health
  • bioactive compounds
  • anticancer
  • chemoprevention
  • chronic disease
  • metabolism
  • epigenetics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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19 pages, 2854 KiB  
Article
Associations of Flavonoid Intakes with Mortality among Populations with Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Kang Wang, Taotao Lu, Rukai Yang and Shenghua Zhou
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101534 - 20 May 2024
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Abstract
Background: The effect of flavonoid consumption on all-cause and special-cause mortality remains unclear among populations with hypertension. Methods: A total of 6110 people with hypertension from three NHANES survey cycles (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2017–2018) were enrolled in this study. Cox proportional hazard models [...] Read more.
Background: The effect of flavonoid consumption on all-cause and special-cause mortality remains unclear among populations with hypertension. Methods: A total of 6110 people with hypertension from three NHANES survey cycles (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2017–2018) were enrolled in this study. Cox proportional hazard models were conducted to estimate the association between the intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses and all-cause, cancer-related, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality. Nonlinear relationships were identified using restricted cubic splines (RCS). Results: During 43,977 person-years of follow-up, 1155 participants died from any cause, 282 participants died from CVD, and 265 participants died from cancer. After adjusting for relevant confounders, including demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake, a higher intake of total flavonoids was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality but not CVD-related and cancer-related mortality among the population with hypertension. Compared with extreme quartiles, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.74 (0.56–0.97) for all-cause mortality, 0.77 (0.40–1.46) for CVD-related mortality, and 0.62 (0.35–1.08) for cancer-related mortality. In terms of all-cause mortality, this inverse association was optimized at total flavonoid consumption of approximately 375 mg/day. In addition, the negative association between total flavonoid consumption and all-cause mortality was more pronounced in non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) compared to obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) populations. Higher intakes of anthocyanidin, flavan-3-ol, flavonol, and isoflavone were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR (95%CI): 0.70 (0.55–0.89); 0.76 (0.59–0.96); 0.66 (0.46–0.94); 0.79 (0.67–0.93), respectively). Higher intakes of anthocyanidin, flavan-3-ol, and flavonol were significantly associated with lower cancer-related mortality (HR (95%CI): 0.55 (0.32–0.93); 0.51 (0.31–0.82); 0.52 (0.28–0.96), respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that a heightened consumption of total flavonoids and some flavonoid subclasses was linked to lower mortality, which supports the proposal of increasing flavonoid intake as part of healthy diets in patients with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Phytochemicals on Human Health)
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Effect of Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on the Changes in Calf Venous Volume during Postural Change and Skeletal Muscle Pump Activity in Healthy Young Adults
by Anna Oue, Yasuhiro Iimura, Yuichi Miyakoshi and Masako Ota
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111621 (registering DOI) - 26 May 2024
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Abstract
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation is known to enhance nitric oxide (NO) activity and acts as a vasodilator. In this randomized crossover study, we investigated the effect of inorganic NO3 supplementation on the changes in calf venous volume during [...] Read more.
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation is known to enhance nitric oxide (NO) activity and acts as a vasodilator. In this randomized crossover study, we investigated the effect of inorganic NO3 supplementation on the changes in calf venous volume during postural change and subsequent skeletal muscle pump activity. Fifteen healthy young adults were assigned to receive beetroot juice (BRJ) or a NO3-depleted control beverage (prune juice: CON). Two hours after beverage consumption, the changes in the right calf volume during postural change from supine to upright and a subsequent right tiptoe maneuver were measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. The increase in calf volume from the supine to upright position (total venous volume [VV]) and the decrease in calf volume during the right tiptoe maneuver (venous ejection volume [Ve]) were calculated. Plasma NO3 concentration was higher in the BRJ group than in the CON group 2 h after beverage intake (p < 0.05). However, VV and Ve did not differ between CON and BRJ. These results suggest that acute intake of BRJ may enhance NO activity via the NO3 → nitrite → NO pathway but does not change calf venous pooling due to a postural change or the calf venous return due to skeletal muscle pump activity in healthy young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Phytochemicals on Human Health)
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