Feature Papers in Polymer Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2023) | Viewed by 33313

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1. School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea
2. Department of Polymer Engineering, Graduate School, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea
Interests: conducting polymers; nanoparticles; composites; sensors; electrochemistry
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Innovation Engineering Department, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: cold-cured adhesives and matrices for FRP employed in constructions; polymeric nanostructured adhesives and coatings; hydrophobic coatings for stone conservation and wood protection; durability of polymers, adhesives and coatings; eco-efficient materials for construction and cultural heritage
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Department of Applied Chemistry and Physics, University of León, León, Spain
Interests: water pollution and contamination; water and wastewater treatment: global treatment systems; sustainable treatment processes; clean and alternative technologies; waste management and valorization; alternative adsorbent materials; alternative photocatalysts
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Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
Interests: polymer/active principle composites; drug delivery; supercritical carbon dioxide; microparticles and nanoparticles precipitation; biopolymer aerogels; polymer/drug coprecipitation
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School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Interests: biomaterials; optomechanronics; dental biomechanics
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1. Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2. Enhanced Composites and Structures Center, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: biorefining, chemistry, nanotechnology, biomass, and waste; biomedical engineering; composites; sensors; manufacturing of functional materials; aerospace materials; nanomaterials; renewable energy; smart materials; surface engineering; water science and engineering; additive manufacturing of polymers and composites; multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites: self-healing, nanoelectronic materials; hydrogels; membranes; nanofiber; composites for extreme environments and manufacturing technology
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School of Materials & Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
Interests: biomolecules; electrospinning; electrospraying; biomaterials; drug delivery
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of the Polymers aims to collect original research papers and reviews on the topic of polymer applications. All kinds of polymers, either conventional engineering polymers or newly developed ones, from thermoset and thermoplastic to vitrimer, will be considered. Any applications, from traditional to advanced, will be covered. Submissions may address the following or related topics:

  • Biomedical applications of polymeric materials;
  • Polymer materials for drug delivery systems;
  • Polymer materials for wound dressing applications;
  • Polymer materials for tissue engineering;
  • Environmental applications of polymeric materials and sustainable science and technology;
  • Polymer applications in food science;
  • Industrial application of polymeric materials;
  • Adsorption applications of polymeric materials;
  • Polymeric material based flexible and stretchable electronics;
  • Functional polymers and their composites for sensors and actuators;
  • Polymer-based LED;
  • Polymeric membranes;
  • Eco-friendly polymeric materials;
  • Antibacterial activity of polymeric materials;
  • Functional polymeric textiles;
  • Polymeric self-healing materials;
  • Functional polymeric surfaces;
  • Applications of polymeric materials and their composites in energy generation and storage;
  • 3D/4D printing of polymeric materials and their composites.

Prof. Dr. Hyeonseok Yoon
Prof. Dr. Mariaenrica Frigione
Dr. Marta Otero
Prof. Dr. Iolanda De Marco
Prof. Dr. Haw-Ming Huang
Prof. Dr. Vijay Kumar Thakur
Prof. Dr. Deng-Guang Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1335 KiB  
Article
Click Synthesis of Triazole Polymers Based on Lignin-Derived Metabolic Intermediate and Their Strong Adhesive Properties to Cu Plate
by Yijie Jin, Manjusha Joshi, Takuma Araki, Naofumi Kamimura, Eiji Masai, Masaya Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Michinobu
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061349 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) is a chemically stable metabolic intermediate of lignin that can be produced on a large scale by transforming bacteria. Novel biomass-based polymers based on PDC were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared [...] Read more.
