Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016) | Viewed by 40338

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1. Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2. Enhanced Composites and Structures Center, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: biorefining, chemistry, nanotechnology, biomass, and waste; biomedical engineering; composites; sensors; manufacturing of functional materials; aerospace materials; nanomaterials; renewable energy; smart materials; surface engineering; water science and engineering; additive manufacturing of polymers and composites; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites: self-healing, nanoelectronic materials; hydrogels; membranes; nanofiber; composites for extreme environments and manufacturing technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Remarkable progress has been made in the field of carbon nanotubes during the last two decades. Unfortunately, similar to other nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes also suffer from a few disadvantages and a number of technological problems still exist in their successful industrial applications. One of the biggest problems associated with their use is the incompatibility between the surface characteristics of the carbon nanotubes and the polymer matrices that affects a number of properties such as mechanical properties, electrical/electronic properties, barrier properties, flammability resistance, membrane properties, etc., to name a few. This incompatibility rises due to the different polarities and functional groups in their structures (polymers) and thus necessitates, the surface modification of carbon nanotubes. The present Special Issue is aimed at presenting the current state-of-the-art in the surface modification of carbon nanotubes to address their shortcomings. This Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research invites innovative contributions in terms of research articles, reviews, communications, and letters from around the globe. Potential topics include, but are not limited to surface modification of carbon nanotubes; chemistry and characterization; applications, including polymer nanocomposites.

Prof. Dr. Vijay Kumar Thakur
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • surface modification of carbon nanotubes
  • covalent functionalization
  • non-covalent functionalization
  • polymer nanocomposites
  • novel applications of carbon nanotubes and nanocomposites

