Nanocellulose and Nanocarbons Based Hybrid Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "2D and Carbon Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020) | Viewed by 71244

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Teaching and Research Unit of Energetic Processes, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, Bordj-El-Bahri, Bordj-El-Bahri 16046, Algiers, Algeria
Interests: bio-based materials; nanocellulose; nanomaterials; characterization; analytical methods; thermal analysis; kinetics; advanced materials; nanoenergetic materials; propellant; energetic materials; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2. Enhanced Composites and Structures Center, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: biorefining, chemistry, nanotechnology, biomass, and waste; biomedical engineering; composites; sensors; manufacturing of functional materials; aerospace materials; nanomaterials; renewable energy; smart materials; surface engineering; water science and engineering; additive manufacturing of polymers and composites; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites: self-healing, nanoelectronic materials; hydrogels; membranes; nanofiber; composites for extreme environments and manufacturing technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the emergence of nanotechnology in the past few decades, the development and design of hybrid bio- nanomaterials has become an important field of research. Looking at the growing concern about the environment and sustainability, such nanomaterials find many applications in a wide range of domains that influence our society and our way of life. The improvement of properties and the discovery of new functionalities are key goals that cannot be reached without a well-controlled and a better understanding of the preparation, characterization, manufacturing and properties which constitute the starting points of the design of specific and adequate systems. Investigation of nanocellulose/nanocarbons hybrid materials has demonstrated both the academic and technological importance, and offered great research opportunities within cross-disciplinary areas. In our opinion, the applied aspects of such nanomaterials should get proper attention now and bring an interdisciplinary effort to accomplish a more detailed understanding of such hybrid materials.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will attempt to publish high quality short communications, research papers covering the most recent advances as well as comprehensive reviews addressing novel and state-of-the-art topics from active researchers in the field of nanocellulose/nanocarbons hybrid materials, concerning, not only the synthesis, preparation and characterization, but especially focusing on the applications of such nanomaterials with outstanding performances. Potential nanocellulose/nanocarbons hybrid materials topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Preparation of nanocellulose/nanocarbons hybrid materials with outstanding properties for next-generation applications.
  • Characterization of nanocellulose/nanocarbons hybrid materials.
  • Nanocellulose/nanocarbons hybrid materials application (medical, filtration, environmental, energy, corrosion, catalysis, automotive, aerospace, sensors, adhesives, packaging, food, construction, other sustainable applications).

Prof. Dr. Djalal Trache
Prof. Dr. Vijay Kumar Thakur
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Cellulose nanocrystals
  • Cellulose nanofibers
  • Bacterial cellulose
  • Graphene
  • Graphene oxide
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Nanodiamond
  • hybrid nanomaterials
  • Preparation methods
  • Properties
  • Characterization
  • Application

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

5 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Nanocellulose and Nanocarbons Based Hybrid Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications
by Djalal Trache and Vijay Kumar Thakur
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091800 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
Since the emergence of nanotechnology in recent decades, the development and design of hybrid bio-nanomaterials has become an important field of research [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Nanofiber and Cellulose Nanofiber Blended Composite Applicable for Active Food Packaging
by Le Van Hai, Lindong Zhai, Hyun Chan Kim, Pooja S. Panicker, Duc Hoa Pham and Jaehwan Kim
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091752 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 3949
Abstract
This paper reports that, by simply blending two heterogeneous polysaccharide nanofibers, namely chitosan nanofiber (ChNF) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF), a ChNF–CNF composite was prepared, which exhibited improved mechanical properties and antioxidant activity. ChNF was isolated using the aqueous counter collision (ACC) method, while [...] Read more.