2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) is a chemically stable metabolic intermediate of lignin that can be produced on a large scale by transforming bacteria. Novel biomass-based polymers based on PDC were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopies, thermal analysis, and tensile lap shear strength measurements. The onset decomposition temperatures of these PDC-based polymers were all above 200 °C. In addition, the PDC-based polymers exhibited strong adhesive properties to various metal plates, with the highest adhesion to a copper plate of 5.73 MPa. Interestingly, this result was in contrast to our previous findings that PDC-based polymers weakly adhere to copper. Furthermore, when bifunctional alkyne and azide monomers were polymerized in situ under hot-press conditions for 1 h, the resulting PDC-based polymer displayed a similar adhesion to a copper plate of 4.18 MPa. The high affinity of the triazole ring to copper ions improved the adhesive ability and selectivity of the PDC-based polymers to copper while still maintaining the strong adhesive ability to other metals, which is conducive to enhancing the versatility of PDC-based polymers as adhesives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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19 pages, 3569 KiB  
Article
Facile Synthesis of Functionalised Hyperbranched Polymers for Application as Novel, Low Viscosity Lubricant Formulation Components
by Sophie R. Goodwin, Amy Stimpson, Richard Moon, Lauren Cowie, Najib Aragrag, Sorin V. Filip, Andrew G. Smith and Derek J. Irvine
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3841; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183841 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
A novel, previously unreported, method for synthesising hyperbranched (HB) materials is detailed. Their use as additives to produce lubricant formulations that exhibit enhanced levels of wear protection and improved low-temperature oil viscosity and flow is also reported. The lubricant formulations containing HB additives [...] Read more.
A novel, previously unreported, method for synthesising hyperbranched (HB) materials is detailed. Their use as additives to produce lubricant formulations that exhibit enhanced levels of wear protection and improved low-temperature oil viscosity and flow is also reported. The lubricant formulations containing HB additives were found to exhibit both significantly lower viscosities and improved in-use film-forming properties than the current industry standard formulations. To achieve this, alkyl methacrylate oligomers (predominantly dimers and trimers) were synthesised using catalytic chain transfer polymerisation. These were then used as functional chain transfer agents (CTA) to control the polymerisation of divinyl benzene (DVB) monomers to generate highly soluble, high polydispersity HB polymers. The level of dimer/trimer purification applied was varied to define its influence on both these HB resultant structures and the resultant HB additives’ performance as a lubricant additive. It was shown that, while the DVB acted as the backbone of the HB, the base oil solubility of the additive was imparted by the presence of the alkyl chains included in the structure via the use of the oligomeric CTAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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20 pages, 2406 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Hydrophobic Ions on Environmentally Relevant Sorbents
by Gergely Becskereki, George Horvai and Blanka Tóth
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 3167; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14153167 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Environmental monitoring and remediation often requires the collection of harmful substances from aqueous solutions. Absorption with solids is a useful technique for binding such substances even at very low concentration levels. Many of these contaminants are weak acids or bases. Some novel, nonionic [...] Read more.
Environmental monitoring and remediation often requires the collection of harmful substances from aqueous solutions. Absorption with solids is a useful technique for binding such substances even at very low concentration levels. Many of these contaminants are weak acids or bases. Some novel, nonionic polymeric sorbents, such as hypercrosslinked polymers or polymers with balanced hydrophilic-lipophilic properties (HLB) have been found to bind weak acids and bases with high distribution coefficients even at pH values where these compounds are almost completely ionized (typically near pH 7). To understand this phenomenon and its practical consequences, we have experimentally studied the adsorption of ionizable weak acids and bases as a function of pH and ionic strength on a the OASIS® HLB sorbent. Not surprisingly, the ionic forms of the weak acids and bases were found to be much less bound in the aqueous solution than their neutral forms. In spite of this, OASIS® HLB binds weak acids and bases around pH 7 considerably better than typical hydrophobic sorbents. The high overall distribution coefficients around pH 7 could be explained by two factors. One is that on OASIS® HLB, and on some other novel polymeric sorbents, the binding constant of the moderately hydrophobic neutral form is on the order of 100,000, i.e., much higher than on typical hydrophobic sorbents. Thus, even if the proportion of the neutral form in solution is only around 1% near pH 7, the adsorption of the neutral form is still significant. On the other hand, the binding of the apparently hydrophilic ionized forms occurs with distribution coefficients well above 100. The distribution coefficient of the ionic form appears to depend on ionic strength and the presence of competing ions. Adsorption of the ionic forms is found to be very similar to the adsorption of ionic surfactants. The pH dependence of the total adsorption of neutral and ionic forms together, is found to be steep around pH 7, and therefore the varying pH of natural waters may strongly influence the binding efficiency in practical applications, such as the collection (concentration) of contaminants or their passive sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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10 pages, 2435 KiB  
Article
Control of Stimuli Sensitivity in pH-Switchable LCST/UCST-Type Thermosensitive Dendrimers by Changing the Dendrimer Structure
by Chie Kojima, Yunshen Fu and Mamiko Tamaki
Polymers 2022, 14(12), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14122426 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Stimuli-sensitive materials, such as pH- and temperature-responsive polymers, are useful as smart materials. Phenylalanine (Phe)-modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with succinic acid termini, PAMAM-Phe-Suc, have been reported as unique pH-switchable lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-/upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type thermosensitive polymers. Regulating the phase [...] Read more.
