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Monitoring of Cutting Process and Tool Condition of Metal and Metal Composite

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2023) | Viewed by 21085

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Interests: machining; monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting process; high-speed machining

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Management, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
Interests: surface metrology; topography; coordinate measuring technique; computed tomography; scanning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Machining is used widely in various industries, and machine parts with high precision must be obtained and employed. This is an important process that is present in every aspect of the machine industry. The development of machining and machining machines leads to the highest geometric accuracy and to the required physical properties on the surface layer. Due to the use of advanced tool materials, tools, or progressive machinery parks, machining methods have improved, and the new approach to machining now gives a satisfactory effect.

The most common construction materials used in machining are steel and cast iron. The role of these materials, however, is shrinking because of advanced, difficult-to-cut materials such as composites.

Tool life is significantly smaller with composite materials than with conventional materials, whereas the machining of composite materials can affect surface roughness and have various technological effects. During surface layer formation of composite materials, the random factor is relevant, and so are monitoring systems which can assess the machining process and tool life, as well as the technological effects in real-time machining. Such systems are based on acoustic emission, cutting forces, vibrations, noise, or temperature signals. Because of these signals, extraction of appropriate features and identification of the process and tool state is possible. Reduction of downtime and costs can be achieved using optimization processes.

Composites and particularly metal matrix composites are difficult-to-cut materials, as mentioned above. Therefore, monitoring systems should significantly improve the technological effects, process efficiency, and reduce costs.

We kindly invite you to submit a manuscript(s) to this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome

Prof. Dr. Paweł Twardowski
Prof. Michal Wieczorowski
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • metal composite
  • physical and chemical properties
  • machinability
  • monitoring and diagnostics
  • surface roughness