This paper reports that, by simply blending two heterogeneous polysaccharide nanofibers, namely chitosan nanofiber (ChNF) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF), a ChNF–CNF composite was prepared, which exhibited improved mechanical properties and antioxidant activity. ChNF was isolated using the aqueous counter collision (ACC) method, while CNF was isolated using the combination of TEMPO oxidation and the ACC method, which resulted in smaller size of CNF than that of ChNF. The prepared composite was characterized in terms of morphologies, FT-IR, UV visible, thermal stability, mechanical properties, hygroscopic behaviors, and antioxidant activity. The composite was flexible enough to be bent without cracking. Better UV-light protection was shown at higher content of ChNF in the composite. The high ChNF content showed the highest antioxidant activity in the composite. It is the first time that a simple combination of ChNF–CNF composites fabrication showed good mechanical properties and antioxidant activities. In this study, the reinforcement effect of the composite was addressed. The ChNF–CNF composite is promising for active food packaging application. Full article
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21 pages, 10004 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Gum Tragacanth Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Heavy Metal Ions Adsorption
by Bhawna Sharma, Sourbh Thakur, Djalal Trache, Hamed Yazdani Nezhad and Vijay Kumar Thakur
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081616 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4687
Abstract
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized in this research via Tour’s method for the use of filler in the hydrogel matrix. The copolymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) onto the gum tragacanth (GT) was carried out to develop gum tragacanth-cl-N, [...] Read more.
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized in this research via Tour’s method for the use of filler in the hydrogel matrix. The copolymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) onto the gum tragacanth (GT) was carried out to develop gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide (GT-cl-poly(DMA)) hydrogel using N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) and potassium persulfate (KPS) as cross-linker and initiator correspondingly. The various GT-cl-poly(DMA) hydrogel synthesis parameters were optimized to achieve maximum swelling of GT-cl-poly(DMA) hydrogel. The optimized GT-cl-poly(DMA) hydrogel was then filled with RGO to form reduced graphene oxide incorporated gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide (GT-cl-poly(DMA)/RGO) hydrogel composite. The synthesized samples were used for competent adsorption of Hg2+ and Cr6+ ions. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide hydrogel and reduced graphene oxide incorporated gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide hydrogel composite. The experiments of adsorption-desorption cycles for Hg2+ and Cr6+ ions were carried out to perform the reusability of gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide hydrogel and reduced graphene oxide incorporated gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide hydrogel composite. From these two samples, reduced graphene oxide incorporated gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide exhibited high adsorption ability. The Hg2+ and Cr6+ ions adsorption by gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide and reduced graphene oxide incorporated gum tragacanth-cl-N,N-dimethylacrylamide were best suited for pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm. The reported maximum Hg2+ and Cr6+ ions adsorption capacities were 666.6 mg g-1 and 473.9 mg g-1 respectively. Full article
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15 pages, 3132 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Studies of Wood-Based Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals as Potential Immunomodulators
by Yusha Imtiaz, Beza Tuga, Christopher W. Smith, Alexander Rabideau, Long Nguyen, Yali Liu, Sabahudin Hrapovic, Karina Ckless and Rajesh Sunasee
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081603 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
Polysaccharides have been shown to have immunomodulatory properties. Modulation of the immune system plays a crucial role in physiological processes as well as in the treatment and/or prevention of autoimmune and infectious diseases. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are derived from cellulose, the most abundant [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides have been shown to have immunomodulatory properties. Modulation of the immune system plays a crucial role in physiological processes as well as in the treatment and/or prevention of autoimmune and infectious diseases. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are derived from cellulose, the most abundant polysaccharide on the earth. CNCs are an emerging class of crystalline nanomaterials with exceptional physico-chemical properties for high-end applications and commercialization prospects. The aim of this study was to design, synthesize, and evaluate the cytotoxicity of a series of biocompatible, wood-based, cationic CNCs as potential immunomodulators. The anionic CNCs were rendered cationic by grafting with cationic polymers having pendant +NMe3 and +NH3 moieties. The success of the synthesis of the cationic CNCs was evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and elemental analysis. No modification in the nanocrystals rod-like shape was observed in transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. Cytotoxicity studies using three different cell-based assays (MTT, Neutral Red, and LIVE/DEAD®) and three relevant mouse and human immune cells indicated very low cytotoxicity of the cationic CNCs in all tested experimental conditions. Overall, our results showed that cationic CNCs are suitable to be further investigated as immunomodulators and potential vaccine nanoadjuvants. Full article
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13 pages, 3077 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement of Natural Rubber Latex Using Jute Carboxycellulose Nanofibers Extracted Using Nitro-Oxidation Method
by Sunil K. Sharma, Priyanka R. Sharma, Simon Lin, Hui Chen, Ken Johnson, Ruifu Wang, William Borges, Chengbo Zhan and Benjamin S. Hsiao
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040706 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3270
Abstract
Synthetic rubber produced from nonrenewable fossil fuel requires high energy costs and is dependent on the presumed unstable petroleum price. Natural rubber latex (NRL) is one of the major alternative sustainable rubber sources since it is derived from the plant ‘Hevea brasiliensis [...] Read more.
