Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2019) | Viewed by 33294

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2. Enhanced Composites and Structures Center, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: biorefining, chemistry, nanotechnology, biomass, and waste; biomedical engineering; composites; sensors; manufacturing of functional materials; aerospace materials; nanomaterials; renewable energy; smart materials; surface engineering; water science and engineering; additive manufacturing of polymers and composites; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites: self-healing, nanoelectronic materials; hydrogels; membranes; nanofiber; composites for extreme environments and manufacturing technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbohydrate polymers are one of the most fascinating materials of the present era, finding applications in almost every aspects of life. Carbohydrate polymers are directly available in nature and are surface engineered depending upon the targeted applications. Advances in polymer science and the introduction of new sustainable polymers have resulted in the significant development of carbohydrate polymer-based bio-materials with unique properties. Different kinds of such polymers have been and will be one of the key elements of several applications in many of the advanced biomedical and pharmaceutical research projects being carried out over the globe.

This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the current state-of-the-art in carbohydrate polymers and related materials to address the various challenging issues researchers are confronted with in this field for a number of applications, especially biomedical applications. This Special Issue contains precisely referenced research articles/reviews, emphasizing different kinds of polymers with basic fundamentals and practicality for applications in diverse biomedical and pharmaceutical technologies. The SI aim at explaining the basics of carbohydrate polymer-based materials from different resources and their chemistry along with practical applications that present a future direction in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.  

This Special Issue of Biomolecules will attempt to publish high quality short communications, research papers covering the most recent advances, as well as comprehensive reviews addressing novel and state-of-the-art topics from active researchers in carbohydrate polymers and respective innovative/hybrid materials, concerning not only the synthesis, preparation and characterization, but especially focusing on the applications of such materials with outstanding performance.  

Prof. Dr. Vijay Kumar Thakur
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Carbohydrate polymers Method(s) for the isolation of carbohydrate polymers Characterization of carbohydrate polymers Biological activity of carbohydrate polymers Drug delivery methods for carbohydrate polymers Carbohydrate polymer-based hydrogels, membranes, films, etc. Application in pharmacy, food, bioengineering, and other related areas Carbohydrate polymer-based other materials and micro/nano-devices