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 223 KiB  
Editorial
Monitoring of Cutting Process and Tool Condition of Metal and Metal Composite
by Paweł Twardowski and Michał Wieczorowski
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103660 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Machining is a manufacturing process that involves the use of machines to remove materials from a workpiece to create a desired shape and size [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
A Tree-Based Heuristic for the One-Dimensional Cutting Stock Problem Optimization Using Leftovers
by Glaucia Maria Bressan, Matheus Henrique Pimenta-Zanon and Fabio Sakuray
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227133 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Cutting problems consist of cutting a set of objects available in stock in order to produce the desired items in specified quantities and sizes. The cutting process can generate leftovers (which can be reused in the case of new demand) or losses (which [...] Read more.
Cutting problems consist of cutting a set of objects available in stock in order to produce the desired items in specified quantities and sizes. The cutting process can generate leftovers (which can be reused in the case of new demand) or losses (which are discarded). This paper presents a tree-based heuristic method for minimizing the number of cut bars in the one-dimensional cutting process, satisfying the item demand in an unlimited bar quantity of just one type. The results of simulations are compared with the RGRL1 algorithm and with the limiting values for this considered type of problem. The results show that the proposed heuristic reduces processing time and the number of bars needed in the cutting process, while it provides a larger leftover (by grouping losses) for the one-dimensional cutting stock problem. The heuristic contributes to reduction in raw materials or manufacturing costs in industrial processes. Full article
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21 pages, 16107 KiB  
Article
Technological Aspects of Variation in Process Characteristics and Tool Condition in Grinding Process Diagnostics
by Wojciech Kacalak, Dariusz Lipiński, Filip Szafraniec, Michał Wieczorowski and Paweł Twardowski
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041493 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The article presents the technological aspects of the diagnostics of grinding processes. The main features of the grinding process and their importance in diagnostic issues are discussed. Selected issues of research and assessment of the condition of the active surface of grinding wheels [...] Read more.
The article presents the technological aspects of the diagnostics of grinding processes. The main features of the grinding process and their importance in diagnostic issues are discussed. Selected issues of research and assessment of the condition of the active surface of grinding wheels are presented. The authors pointed out that the parameters used to assess the topography of the ground surfaces do not have sufficient possibilities to differentiate the surface condition of the grinding wheels. This publication draws attention to the possibility of using new dedicated parameters to assess the properties of the grinding wheel surface. These parameters have a high ability to differentiate changes occurring as a result of the abrasion of grain vertices, their chipping or loading of the grinding wheel surface. The methodology of assessing the processes of abrasive grain wear and changes in the shape and dimensions of the grinding wheel, taking into account the probabilistic features of the grinding process, was formulated. The directions for the development of abrasive tools are presented, pointing to hybrid tools with a multi-phase structure, modified by additions of abrasive aggregates. A new research direction has also been formulated on the use of additive technology to produce specialised abrasive tools, including those with built-in process sensors. Full article
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17 pages, 52801 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Surgical Instrument Surfaces Machined with Robotic Belt Grinding
by Adam Hamrol, Mateusz Hoffmann, Marcin Lisek and Jedrzej Bozek
Materials 2023, 16(2), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020630 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Belt grinding is commonly used in the finishing of non-functional shaped surfaces of surgical instruments. Most often it is carried out manually. The subject of this article is the possibility of replacing manual belt grinding with robotic grinding. A research stand was built, [...] Read more.
Belt grinding is commonly used in the finishing of non-functional shaped surfaces of surgical instruments. Most often it is carried out manually. The subject of this article is the possibility of replacing manual belt grinding with robotic grinding. A research stand was built, the machining process was programmed, and a comparative study of manual and robotic grinding was carried out. The subject of the research were the arms of orthodontic forceps. The condition of the treated surface, defined by its structure and roughness and the geometric accuracy and the error of the shape of the arm in the selected cross-section were adopted as the comparative criteria. Research has shown that robotic belt grinding is more efficient in terms of quality and produces more consistent results than manual grinding. Full article
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17 pages, 11086 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Geometry of Thin-Walled Aluminium Alloy Elements on Their Deformations after Milling
by Magdalena Zawada-Michałowska, Józef Kuczmaszewski and Paweł Pieśko
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249049 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of the selected geometric properties of thin-walled structures on post-machining deformations. In the study, EN AW-7075 T651 and EN AW-6082 T651 aluminium alloys were used to prepare specially designed thin-walled sample elements, i.e., [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of the selected geometric properties of thin-walled structures on post-machining deformations. In the study, EN AW-7075 T651 and EN AW-6082 T651 aluminium alloys were used to prepare specially designed thin-walled sample elements, i.e., elements with walls arranged in a semi-open and closed structure and with a dimension of 165 × 262 × 50.8 mm consisting of bottom and vertical stiffening walls and so-called ribs with a thickness of 1 mm. The measurements of the absolute deformations of the thin-walled bottom were performed with the use of a Vista coordinate-measuring machine by Zeiss with a PH10 head by Renishaw. Based on the obtained results, it was found that absolute deformation values were higher for walls arranged in a semi-open structure. It is related to a lower rigidity of the tested structure resulting from the lack of a stiffening wall, which is the so-called “rib”. Notwithstanding the geometry of the elements, greater absolute deformation values were recorded following conventional cutting methods. The use of high-speed cutting (HSC) provided positive outcomes in terms of minimising the deformation of thin-walled elements. Additionally, it was found that higher absolute deformations were obtained for EN AW-7075 T651 alloy. Full article
