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Carbohydrate Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 16652

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2. Enhanced Composites and Structures Center, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: biorefining, chemistry, nanotechnology, biomass, and waste; biomedical engineering; composites; sensors; manufacturing of functional materials; aerospace materials; nanomaterials; renewable energy; smart materials; surface engineering; water science and engineering; additive manufacturing of polymers and composites; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites: self-healing, nanoelectronic materials; hydrogels; membranes; nanofiber; composites for extreme environments and manufacturing technology
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Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
Interests: 3D printing; polymeric drug delivery systems; medical nanotechnology; transdermal drug delivery systems; microneedles; medical devices; implantable devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aim: The 21st century offers vast challenges for researchers around the globe, especially regarding the effective use of carbohydrate polymers as a new innovative class of biomaterials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Different types of carbohydrate polymers can be engineered with desired structures and suitable physical and chemical properties that are of prime interest in a wide range of biomedical applications as diverse as drug delivery, controlled release, drug physical modification, tissue engineering, therapeutics, functional biomimetic scaffolds, regenerative dentistry diagnostics, microbial biofilms and many more. Thus, this Special Issue will summarize the recent development in the field of carbohydrate polymers to illustrate the new development of biomaterials for a number of applications.

Scope: This Special Issue will publish high quality short communications, research papers covering the most recent advances, as well as comprehensive reviews addressing novel and state-of-the-art topics from active researchers in biomaterials concerning not only the synthesis, preparation and characterization, but especially focusing on different aspects of pharmaceutical applications.

Dr. Vijay Kumar Thakur
Dr. Eneko Larrañeta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • carbohydrate polymers
  • biodegradable polymers
  • biosensors
  • hydrogels
  • biomimetic
  • membranes
  • temperature-responsive polymers
  • shape-memory polymers
  • pH-responsive polymers
  • diagnosis
  • cancer therapy
  • molecular imprinting
  • drug delivery