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3726 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effective Cosmetic-Grade Hyaluronan Hydrogels for ReNcell VM Human Neural Stem Cell Culture
by Weili Ma and Won Hyuk Suh
Biomolecules 2019, 9(10), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9100515 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4616
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide polymer frequently used as a starting material to fabricate hydrogels, especially for recapitulating the brain’s extracellular matrix (ECM) for in vitro neural stem cell (NSC) cultures. Here, we report the successful synthesis of a methacrylated HA (MeHA) [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide polymer frequently used as a starting material to fabricate hydrogels, especially for recapitulating the brain’s extracellular matrix (ECM) for in vitro neural stem cell (NSC) cultures. Here, we report the successful synthesis of a methacrylated HA (MeHA) polymer from an inexpensive cosmetic-grade hyaluronan starting material. The MeHA polymers synthesized from cosmetic-grade HA yielded similar chemical purity to those from pharmaceutical/research-grade HA reported in the literature. Crosslinked MeHA (x-MeHA) hydrogels were formed using radical polymerization which resulted in mechanical properties matching previously reported mechanical property ranges for enhanced neuronal differentiation of NSCs. We assessed cellular adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and stiffness-dependent neuronal differentiation properties of ReNcell VM human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and compared our results to studies reported in the literature (that utilized non-human and human pluripotent cell-derived NSCs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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23 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Carbohydrate-Based Macromolecular Crowding-Induced Stabilization of Proteins: Towards Understanding the Significance of the Size of the Crowder
by Sumra Shahid, Ikramul Hasan, Faizan Ahmad, Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan and Asimul Islam
Biomolecules 2019, 9(9), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9090477 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
There are a large number of biomolecules that are accountable for the extremely crowded intracellular environment, which is totally different from the dilute solutions, i.e., the idealized conditions. Such crowded environment due to the presence of macromolecules of different sizes, shapes, and composition [...] Read more.
There are a large number of biomolecules that are accountable for the extremely crowded intracellular environment, which is totally different from the dilute solutions, i.e., the idealized conditions. Such crowded environment due to the presence of macromolecules of different sizes, shapes, and composition governs the level of crowding inside a cell. Thus, we investigated the effect of different sizes and shapes of crowders (ficoll 70, dextran 70, and dextran 40), which are polysaccharide in nature, on the thermodynamic stability, structure, and functional activity of two model proteins using UV-Vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism techniques. We observed that (a) the extent of stabilization of α-lactalbumin and lysozyme increases with the increasing concentration of the crowding agents due to the excluded volume effect and the small-sized and rod-shaped crowder, i.e., dextran 40 resulted in greater stabilization of both proteins than dextran 70 and ficoll 70; (b) structure of both the proteins remains unperturbed; and (c) enzymatic activity of lysozyme decreases with the increasing concentration of the crowder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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17 pages, 3757 KiB  
Article
Lignin and Cellulose Blends as Pharmaceutical Excipient for Tablet Manufacturing via Direct Compression
by Juan Domínguez-Robles, Sarah A. Stewart, Andreas Rendl, Zoilo González, Ryan F. Donnelly and Eneko Larrañeta
Biomolecules 2019, 9(9), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9090423 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5185
Abstract
Extensive efforts are being made to find alternative uses for lignin (LIG). In the present work the use of this biopolymer as excipient to prepare tablets was studied. For this purpose, LIG was combined with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and used as excipients to [...] Read more.
Extensive efforts are being made to find alternative uses for lignin (LIG). In the present work the use of this biopolymer as excipient to prepare tablets was studied. For this purpose, LIG was combined with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and used as excipients to prepare directly compressed tablets containing a model drug, tetracycline (TC). The excipients contained different concentrations of LIG: 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% (w/w). Two different compression forces were used (two and five tonnes). When formulations were prepared using LIG as the only excipient, tablets were formed, but they showed lower densities and crushing strength than the ones obtained with only MCC or LIG/MCC blends. Moreover, tablets prepared using five tonnes of compression force showed TC releases ranging from 40% to 70% of the drug loading. On the other hand, the tablets prepared using two tonnes of compression force showed a faster and more efficient TC release, between 60% and 90%. The presence of LIG in the tablets modified significantly the release profile and the maximum amount of TC released. Finally, a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrozyl) assay was performed to confirm that the presence of LIG provided antioxidant properties to the formulations. Accordingly, LIG has potential as a pharmaceutical excipient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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13 pages, 3984 KiB  
Article
Alginate Gel Reinforcement with Chitin Nanowhiskers Modulates Rheological Properties and Drug Release Profile
by Valentina A. Petrova, Vladimir Y. Elokhovskiy, Sergei V. Raik, Daria N. Poshina, Dmitry P. Romanov and Yury A. Skorik
Biomolecules 2019, 9(7), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9070291 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 5109
Abstract
Hydrogels are promising materials for various applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and wastewater treatment. In this work, we designed an alginate (ALG) hydrogel containing partially deacetylated chitin nanowhiskers (CNW) as a filler. Gelation in the system occurred by both the protonation of [...] Read more.
Hydrogels are promising materials for various applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and wastewater treatment. In this work, we designed an alginate (ALG) hydrogel containing partially deacetylated chitin nanowhiskers (CNW) as a filler. Gelation in the system occurred by both the protonation of alginic acid and the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex with deacetylated CNW surface chains. Morphological changes in the gel manifested as a honeycomb structure in the freeze-dried gel, unlike the layered structure of an ALG gel. Disturbance of the structural orientation of the gels by the introduction of CNW was also expressed as a decrease in the intensity of X-ray diffraction reflexes. All studied systems were non-Newtonian liquids that violated the Cox-Merz rule. An increase in the content of CNW in the ALG-CNW hydrogel resulted in increases in the yield stress, maximum Newtonian viscosity, and relaxation time. Inclusion of CNW prolonged the release of tetracycline due to changes in diffusion. The first phases (0–5 h) of the release profiles were well described by the Higuchi model. ALG-CNW hydrogels may be of interest as soft gels for controlled topical or intestinal drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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15 pages, 3706 KiB  