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17 pages, 3996 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Workpiece Temperature Compensation Model for Automatic Correction of the Cutting Process
by Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz, Dariusz Tomkiewicz and Michał Pela
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238372 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
This article describes a system for measuring and compensating for errors resulting from the cutting process in order to improve the accuracy of the workpiece. Measurements were performed by means of an automatic measurement unit. The diameter of the workpiece was measured at [...] Read more.
This article describes a system for measuring and compensating for errors resulting from the cutting process in order to improve the accuracy of the workpiece. Measurements were performed by means of an automatic measurement unit. The diameter of the workpiece was measured at two points, and at the same time, the temperature at the end face of the workpiece was measured. These measurements were used in Statistical Process Control (SPC). Based on the measured values, the process stability was checked and an error correction value was determined for the next item. Moreover, the value of the correction was influenced by the assumed value of tool wear, in accordance with the adopted model, and the possibility of achieving the assumed surface quality. The diameter of the workpiece for SPC purposes was measured under industrial conditions using an automatic measurement unit, which indicates that the temperature of the workpiece during the measurement was significantly higher than the reference temperature. The study focuses on the possibility of identifying a workpiece temperature compensation model in measurements of the workpiece diameter for the purpose of introducing an additional change in the correction value. It was found that a model with a constant correction value and a linear model poorly reflect the nature of the changes. On the other hand, the Autoregressive with Extra Input (ARX) model and the Nonlinear Autoregressive with Extra Input (NLARX) model, with a neural network, are able to map the inertia of the system and map the process with greater accuracy. In this way, measurements performed in industrial conditions can more accurately determine the possibility of achieving the assumed tolerance of the finished product. At the same time, the research shows that the temperature compensation model is nonlinear, and that the maximum possible machining accuracy of the workpiece can be achieved thanks to the repeatable measurement and compensation technique. Full article
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13 pages, 10943 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effectiveness of Removing Surface Defects by Brushing
by Jakub Matuszak, Kazimierz Zaleski, Krzysztof Ciecieląg and Agnieszka Skoczylas
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217833 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of removing surface defects by brushing. Damage to machine components usually begins on their surface or in the surface layer area. This determines the development of methods, conditions, and process parameters that [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of removing surface defects by brushing. Damage to machine components usually begins on their surface or in the surface layer area. This determines the development of methods, conditions, and process parameters that will positively affect the stereometric and physical properties of the surface layer. Experiments were conducted in which surface defects were generated on a specially designed test stand. By controlling the load and speed of the defect generator it was possible to affect the geometry, depth, and width of the surface defect. A FEM simulation of the brushing treatment was carried out in order to determine the effect of fibers passing through a surface defect in the form of a groove with a small depth and width. It was shown that for certain conditions of brushing treatment, surface defects could be removed effectively. Moreover, the microhardness of the surface layer after the brushing process was analyzed. Changes in microhardness due to brushing reached up to 50 μm for EN AW-2024 aluminum alloy and up to 150 μm for AZ91HP magnesium alloy. The results demonstrated that brushing was an effective method for strengthening the surface layer and that the value of strengthening in the area of defects depended on the effectiveness of their removal. Full article
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19 pages, 5746 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Application of Nanocomposite Thin-Film Temperature Sensor during the Milling Process
by Yunxian Cui, Haoyu Wang, Kaidi Cao, Qunli Zhou, Wanyu Ding and Junwei Yin
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207106 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
During the titanium alloy milling process, high temperatures in the tool-chip contact area will affect the tool life and precision of titanium alloy machining. Therefore, it is essential to measure the temperature of the tool-chip contact area continuously. In this paper, a finite [...] Read more.
During the titanium alloy milling process, high temperatures in the tool-chip contact area will affect the tool life and precision of titanium alloy machining. Therefore, it is essential to measure the temperature of the tool-chip contact area continuously. In this paper, a finite element simulation model of the milling process was established using ABAQUS2020 to obtain the highest temperature location in the tool-chip contact area when milling titanium alloy. The integration of the wire with the alumina ceramic substrate formed an integrated wire substrate. Furthermore, NiCr, NiSi, and SiO2 films were deposited on the substrate sequentially using the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Finally, its microscopic morphology and static and dynamic performance were tested. The results show that the developed thin-film thermocouple temperature sensor has a Seebeck coefficient of 40.72 μV/°C and a dynamic response time of 0.703 ms. The application of the sensor to our titanium alloy milling experiments showed that the sensor can monitor the transient temperature in the tool-chip contact area, and its temperature measurement performance showed no detrimental effect from wearing. The effect of each milling parameter on the milling temperature was analyzed using ANOVA, and a regression model with an R-sq of 96.76% was obtained for the milling temperature. Full article
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16 pages, 6795 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Surface Treatment Process of AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Centrifugal Disc Finishing with the Use of an Active Workpiece Holder
by Mateusz Juniewicz, Jarosław Plichta, Marzena Sutowska, Czesław Łukianowicz, Krzysztof Kukiełka and Wojciech Zawadka