Stimuli-sensitive materials, such as pH- and temperature-responsive polymers, are useful as smart materials. Phenylalanine (Phe)-modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with succinic acid termini, PAMAM-Phe-Suc, have been reported as unique pH-switchable lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-/upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type thermosensitive polymers. Regulating the phase transition behavior of dendrimers is important for their applications. This study investigated the relationship between the dendrimer structure and stimuli sensitivity. Phe-modified PAMAM dendrimers with cyclohexanedicarboxylate termini (PAMAM-Phe-CHex) and sulfonate termini (PAMAM-Phe-SO3Na) were synthesized. The temperature-dependent transmittance of these aqueous dendrimer solutions was examined at various pH values. PAMAM-Phe-CHex with Phe at all termini (PAMAM-Phe64-CHex) demonstrated a broad UCST-like phase transition at pH 7.0 but lacked an LCST-type phase transition. PAMAM-Phe-CHex with ≤ 27 Phe residues showed both LCST- and UCST-like phase transitions at different pH values, but the phase transition was broad. PAMAM-Phe-SO3Na showed both LCST- and UCST-type phase transitions at different pH values, and the transition temperature increased as the bound Phe number decreased. Thus, the phase transition behavior of PAMAM-Phe-SO3Na dendrimers can be regulated by varying the Phe/PAMAM ratios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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23 pages, 11757 KiB  
Article
Effect of Diluents on Mechanical Characteristics of Epoxy Compounds
by Anna Rudawska and Mariaenrica Frigione
Polymers 2022, 14(11), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112277 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
The aim of this work is to assess the influence of different commercial diluents on some mechanical properties of two bisphenolic epoxy compounds, cold-cured by a polyamide curing agent, to be employed as epoxy structural adhesives for building and industrial applications. The diluents [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to assess the influence of different commercial diluents on some mechanical properties of two bisphenolic epoxy compounds, cold-cured by a polyamide curing agent, to be employed as epoxy structural adhesives for building and industrial applications. The diluents under analysis were epoxy, bituminous, nitro, acrylic and extraction. The choice of these products was made on the basis of their wide commercial availability as diluents for epoxies used as adhesives and in different industrial and construction applications. The diluents were all added in small proportions, i.e., from 1 to 10 g per 100 g of epoxy resin. The cold-cured epoxy compounds were subjected to compressive (according to ISO 604) and static tensile (according to ISO 527-1) tests. The same mechanical tests were performed on both unmodified epoxy resins, for comparison purposes. On the basis of the obtained results, it was concluded that the influence of the presence of a diluent, and of its amount, on the mechanical properties of epoxy compounds depends on the type of resin and of diluent, as well as on the mechanical characteristics analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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21 pages, 4543 KiB  
Article
A Magnetic Nanoparticle-Doped Photopolymer for Holographic Recording
by Muhammad Irfan, Suzanne Martin, Muhannad Ahmed Obeidi, Scott Miller, Frank Kuster, Dermot Brabazon and Izabela Naydenova
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091858 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
Functionalised holograms are important for applications utilising smart diffractive optical elements for light redirection, shaping and in the development of sensors/indicators. This paper reports on holographic recording in novel magnetic nanocomposites and the observed temperature change in dry layers and liquid samples exposed [...] Read more.