Synthetic rubber produced from nonrenewable fossil fuel requires high energy costs and is dependent on the presumed unstable petroleum price. Natural rubber latex (NRL) is one of the major alternative sustainable rubber sources since it is derived from the plant ‘Hevea brasiliensis’. Our study focuses on integrating sustainably processed carboxycellulose nanofibers from untreated jute biomass into NRL to enhance the mechanical strength of the material for various applications. The carboxycellulose nanofibers (NOCNF) having carboxyl content of 0.94 mmol/g was prepared and integrated into its nonionic form (–COONa) for its higher dispersion in water to increase the interfacial interaction between NRL and NOCNF. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses of NOCNF showed the average dimensions of nanofibers were length (L) = 524 ± 203 nm, diameter (D) 7 ± 2 nm and thickness 2.9 nm. Furthermore, fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR) analysis of NOCNF depicted the presence of carboxyl group. However, the dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement of NRL demonstrated an effective diameter in the range of 643 nm with polydispersity of 0.005. Tensile mechanical strengths were tested to observe the enhancement effects at various concentrations of NOCNF in the NRL. Mechanical properties of NRL/NOCNF films were determined by tensile testing, where the results showed an increasing trend of enhancement. With the increasing NOCNF concentration, the film modulus was found to increase quite substantially, but the elongation-to-break ratio decreased drastically. The presence of NOCNF changed the NRL film from elastic to brittle. However, at the NOCNF overlap concentration (0.2 wt. %), the film modulus seemed to be the highest. Full article
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20 pages, 4842 KiB  
Article
Cellulose Nanofibril/Carbon Nanomaterial Hybrid Aerogels for Adsorption Removal of Cationic and Anionic Organic Dyes
by Zhencheng Yu, Chuanshuang Hu, Anthony B. Dichiara, Weihui Jiang and Jin Gu
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010169 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 5627
Abstract
Advances in nanoscale science and engineering are providing new opportunities to develop promising adsorbents for environmental remediation. Here, hybrid aerogels are assembled from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and carbon nanomaterials to remove cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and anionic dye Congo red (CR) in [...] Read more.
Advances in nanoscale science and engineering are providing new opportunities to develop promising adsorbents for environmental remediation. Here, hybrid aerogels are assembled from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and carbon nanomaterials to remove cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and anionic dye Congo red (CR) in single and binary systems. Two classes of carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplates (GnPs), are incorporated into CNFs with various amounts, respectively. The adsorption, mechanics and structure properties of the hybrid aerogels are investigated and compared among different combinations. The results demonstrate CNF–GnP 3:1 hybrid exhibits the best performance among all composites. Regarding a single dye system, both dye adsorptions follow a pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic and monolayer Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximal adsorption capacities of CNF–GnP aerogels for MB and CR are 1178.5 mg g−1 and 585.3 mg g−1, respectively. CNF–GnP hybrid show a superior binary dye adsorption capacity than pristine CNF or GnP. Furthermore, nearly 80% of MB or CR can be desorbed from CNF–GNP using ethanol as the desorption agent, indicating the reusability of this hybrid material. Hence, the CNF–GnP aerogels show great promise as adsorption materials for wastewater treatment. Full article
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21 pages, 5381 KiB  
Article
Self-Healable Electro-Conductive Hydrogels Based on Core-Shell Structured Nanocellulose/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrids for Use as Flexible Supercapacitors
by Huixiang Wang, Subir Kumar Biswas, Sailing Zhu, Ya Lu, Yiying Yue, Jingquan Han, Xinwu Xu, Qinglin Wu and Huining Xiao
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010112 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 7379
Abstract
Recently, with the development of personal wearable electronic devices, the demand for portable power is miniaturization and flexibility. Electro-conductive hydrogels (ECHs) are considered to have great application prospects in portable energy-storage devices. However, the synergistic properties of self-healability, viscoelasticity, and ideal electrochemistry are [...] Read more.