Article
A Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Based Solid Dispersion of Curcumin with Enhanced Bioavailability and Its Hepatoprotective Activity
by Myoung-Sook Shin, Jun Sang Yu, Jaemin Lee, Young Seok Ji, Hee Joung Joung, Yu-Mee Han, Hye Hyun Yoo and Ki Sung Kang
Biomolecules 2019, 9(7), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9070281 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3981
Abstract
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. However, its low solubility in aqueous solutions, low absorption following oral administration, and rapid degradation limit its use as a functional food material. [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. However, its low solubility in aqueous solutions, low absorption following oral administration, and rapid degradation limit its use as a functional food material. In this study, a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-based solid dispersion of curcumin (DW-CUR 20) was prepared and its bioavailability was evaluated. In addition, its therapeutic efficacy as a hepatoprotective agent was investigated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatocyte damage. The rat plasma pharmacokinetic study showed that the oral curcumin bioavailability of DW-CUR 20 significantly increased compared to that of non-formulated curcumin. DW-CUR 20 showed a concentration-dependent hepatocyte protective effect on t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells. DW-CUR 20 inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased apoptosis-related proteins such as Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cleaved caspase-7 and cleaved caspase-8 on t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that DW-CUR 20 could be a promising formulation for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of curcumin and for improving the safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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22 pages, 5893 KiB  
Article
High Proton Conducting Polymer Blend Electrolytes Based on Chitosan:Dextran with Constant Specific Capacitance and Energy Density
by Shujahadeen B. Aziz, M. H. Hamsan, Wrya O. Karim, M. F. Z. Kadir, M. A. Brza and Omed Gh. Abdullah
Biomolecules 2019, 9(7), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9070267 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 3793
Abstract
Polymer blend electrolytes based on chitosan: dextran (CS:Dext) incorporated with various amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) with constant specific capacitance (12.4 F/g) and energy density over 100 cycles were prepared using a solution cast technique. The blend electrolyte samples exhibit broader [...] Read more.
Polymer blend electrolytes based on chitosan: dextran (CS:Dext) incorporated with various amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) with constant specific capacitance (12.4 F/g) and energy density over 100 cycles were prepared using a solution cast technique. The blend electrolyte samples exhibit broader amorphous humps in X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra compared to pure CS:Dext film. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicates the complex formation of the added ammonium salt with the polymer blend functional groups through the shifting and decrease in the intensity of FTIR bands. The impedance plots were used to determine the conductivity of the samples. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images support the conductivity behavior of the samples. The impedance plots were applied in the determination of the conductivity of the samples in which the relatively highest conductivity was gained to be 1 × 10−3 S/cm. The transference number measurement (TNM) of the conducting electrolyte was 0.88, which portrays the dominancy of ion in the conduction process. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) verified the chemical stability and showed it to be 1.7 V and an effective electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) that is applicable in electrochemical devices. The performance of the EDLC cell was examined using both cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge–discharge techniques at ambient temperature. The semi-rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammetry (CV) plot and no redox peak was observed. The charge-discharge process of the fabricated EDLC is durable over 100 cycles with an equivalent circuit resistance and power density of 194.5 Ω and 428 W/kg, respectively. Two main outcomes, the specific capacitance and energy densities of 12.4 Farad/g and 1.4 Wh/kg, respectively, are almost constant over 100 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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20 pages, 7322 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Collagen 3D Matrix Mimics Trabecular Bone and Regulates RANKL-Mediated Paracrine Cues of Differentiated Osteoblast and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Marrow Macrophage-Derived Osteoclastogenesis
by Jeevithan Elango, Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Saeed Ur Rahman, Yves Henrotin, Joe M. Regenstein, Wenhui Wu and Bin Bao
Biomolecules 2019, 9(5), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9050173 - 05 May 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4638
Abstract
Recent studies have identified the regulatory mechanism of collagen in bone ossification and resorption. Due to its excellent bio-mimicry property, collagen is used for the treatment of several bone and joint disease such as arthritis, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In bone, the biological action [...] Read more.
Recent studies have identified the regulatory mechanism of collagen in bone ossification and resorption. Due to its excellent bio-mimicry property, collagen is used for the treatment of several bone and joint disease such as arthritis, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In bone, the biological action of collagen is highly influenced by the interactions of other bone materials such as glycosaminoglycan and minerals. In view of the above perceptions, collagen was crosslinked with chitosan, hydroxyapatite (H), and chondroitin sulfate (Cs), to produce a natural bone-like 3D structure and to evaluate its effect on bone homeostasis using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblast, and bone marrow macrophages. The XRD and micro-CT data confirmed the arrangement of H crystallites in the chitosan-collagen-H-Cs (CCHCs) three-dimensional (3D)-matrix and the three-dimensional structure of the matrix. The stimulatory osteoblastogenic and exploitive osteoclastogenic activity of 3D-matrices were identified using differentiated osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Besides, osteogenic progenitor’s paracrine cues for osteoclastogenesis showed that the differentiated osteoblast secreted higher levels of RANKL to support osteoclastogenesis, and the effect was downregulated by the CCHCs 3D-matrix. From that, it was hypothesized that the morphology of the CCHCs 3D-matrix resembles trabecular bone, which enhances bone growth, limits bone resorption, and could be a novel biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers: Science and Applications)
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