Functionalised holograms are important for applications utilising smart diffractive optical elements for light redirection, shaping and in the development of sensors/indicators. This paper reports on holographic recording in novel magnetic nanocomposites and the observed temperature change in dry layers and liquid samples exposed to alternating magnetic field (AMF). The nanocomposite consists of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA)-based polymer doped with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and local heating is achieved through magnetic induction. Here, volume transmission holographic gratings (VTHGs) are recorded with up to 24% diffraction efficiency (DE) in the dry layers of magnetic nanocomposites. The dry layers and liquid samples are then exposed to AMF. Efficient heating was observed in the liquid samples doped with Fe3O4 MNPs of 20 nm average size where the temperature increased from 27 °C to 64 °C after 300 s exposure to 111 mT AMF. The temperature increase in the dry layers doped with the same nanoparticles after exposure to 4.4 mT AMF was observed to be 6 °C. No temperature change was observed in the undoped layers. Additionally, we have successfully recorded Denisyuk holograms in the magnetic nanocomposite materials. The results reveal that the magnetic nanocomposite layers are suitable for recording holograms and need further optimisation in developing holographic indicators for mapping AMFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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13 pages, 1792 KiB  
Article
A Solvent-Free Approach to Crosslinked Hydrophobic Polymeric Coatings on Paper Using Vegetable Oil
by Amelia Loesch-Zhang, Cynthia Cordt, Andreas Geissler and Markus Biesalski
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091773 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
Hydrophobic coatings are of utmost importance for many applications of paper-based materials. However, to date, most coating methods demand vast amounts of chemicals and solvents. Frequently, fossil-based coating materials are being used and multiple derivatization reactions are often required to obtain desired performances. [...] Read more.
Hydrophobic coatings are of utmost importance for many applications of paper-based materials. However, to date, most coating methods demand vast amounts of chemicals and solvents. Frequently, fossil-based coating materials are being used and multiple derivatization reactions are often required to obtain desired performances. In this work, we present a solvent-free paper-coating process, where olive oil as the main biogenic component is being used to obtain a hydrophobic barrier on paper. UV-induced thiol-ene photocrosslinking of olive oil was pursued in a solvent-free state at a wavelength of 254 nm without addition of photoinitiator. Optimum reaction conditions were determined in advance using oleic acid as a model compound. Paper coatings based on olive oil crosslinked by thiol-ene reaction reach water contact angles of up to 120°. By means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, a successful reaction and the formation of a polymer network within the coating can be proven. These results show that click-chemistry strategies can be used to achieve hydrophobic polymeric paper coatings while keeping the amount of non-biobased chemicals and reaction steps at a minimum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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11 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Polymeric Coating of Silica Microspheres for Biological Applications: Suppression of Non-Specific Binding and Functionalization with Biomolecules
by Dario Brambilla, Alessandro Mussida, Anna M. Ferretti, Laura Sola, Francesco Damin and Marcella Chiari
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040730 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
The use of micro- and nanoparticles in biological applications has dramatically grown during the last few decades due to the ease of protocols development and compatibility with microfluidics devices. Particles can be composed by different materials, i.e., polymers, inorganic dielectrics, and metals. Among [...] Read more.
The use of micro- and nanoparticles in biological applications has dramatically grown during the last few decades due to the ease of protocols development and compatibility with microfluidics devices. Particles can be composed by different materials, i.e., polymers, inorganic dielectrics, and metals. Among them, silica is a suitable material for the development of biosensing applications. Depending on their final application, the surface properties of particles, including silica, are tailored by means of chemical modification or polymeric coating. The latter strategy represents a powerful tool to create a hydrophilic environment that enables the functionalization of particles with biomolecules and the further interaction with analytes. Here, the use of MCP-6, a dimethylacrylamide (DMA)-based ter-copolymer, to coat silica microspheres is presented. MCP-6 offers unprecedented ease of coating, imparting silica particles a hydrophilic coating with antifouling properties that is able to provide high-density immobilization of biological probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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15 pages, 5271 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Electrochemical Visualization of Latent Fingerprints with Poly(Neutral Red) on Brass Surfaces
by Gabriela Broncová, Tereza Slaninová, Miroslava Trchová, Vadim Prokopec, Pavel Matějka and Tatiana V. Shishkanova
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193220 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
This study is focused on the visualization of latent fingerprints on brass surfaces using the method of electrochemical deposition of a polymer film based on poly(neutral red) (PNR). The experiment included (i) optimization of conditions of electrochemical deposition of PNR on brass surfaces, [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the visualization of latent fingerprints on brass surfaces using the method of electrochemical deposition of a polymer film based on poly(neutral red) (PNR). The experiment included (i) optimization of conditions of electrochemical deposition of PNR on brass surfaces, (ii) ATR-FTIR spectroscopic characterization of PNR-modified substrates, and (iii) identification of characteristic details on visualized fingerprints on fired brass cartridges. For electrochemical visualization, it is necessary to keep in mind both kind and “story” substrates. Experimental findings showed that electrochemical visualization carried out on brass plates is a step forward before known findings described in the literature and gives simultaneously a new approach for criminalists in the fight against crime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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14 pages, 5168 KiB  
Article
Possibility for Replicating Mechanoscopic Surface Marks in the Hybrid Vacuum-Pressure Casting Process
by Mariusz Frankiewicz, Karol Kobiela and Tomasz Kurzynowski
Polymers 2021, 13(6), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13060874 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Vacuum-pressure casting technology allows small batches of components to be manufactured from polymer materials, mainly from thermosetting plastics such as polyurethane and epoxy resins. Apart from being very simple, the process is also advantageous in that it offers a very accurately reproduced geometrical [...] Read more.