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1524 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Chitosan–Alginate Microparticles for Delivery of Mangostins to the Colon Area Using Box–Behnken Experimental Design
by Kamarza Mulia, Ameninta Cesanina Singarimbun and Elsa Anisa Krisanti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030873 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4489
Abstract
Chitosan-alginate microparticles loaded with hydrophobic mangostins present in the mangosteen rind extract have been formulated and optimized for colon-targeted bioactive drug delivery systems. The chitosan–mangostin microparticles were prepared using the ionotropic gelation method with sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linking agent of chitosan. The [...] Read more.
Chitosan-alginate microparticles loaded with hydrophobic mangostins present in the mangosteen rind extract have been formulated and optimized for colon-targeted bioactive drug delivery systems. The chitosan–mangostin microparticles were prepared using the ionotropic gelation method with sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linking agent of chitosan. The chitosan–mangostin microparticles were then encapsulated in alginate with calcium chloride as the linking agent. The mangostin release profile was optimized using the Box–Behnken design for response surface methodology with three independent variables: (A) chitosan–mangostin microparticle size, (B) alginate:chitosan mass ratio, and (C) concentration of calcium chloride. The following representative equation was obtained: percent cumulative release of mangostins (10 h) = 59.51 − 5.16A + 20.00B − 1.27C − 1.70AB − 5.43AC − 5.04BC + 0.0579A2 + 10.25B2 + 1.10C2. Cumulative release of 97% was obtained under the following optimum condition for microparticle preparation: chitosan–mangosteen particle size < 100 µm, alginate:chitosan mass ratio of 0.5, and calcium chloride concentration of 4% w/v. The alginate to chitosan mass ratio is the statistically significant variable in the optimization of sequential release profile of mangostins in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Furthermore, a sufficient amount of alginate is necessary to modify the chitosan microparticles and to achieve a complete release of mangostins. The results of this work indicate that the complete release of mangostins to the colon area can be achieved using the chitosan–alginate microparticles as the bioactive delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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14 pages, 3834 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Radiation Cross-Linked Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel Containing Metronidazole with Enhanced Antibacterial Activity
by Jin-Oh Jeong, Jong-Soek Park, Eui Jin Kim, Sung-In Jeong, Jae Young Lee and Youn-Mook Lim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010187 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4686
Abstract
Metronidazole (MD) is known as a periodontitis medicine and has been widely used in antibiotics for resistance to anaerobic bacteria, periodontal disease, and other threats. To treat diseases, drug delivery carriers are needed with a high bioadhesive property and enhanced drug penetration. Poly [...] Read more.
Metronidazole (MD) is known as a periodontitis medicine and has been widely used in antibiotics for resistance to anaerobic bacteria, periodontal disease, and other threats. To treat diseases, drug delivery carriers are needed with a high bioadhesive property and enhanced drug penetration. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel films have a good bioadhesive property and are able to localize the absorption site and increase the drug residence time. In this study, we fabricated a MD loaded PAA hydrogel with different MD content (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 wt%) using varying doses (25, 50, and 75 kGy) and the radiation doses (25, 50, or 75 kGy) in a one-step gamma-ray irradiation process. The chemical and physical structure were determined through a Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, gel content, and compressive strength. In addition, MD loaded PAA hydrogels were performed to MD release behaviors and cytotoxicity. Finally, we conducted antibacterial activity to demonstrate the prevention of growth of bacteria as a therapeutic dressing. The basic chemical structure analysis of MD was changed greatly at radiation doses of 50 and 75 kGy due to degradation by gamma-ray irradiation. However, when the absorbed dose was 25 kGy, the chemical structure analysis of MD did not change significantly, and the gel content and compressive strength of MD/PAA hydrogel were approximately 80% and 130 kPa, respectively. The MD/PAA hydrogels exhibited no cytotoxicity and good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans. These results provide good evidence that MD/PAA hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation has potential as a competitive candidate for the therapeutic dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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19 pages, 2900 KiB  
Article
Anti-Diabetic Nephropathy Activities of Polysaccharides Obtained from Termitornyces albuminosus via Regulation of NF-κB Signaling in db/db Mice
by Chang Yang, Qi Feng, Huan Liao, Xinlei Yu, Yang Liu and Di Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205205 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3492
Abstract
Termitornyces albuminosus is a kind of traditional Chinese edible fungus rich in nutrients and medicinal ingredients, and it has anti-oxidative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective effects of polysaccharides separated from T. albuminosus (PTA) have not been reported. The properties [...] Read more.
Termitornyces albuminosus is a kind of traditional Chinese edible fungus rich in nutrients and medicinal ingredients, and it has anti-oxidative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective effects of polysaccharides separated from T. albuminosus (PTA) have not been reported. The properties of PTA were analyzed in a BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/JNju (db/db) mouse model of diabetes. After the administration of PTA for eight weeks, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of PTA in the db/db mice were assessed. The results of a cytokine array combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of PTA. An eight-week administration of PTA caused hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic functioning, as indicated by suppressed plasma glucose levels, as well as the modulation of several cytokines related to glycometabolism, in the sera and kidneys of the mice. PTA treatment also had a protective effect on renal function, restoring renal structures and regulating potential indicators of nephropathy. In the kidneys of the db/db mice, PTA treatment reduced the activation of protein kinase B, the inhibitor of κB kinase alpha and beta, and the inhibitor of κB alpha and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We establish the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-diabetic nephropathy effects of PTA, and we find that the renal protection effects of PTA may be related to anti-inflammatory activity via the regulation of NF-κB signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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14 pages, 4143 KiB  
Article
Differential Susceptibility of Catheter Biomaterials to Biofilm-Associated Infections and Their Remedy by Drug-Encapsulated Eudragit RL100 Nanoparticles
by Vivek Kumar Pandey, Kumar Rohit Srivastava, Gufran Ajmal, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Siddh Nath Upadhyay and Pradeep Kumar Mishra
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205110 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
Biofilms are the cause of major bacteriological infections in patients. The complex architecture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) biofilm attached to the surface of catheters has been studied and found to depend on the biomaterial’s surface properties. The SEM micrographs and [...] Read more.
Biofilms are the cause of major bacteriological infections in patients. The complex architecture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) biofilm attached to the surface of catheters has been studied and found to depend on the biomaterial’s surface properties. The SEM micrographs and water contact angle analysis have revealed that the nature of the surface affects the growth and extent of E. coli biofilm formation. In vitro studies have revealed that the Gram-negative E. coli adherence to implanted biomaterials takes place in accordance with hydrophobicity, i.e., latex > silicone > polyurethane > stainless steel. Permanent removal of E. coli biofilm requires 50 to 200 times more gentamicin sulfate (G-S) than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to remove 90% of E. coli biofilm (MBIC90). Here, in vitro eradication of biofilm-associated infection on biomaterials has been done by Eudragit RL100 encapsulated gentamicin sulfate (E-G-S) nanoparticle of range 140 nm. It is 10–20 times more effective against E. coli biofilm-associated infections eradication than normal unentrapped G-S. Thus, Eudragit RL100 mediated drug delivery system provides a promising way to reduce the cost of treatment with a higher drug therapeutic index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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