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196762 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
This article presents the results of experimental studies of the centrifugal disc finishing (CDF) process of 304 steel elements with the use of an active workpieces holder, that allows workpieces for additional rotational and oscillation movements. The main aim of the research was [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of experimental studies of the centrifugal disc finishing (CDF) process of 304 steel elements with the use of an active workpieces holder, that allows workpieces for additional rotational and oscillation movements. The main aim of the research was to evaluate the mechanism of formation of the surface texture and to assess the intensity and effectiveness of the machining process. It is shown that additional movements of the workpiece significantly affect the formation of the machining traces generated by the elementary phenomena of micro-cutting, scratching, grooving, etc. As a result, these combined and complex interactions lead to the formation of the surface topography of the workpieces. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the use of an active workpiece holder in the CDF process allows changes in the intensity of the machining process. Moreover, the active holder allows modification of the surface smoothing process. The intensity of the treatment process depends primarily on the location of the workpiece holder in the appropriate energy area of the work charge. On the other hand, the efficiency of the workpiece surface smoothing depends on the parameters of the oscillation and rotational movements of the workpiece mounted in the active holder. The presented research results show that the use of an active holder, enabling rotation and oscillation of the workpiece, may lead to a more effective use of smoothing processes in CDF machines. The analysis of the results shows that the values of the Sdr and Sa parameters are more strongly dependent on the vibration frequency and increase with its increasing frequency. This is undoubtedly the result of the concentration of smoothing marks on the smoothed surface. However, with regard to the rotational speed of the object, this relationship is non-monotonic, and its greatest influence occurs at its intermediate values. It follows that this activity does not have a significant impact on the generation of the number of smoothing marks and the degree of their concentration. The research methodology proposed in the work allows the initial determination of the dependence of the results of the CDF process on the machining parameters, including the parameters of the active holder. This methodology can also be used for machining materials other than AISI 304 steel. Full article
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22 pages, 9932 KiB  
Article
Study on the Surface Layer Properties and Fatigue Life of a Workpiece Machined by Centrifugal Shot Peening and Burnishing
by Agnieszka Skoczylas and Kazimierz Zaleski
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196677 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
This paper presents the results of research on the impact of finishing method on surface topography, surface roughness (parameters Ra, Rt, Rpk, Rk, Rvk), surface layer microhardness, residual stresses and fatigue life. Ring samples made of C45 steel [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of research on the impact of finishing method on surface topography, surface roughness (parameters Ra, Rt, Rpk, Rk, Rvk), surface layer microhardness, residual stresses and fatigue life. Ring samples made of C45 steel were used to conduct the experiments. The following finishing machining methods were selected: slide burnishing, ball burnishing, centrifugal shot peening, centrifugal shot peening + slide burnishing and centrifugal shot peening + ball burnishing. In the first stage, the use of combined shot peening + burnishing enables microhardness to be increased on the surface layer, the values of residual stresses to be increased and the creation of characteristic machining traces on the surface, the so-called “dimples” (effect of centrifugal shot peening). On the other hand, burnishing (slide burnishing or ball burnishing) is aimed at smoothing the surface and providing favorable stereometric properties to the surface layer. It was noted that, after finishing, the surface roughness parameters decreased from 59% to 83% in relation to the reference surface. The exception is the centrifugal shot peening technology. The use of burnishing (slide or ball burnishing) after centrifugal shot peening reduces the surface roughness parameters by a maximum of 82% compared to the value after centrifugal shot peening. The highest increase in microhardness was obtained after centrifugal shot peening + slide burnishing (ΔHV = 105 HV 0.05), while the highest thickness gh (gh = 120 μm) was obtained after centrifugal shot peening + ball burnishing. The combination of centrifugal shot peening and ball burnishing results in the highest absolute value of compressive residual stresses σmax = 602 MPa and depth gσ = 0.41 mm). Application of an additional operation after centrifugal shot peening increases fatigue life from 27% to 49%. ANOVA analysis of variance confirms the significance of the processing effect of centrifugal shot peening combined with slide burnishing (CSP + SB) and centrifugal shot peening + ball burnishing (CSP + BB) on the analyzed dependent surface. Full article
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21 pages, 6399 KiB  
Article
Milling of Three Types of Thin-Walled Elements Made of Polymer Composite and Titanium and Aluminum Alloys Used in the Aviation Industry
by Krzysztof Ciecieląg and Kazimierz Zaleski
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175949 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
The machining of thin-walled elements used in the aviation industry causes may problems, which create a need for studying ways in which undesirable phenomena can be prevented. This paper presents the results of a study investigating face milling thin-walled elements made of titanium [...] Read more.
The machining of thin-walled elements used in the aviation industry causes may problems, which create a need for studying ways in which undesirable phenomena can be prevented. This paper presents the results of a study investigating face milling thin-walled elements made of titanium alloy, aluminum alloy and polymer composite. These materials were milled with folding double-edge cutters with diamond inserts. The results of maximum vertical forces and surface roughness obtained after machining elements of different thicknesses and unsupported element lengths are presented. The results of deformation of milled elements are also presented. The results are then analyzed by ANOVA. It is shown that the maximum vertical forces decrease (in range 42–60%) while the ratio of vertical force amplitude to its average value increases (in range 55–65%) with decreasing element thickness and increasing unsupported element length. It is also demonstrated that surface roughness deteriorates (in range 100% for aluminum, 30% titanium alloy, 15% for CFRP) with small element thicknesses and long unsupported element lengths. Long unsupported element lengths also negatively (increasing deformation several times) affect the accuracy of machined elements. Full article