Recently, with the development of personal wearable electronic devices, the demand for portable power is miniaturization and flexibility. Electro-conductive hydrogels (ECHs) are considered to have great application prospects in portable energy-storage devices. However, the synergistic properties of self-healability, viscoelasticity, and ideal electrochemistry are key problems. Herein, a novel ECH was synthesized by combining polyvinyl alcohol-borax (PVA) hydrogel matrix and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and polyaniline (PANI). Among them, CNTs provided excellent electrical conductivity; TOCNFs acted as a dispersant to help CNTs form a stable suspension; PANI enhanced electrochemical performance by forming a “core-shell” structural composite. The freeze-standing composite hydrogel with a hierarchical 3D-network structure possessed the compression stress (~152 kPa) and storage modulus (~18.2 kPa). The composite hydrogel also possessed low density (~1.2 g cm−3), high water-content (~95%), excellent flexibility, self-healing capability, electrical conductivity (15.3 S m−1), and specific capacitance of 226.8 F g−1 at 0.4 A g−1. The fabricated solid-state all-in-one supercapacitor device remained capacitance retention (~90%) after 10 cutting/healing cycles and capacitance retention (~85%) after 1000 bending cycles. The novel ECH had potential applications in advanced personalized wearable electronic devices. Full article
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16 pages, 2297 KiB  
Article
Effects of Preparation Method on the Physicochemical Properties of Cationic Nanocellulose and Starch Nanocomposites
by Lina Han, Wentao Wang, Rui Zhang, Haizhou Dong, Jingyuan Liu, Lingrang Kong and Hanxue Hou
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121702 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Nanocellulose (NC) has attracted attention in recent years for the advantages offered by its unique characteristics. In this study, the effects of the preparation method on the properties of starch films were investigated by preparing NC from cationic-modified microcrystalline cellulose (MD-MCC) using three [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose (NC) has attracted attention in recent years for the advantages offered by its unique characteristics. In this study, the effects of the preparation method on the properties of starch films were investigated by preparing NC from cationic-modified microcrystalline cellulose (MD-MCC) using three methods: Acid hydrolysis (AH), high-pressure homogenization (HH), and high-intensity ultrasonication (US). When MD-MCC was used as the starting material, the yield of NC dramatically increased compared to the NC yield obtained from unmodified MCC and the increased zeta potential improved its suspension stability in water. The NC prepared by the different methods had a range of particle sizes and exhibited needle-like structures with high aspect ratios. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt groups were introduced to the cellulose backbone during etherification. AH-NC had a much lower maximum decomposition temperature (Tmax) than HH-NC or US-NC. The starch/HH-NC film exhibited the best water vapor barrier properties because the HH-NC particles were well-dispersed in the starch matrix, as demonstrated by the surface morphology of the film. Our results suggest that cationic NC is a promising reinforcing agent for the development of starch-based biodegradable food-packaging materials. Full article
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12 pages, 4440 KiB  
Article
Nano-Cellulose/MOF Derived Carbon Doped CuO/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite as High Efficient Catalyst for Organic Pollutant Remedy
by Hailong Lu, Lili Zhang, Jinxia Ma, Nur Alam, Xiaofan Zhou and Yonghao Ni
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020277 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5574
Abstract
Metal–organic framework (MOF)-based derivatives are attracting increased interest in various research fields. In this study, nano-cellulose MOF-derived carbon-doped CuO/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via direct calcination of magnetic Cu-BTC MOF (HKUST-1)/Fe3O4/cellulose microfibril (CMF) composites in air. [...] Read more.