Vacuum-pressure casting technology allows small batches of components to be manufactured from polymer materials, mainly from thermosetting plastics such as polyurethane and epoxy resins. Apart from being very simple, the process is also advantageous in that it offers a very accurately reproduced geometrical structure of the surfaces of master patterns used in mold manufacturing. This article presents the results of analyses performed for the process of replicating mechanoscopic marks with the use of three vacuum casting variants, including a hybrid vacuum-pressure casting process developed in particular for the replication purposes. The main research objective was to analyze and evaluate the influence of the parameters of the individual process variants on the quality of the obtained cast parts and on the replication accuracy without introducing additional artifacts on their surfaces. The article discusses the individual stages of the process and provides an analysis of their parameters. The replicas were evaluated for their porosity and reproduction quality with the use of CT methods and comparative photographs obtained from a light microscope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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Review

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26 pages, 3260 KiB  
Review
Polymeric Membranes for Biomedical Applications
by Elena Ruxandra Radu, Stefan Ioan Voicu and Vijay Kumar Thakur
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030619 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4817
Abstract
Polymeric membranes are selective materials used in a wide range of applications that require separation processes, from water filtration and purification to industrial separations. Because of these materials’ remarkable properties, namely, selectivity, membranes are also used in a wide range of biomedical applications [...] Read more.
Polymeric membranes are selective materials used in a wide range of applications that require separation processes, from water filtration and purification to industrial separations. Because of these materials’ remarkable properties, namely, selectivity, membranes are also used in a wide range of biomedical applications that require separations. Considering the fact that most organs (apart from the heart and brain) have separation processes associated with the physiological function (kidneys, lungs, intestines, stomach, etc.), technological solutions have been developed to replace the function of these organs with the help of polymer membranes. This review presents the main biomedical applications of polymer membranes, such as hemodialysis (for chronic kidney disease), membrane-based artificial oxygenators (for artificial lung), artificial liver, artificial pancreas, and membranes for osseointegration and drug delivery systems based on membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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24 pages, 2428 KiB  
Review
Zein Microparticles and Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems
by Iolanda De Marco
Polymers 2022, 14(11), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14112172 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4237
Abstract
Zein is a natural, biocompatible, and biodegradable polymer widely used in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and packaging fields because of its low water vapor permeability, antibacterial activity, and hydrophobicity. It is a vegetal protein extracted from renewable resources (it is the major storage protein [...] Read more.
Zein is a natural, biocompatible, and biodegradable polymer widely used in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and packaging fields because of its low water vapor permeability, antibacterial activity, and hydrophobicity. It is a vegetal protein extracted from renewable resources (it is the major storage protein from corn). There has been growing attention to producing zein-based drug delivery systems in the recent years. Being a hydrophobic biopolymer, it is used in the controlled and targeted delivery of active principles. This review examines the present-day landscape of zein-based microparticles and nanoparticles, focusing on the different techniques used to obtain particles, the optimization of process parameters, advantages, disadvantages, and final applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Polymer Applications)
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