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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3343 KiB  
Article
Simple Process for Sidewall Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Polymer Side Chain Radicals Generated by Ultraviolet-Induced C–Cl Bond Dissociation of Polystyrene Derivatives
by Tomoya Takada, Takuma Baba and Shigeaki Abe
C 2016, 2(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/c2030020 - 26 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6764
Abstract
In this work, we investigated a simple one-step process for the formation of chemical bonds between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and benzyl-type side chain radicals generated by UV photolysis of polystyrene derivatives containing the chloromethyl (–CH2Cl) group. Poly(4-chloromethyl)styrene, or styrene/4-(chloromethyl)styrene random [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigated a simple one-step process for the formation of chemical bonds between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and benzyl-type side chain radicals generated by UV photolysis of polystyrene derivatives containing the chloromethyl (–CH2Cl) group. Poly(4-chloromethyl)styrene, or styrene/4-(chloromethyl)styrene random copolymer, was mixed with MWCNTs in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Films of polymer/MWCNT mixtures before and after UV irradiation were fabricated, and then examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. According to the XPS analysis, the amount of Cl atoms in the mixture was found to decrease upon UV irradiation, indicating that the Cl atoms generated by photolysis of chloromethyl groups escaped from the reaction system in the form of gaseous Cl2. The structural change of CNTs after UV irradiation was also observed by comparing the G/D ratios (the intensity ratio of the G to D bands) of the Raman spectra obtained before and after UV irradiation. Similar phenomena were also confirmed in the case of the polymer/MWCNT mixture containing hydroxylammonium chloride as a dispersant of MWCNTs. These results confirmed the UV-induced covalent bond formation between polymer side chains and MWCNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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4881 KiB  
Article
Comparative Kinetic Study of Removal of Pb2+ Ions and Cr3+ Ions from Waste Water using Carbon Nanotubes Produced using Microwave Heating
by Nabisab M. Mubarak, Manimaran Thobashinni, Ezzat C. Abdullah and Jaya N. Sahu
C 2016, 2(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/c2010007 - 26 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5647
Abstract
A comparative study of the removal of Pb2+ ions and Cr3+ ions was conducted to determine the efficiency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) produced using microwave heating as an adsorbent in removing heavy metal ions from waste water. Optimization of parameters such [...] Read more.
A comparative study of the removal of Pb2+ ions and Cr3+ ions was conducted to determine the efficiency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) produced using microwave heating as an adsorbent in removing heavy metal ions from waste water. Optimization of parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH value, agitation speed, and agitation time was done using the Design Expert software version 6.0. The statistical analysis revealed that optimized conditions for the highest removal for Pb2+ are at pH 4.0, CNTs dosage of 0.09 g, agitation time and speed of 50 min and 150 rpm respectively. Meanwhile, the highest removal Cr3+ ions was observed at pH 8.0, CNTs dosage of 0.09 g, agitation time and speed of 60 min and 150 rpm respectively. For the initial concentration of 2 mg/L, the removal efficiency of Pb2+ ions and Cr3+ ions were 99.9% and 95.5% respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of both Pb2+ ions and Cr3+ ions onto the CNT were 15.34 mg/g for Pb2+ ions and 24.45 mg/g for Cr3+ ions. Besides that, the Langmuir and Freundlich constants for the removal of Pb2+ ions were 0.073 and 1.438 L/mg while 0.071 and 1.317 L/mg for Cr3+ ions. The statistical analysis proved that the removal of Pb2+ ions and Cr3+ ions fits the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and both models obeyed the pseudo-second-order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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3321 KiB  
Article
The Kinetics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Aggregation in Aqueous Media Is Sensitive to Surface Charge
by Byumseok Koh and Wei Cheng
C 2016, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/c2010006 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5155
Abstract
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in aqueous media have many potential applications in chemistry, biology and medicine. To disperse SWCNTs into aqueous media, it is often necessary to modify the surface of SWCNTs by either covalent or noncovalent methods. As a result of [...] Read more.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in aqueous media have many potential applications in chemistry, biology and medicine. To disperse SWCNTs into aqueous media, it is often necessary to modify the surface of SWCNTs by either covalent or noncovalent methods. As a result of this modification, the properties of SWCNTs may be profoundly influenced by the nature of the surface modification. Here, by using SWCNTs dispersed with single-stranded DNA of different lengths, we show that the kinetics of SWCNTs’ aggregation in aqueous media is strongly dependent on the status of the overall surface charge. SWCNTs with a greater number of surface charges showed faster aggregation. The difference in the rate of aggregation can differ by more than ten-fold among different conditions tested. AFM imaging of the discrete time points along the aggregation process suggests that aggregation starts with the formation of microfilaments, which can further grow to form bigger aggregates. The formation of bigger aggregates also renders it more difficult to redisperse them back into the aqueous media. The concentration of counterions required to trigger SWCNT aggregation also shows a dependence on the concentration of KCl in the aqueous solution, which supports that electrostatic interactions instead of van der Waals interactions dominate the interactions among these individually-dispersed SWCNTs in aqueous media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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6000 KiB  
Article
Time-Dependent Effects on the Coupled Mechanical-Electrical Response of Carbon Nanotube Yarns under Tensile Loading
by Jude C. Anike, Angeline Bajar and Jandro L. Abot
C 2016, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/c2010003 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5651
Abstract
Carbon nanotube yarns have extraordinary mechanical, electrical and thermal properties that make them attractive for high-performance and multifunctional composite materials. They also exhibit a unique piezoresistive response when subjected to mechanical strain. This characteristic is of interest for sensing applications including strain measurement [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotube yarns have extraordinary mechanical, electrical and thermal properties that make them attractive for high-performance and multifunctional composite materials. They also exhibit a unique piezoresistive response when subjected to mechanical strain. This characteristic is of interest for sensing applications including strain measurement and damage detection when integrated in polymeric and composite materials. Thus, there is a need to understand the coupled mechanical and electrical behavior of the carbon nanotube yarns to fully comprehend the entire scope of their sensing applications. Of particular interest are their characteristics when used as piezoresistive strain sensors in structures that are subjected to dynamic loading including fatigue and impact, or quasi-static cyclic loading. This paper presents a study about the presence of hysteresis and other time-dependent effects in carbon nanotube yarns during quasi-static cyclic uniaxial tensile loading. By simultaneously measuring the resistance, the load and the displacement histories, any direct correlations between the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the carbon nanotube yarns are investigated including the effect of strain level, strain rate, and stress relaxation. It was observed that all these effects play a significant role in the piezoresistive response of the carbon nanotube yarns. In particular, a low strain rate appears to bring out a unique piezoresistive response that is not observed at higher strain rates. The underlying phenomena determining the piezoresistive responses are hypothesized and discussed in the context of strain rate and maximum strain level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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3023 KiB  
Article
Superior Performance Nanocomposites from Uniformly Dispersed Octadecylamine Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
by Ye Chen, Jing Tao, Alaa Ezzeddine, Remi Mahfouz, Abdullah Al-Shahrani, Gasan Alabedi and Niveen M. Khashab
C 2015, 1(1), 58-76; https://doi.org/10.3390/c1010058 - 08 Dec 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 8192
Abstract
Polyetherimide (PEI) is a widely applied as engineering plastic in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries but the disadvantages of extremely low conductivity, atmospheric moisture absorption, and poor fluidity at high temperature limits its application. Herein, commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified [...] Read more.
Polyetherimide (PEI) is a widely applied as engineering plastic in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries but the disadvantages of extremely low conductivity, atmospheric moisture absorption, and poor fluidity at high temperature limits its application. Herein, commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified with a long alkyl chain molecule, octadecylamine (ODA), to produce a uniform dispersion in commercial PEI matrices. Both covalent and noncovalent modification of MWCNTs with ODA, were prepared and compared. Modified MWCNTs were incorporated in PEI matrices to fabricate nanocomposite membranes by a simple casting method. Investigating mechanical properties, thermal stability, and conductivity of the polyetherimide (PEI)/MWCNT composites showed a unique combination of properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high mechanical properties, and high thermal stability at a low content of 1.0 wt % loading of ODA modified MWCNTs. Moreover, electrical resistivity decreased around 10 orders of magnitude with only 0.5 wt % of modified MWCNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Review

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2681 KiB  
Review
Tuning CNT Properties for Metal-Free Environmental Catalytic Applications
by Raquel P. Rocha, Olívia S.G.P. Soares, José L. Figueiredo and Manuel Fernando R. Pereira
C 2016, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/c2030017 - 29 Jun 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7864
Abstract
The application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as metal-free catalysts is a novel approach for heterogeneous liquid phase catalytic systems. Textural and chemical modifications by liquid/gas phase or mechanical treatments, as well as solid state reactions, were successfully applied to obtain carbon nanotubes with [...] Read more.
The application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as metal-free catalysts is a novel approach for heterogeneous liquid phase catalytic systems. Textural and chemical modifications by liquid/gas phase or mechanical treatments, as well as solid state reactions, were successfully applied to obtain carbon nanotubes with different surface functionalities. Oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur are the most common heteroatoms introduced on the carbon surface. This short-review highlights different routes used to develop metal-free carbon nanotube catalysts with enhanced properties for Advanced Oxidation Processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes)
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