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18 pages, 5906 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Kinematics System in Drilling Inconel 718 for Improving of Hole Quality in the Aviation and Space Industries
by Mateusz Bronis, Edward Miko, Lukasz Nowakowski and Marian Bartoszuk
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165500 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
This article discusses experimental results concerning the quality of through holes drilled in Inconel 718. The tests involved hole cutting under 27 different conditions using different values of the feed per revolution and spindle speed, and different types of kinematic system. The drilling [...] Read more.
This article discusses experimental results concerning the quality of through holes drilled in Inconel 718. The tests involved hole cutting under 27 different conditions using different values of the feed per revolution and spindle speed, and different types of kinematic system. The drilling was performed on a CTX Alpha 500 universal turning center using tools with internal coolant supply. Three kinematic systems were considered for hole cutting. The first, based on the driven tool holder, had a stationary workpiece and a rotating and linearly fed tool. In the second, where drilling was based on the spindle rotations, the workpiece rotated while the tool moved along a straight line. In the third system, the workpiece and the tool rotated in opposite directions; the tool also performed a linear motion. The study aimed to assess the quality of holes on the basis of the following output parameters: the hole diameter, cylindricity and straightness errors, and the surface texture. A multifactorial statistical analysis was used to determine how the hole quality was dependent on the process parameters and the type of drilling kinematics. The findings confirm that the kinematic system, as well as the feed per revolution, are the key factors affecting the quality of holes drilled in Inconel 718. The analysis of the hole drilling process for Inconel 718, performed using a CNC turning center, shows that the third kinematic system was the best option as all the four parameters describing the hole quality had the lowest values. The best results were obtained in the 6th (n = 637 rpm, fn = 0.075 mm/rev, KIN III) and 8th experiments (n = 955 rpm, fn = 0.075 mm/rev, KIN II), because the parameters were then the lowest, with the scatter of results being up to 30%. Full article
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14 pages, 3558 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Approaches for Monitoring of Tool Wear during Grey Cast-Iron Turning
by Maciej Tabaszewski, Paweł Twardowski, Martyna Wiciak-Pikuła, Natalia Znojkiewicz, Agata Felusiak-Czyryca and Jakub Czyżycki
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124359 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
The dynamic development of new technologies enables the optimal computer technique choice to improve the required quality in today’s manufacturing industries. One of the methods of improving the determining process is machine learning. This paper compares different intelligent system methods to identify the [...] Read more.
The dynamic development of new technologies enables the optimal computer technique choice to improve the required quality in today’s manufacturing industries. One of the methods of improving the determining process is machine learning. This paper compares different intelligent system methods to identify the tool wear during the turning of gray cast-iron EN-GJL-250 using carbide cutting inserts. During these studies, the experimental investigation was conducted with three various cutting speeds vc (216, 314, and 433 m/min) and the exact value of depth of cut ap and federate f. Furthermore, based on the vibration acceleration signals, appropriate measures were developed that were correlated with the tool condition. In this work, machine learning methods were used to predict tool condition; therefore, two tool classes were proposed, namely usable and unsuitable, and tool corner wear VBc = 0.3 mm was assumed as a wear criterium. The diagnostic measures based on acceleration vibration signals were selected as input to the models. Additionally, the assessment of significant features in the division into usable and unsuitable class was caried out. Finally, this study evaluated chosen methods (classification and regression tree, induced fuzzy rules, and artificial neural network) and selected the most effective model. Full article
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16 pages, 5483 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Ultrasonic-Assisted End Milling Forces in 2195 Aluminum-Lithium Alloy
by Hongtao Wang, Shaolin Zhang and Guangxi Li
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072508 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
To achieve high-quality machining of the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy, this paper presents an experimental study on the effect of milling processing parameters on milling forces and surface topography, during which conventional milling and longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic vibration milling of the 2195 Al-Li alloy were [...] Read more.
To achieve high-quality machining of the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy, this paper presents an experimental study on the effect of milling processing parameters on milling forces and surface topography, during which conventional milling and longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic vibration milling of the 2195 Al-Li alloy were performed. The characterization of the tool tip trajectory illustrates some of the advantages of ultrasonic machining, which include variable depth of cut and tool chip pulling. The differences in milling forces between conventional milling and longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic vibration machining were compared using orthogonal tests, and the effect of ultrasonic vibration on milling forces was investigated in detail. The maximum reduction of milling force Fy in the feed direction under the influence of torsional vibration is 62% and 54% for larger feed per tooth and cutting depth, respectively. The high-frequency impact generated by the longitudinal vibration not only reduces the chip accumulation on the surface, but also smooths out the tool-tooth scratches and creates a regular surface profile. In addition, the characteristics of the milling force signals of the two machining methods were analyzed, and the analysis of the spectrum of the collected milling forces revealed that the ultrasonic vibration caused the high-frequency components of the milling forces Fy and Fz. The orthogonal result analysis and single-factor result analysis verified the superiority of ultrasonic machining, provided parameter selection for subsequent aluminum-lithium alloy machining, and bridged the gap of longitudinal torsional ultrasonic vibration machining of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy in the study of milling force. Full article
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