Metal–organic framework (MOF)-based derivatives are attracting increased interest in various research fields. In this study, nano-cellulose MOF-derived carbon-doped CuO/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via direct calcination of magnetic Cu-BTC MOF (HKUST-1)/Fe3O4/cellulose microfibril (CMF) composites in air. The morphology, structure, and porous properties of carbon-doped CuO/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were characterized using SEM, TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that the as-prepared nanocomposite catalyst is composed of Fe3O4, CuO, and carbon. Compared to the CuO/Fe3O4 catalyst from HKUST-1/Fe3O4 composite and CuO from HKUST-1, this carbon-doped CuO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite catalyst shows better catalytic efficiency in reduction reactions of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), methylene blue (MB), and methyl orange (MO) in the presence of NaBH4. The enhanced catalytic performance of carbon-doped CuO/Fe3O4 is attributed to effects of carbon preventing the aggregation of CuO/Fe3O4 and providing high surface-to-volume ratio and chemical stability. Moreover, this nanocomposite catalyst is readily recoverable using an external magnet due to its superparamagnetic behavior. The recyclability/reuse of carbon-doped CuO/Fe3O4 was also investigated. Full article
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16 pages, 16662 KiB  
Article
Advancing the Use of High-Performance Graphene-Based Multimodal Polymer Nanocomposite at Scale
by Ibrahim A. Ahmad, Krzysztof K. K. Koziol, Suleyman Deveci, Hyun-Kyung Kim and Ramachandran Vasant Kumar
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110947 - 17 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5436
Abstract
The production of an innovative, high-performance graphene-based polymer nanocomposite using cost-effective techniques was pursued in this study. Well-dispersed and uniformly distributed graphene platelets within a polymer matrix, with strong interfacial bonding between the platelets and the matrix, provided an optimal nanocomposite system for [...] Read more.
The production of an innovative, high-performance graphene-based polymer nanocomposite using cost-effective techniques was pursued in this study. Well-dispersed and uniformly distributed graphene platelets within a polymer matrix, with strong interfacial bonding between the platelets and the matrix, provided an optimal nanocomposite system for industrial interest. This study reports on the reinforcement of high molecular weight multimodal-high-density polyethylene reinforced by a microwave-induced plasma graphene, using melt intercalation. The tailored process included designing a suitable screw configuration, paired with coordinating extruder conditions and blending techniques. This enabled the polymer to sufficiently degrade, predominantly through thermomechanical-degradation, as well as thermo-oxidative degradation, which subsequently created a suitable medium for the graphene sheets to disperse readily and distribute evenly within the polymer matrix. Different microscopy techniques were employed to prove the effectiveness. This was then qualitatively assessed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, mechanical testing, density measurements, thermal expansion, and thermogravimetric analysis, confirming both the originality as well as the effectiveness of the process. Full article
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15 pages, 5279 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Nanoplatelet Hybrid Film for Flexible Strain Sensors
by JianRen Huang, Shiuh-Chuan Her, XiaoXiang Yang and MaNan Zhi
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100786 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4177
Abstract
Graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid films were prepared with the aid of surfactant Triton X-100 and sonication through a vacuum filtration process. The influence of GNP content ranging from 0 to 50 wt.% on the mechanical and electrical properties [...] Read more.
Graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid films were prepared with the aid of surfactant Triton X-100 and sonication through a vacuum filtration process. The influence of GNP content ranging from 0 to 50 wt.% on the mechanical and electrical properties was investigated using the tensile test and Hall effect measurement, respectively. It showed that the tensile strength of the hybrid film is decreasing with the increase of the GNP content while the electrical conductivity exhibits an opposite trend. The effectiveness of the MWCNT/GNP hybrid film as a strain sensor is presented. The specimen is subjected to a flexural loading, and the electrical resistance measured by a two-point probe method is found to be function of applied strain. Experimental results demonstrate that there are two different linear strain-sensing stages (0–0.2% and 0.2–1%) in the resistance of the hybrid film with applied strain. The strain sensitivity is increasing with the increase of the GNP content. In addition, the repeatability and stability of the strain sensitivity of the hybrid film were conformed through the cyclic loading–unloading tests. The MWCNT/GNP hybrid film shows promising application for strain sensing. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

34 pages, 9549 KiB  
Review
Cellulose Nanocrystals/Graphene Hybrids—A Promising New Class of Materials for Advanced Applications
by Djalal Trache, Vijay Kumar Thakur and Rabah Boukherroub
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081523 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 107 | Viewed by 8707
Abstract
With the growth of global fossil-based resource consumption and the environmental concern, there is an urgent need to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly materials, which exhibit promising properties and could maintain an acceptable level of performance to substitute the petroleum-based ones. As elite [...] Read more.
With the growth of global fossil-based resource consumption and the environmental concern, there is an urgent need to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly materials, which exhibit promising properties and could maintain an acceptable level of performance to substitute the petroleum-based ones. As elite nanomaterials, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) derived from natural renewable resources, exhibit excellent physicochemical properties, biodegradability and biocompatibility and have attracted tremendous interest nowadays. Their combination with other nanomaterials such as graphene-based materials (GNM) has been revealed to be useful and generated new hybrid materials with fascinating physicochemical characteristics and performances. In this context, the review presented herein describes the quickly growing field of a new emerging generation of CNC/GNM hybrids, with a focus on strategies for their preparation and most relevant achievements. These hybrids showed great promise in a wide range of applications such as separation, energy storage, electronic, optic, biomedical, catalysis and food packaging. Some basic concepts and general background on the preparation of CNC and GNM as well as their key features are provided ahead. Full article
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32 pages, 3752 KiB  
Review
Applications of Nanocellulose/Nanocarbon Composites: Focus on Biotechnology and Medicine
by Lucie Bacakova, Julia Pajorova, Maria Tomkova, Roman Matejka, Antonin Broz, Jana Stepanovska, Simon Prazak, Anne Skogberg, Sanna Siljander and Pasi Kallio
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020196 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 117 | Viewed by 11407
Abstract
Nanocellulose/nanocarbon composites are newly emerging smart hybrid materials containing cellulose nanoparticles, such as nanofibrils and nanocrystals, and carbon nanoparticles, such as “classical” carbon allotropes (fullerenes, graphene, nanotubes and nanodiamonds), or other carbon nanostructures (carbon nanofibers, carbon quantum dots, activated carbon and carbon black). [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose/nanocarbon composites are newly emerging smart hybrid materials containing cellulose nanoparticles, such as nanofibrils and nanocrystals, and carbon nanoparticles, such as “classical” carbon allotropes (fullerenes, graphene, nanotubes and nanodiamonds), or other carbon nanostructures (carbon nanofibers, carbon quantum dots, activated carbon and carbon black). The nanocellulose component acts as a dispersing agent and homogeneously distributes the carbon nanoparticles in an aqueous environment. Nanocellulose/nanocarbon composites can be prepared with many advantageous properties, such as high mechanical strength, flexibility, stretchability, tunable thermal and electrical conductivity, tunable optical transparency, photodynamic and photothermal activity, nanoporous character and high adsorption capacity. They are therefore promising for a wide range of industrial applications, such as energy generation, storage and conversion, water purification, food packaging, construction of fire retardants and shape memory devices. They also hold great promise for biomedical applications, such as radical scavenging, photodynamic and photothermal therapy of tumors and microbial infections, drug delivery, biosensorics, isolation of various biomolecules, electrical stimulation of damaged tissues (e.g., cardiac, neural), neural and bone tissue engineering, engineering of blood vessels and advanced wound dressing, e.g., with antimicrobial and antitumor activity. However, the potential cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of the composites and their components must also be taken into account. Full article
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