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Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology (Second Volume)

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 May 2024 | Viewed by 10423

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Management, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
Interests: surface metrology; topography; coordinate measuring technique; computed tomography; scanning
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Laboratoire d’Automatique, de Mécanique et d’Informatique Industrielles et Humaines, LAMIH, Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, UMR CNRS 8201, 59300 Valenciennes, France
Interests: tribology; surface metrology; topography
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Mechanical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Interests: axiomatic design; surface metrology; sports engineering
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Institute of Materials Engineering, College of Natural Science, University of Rzeszow, Pigonia Street 1, 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: surface topography; roughness; surface modeling; tribology
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Manufacturing Engineering Group (GEF) EEI Campus Lagoas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: surface engineering; tribology; additive manufacturing; dimensional metrology, machining, robotics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary goal of this Special Issue is to present recent trends in surface inspection and description, from both metrological and tribological points of view. Various research problems dedicated to surfaces in different scales will be discussed.

An important part of that is the techniques and methods that are and may be used for surface inspection and digitization (including free-form surfaces). These aspects are particularly important for Industry 4.0 and its purely metrological part, Metrology 4.0. Moreover, since we discuss topics related to measurements, uncertainty aspects need to be presented to know how satisfactory the accuracy of measurement is.

Another important topic is the separation of different frequencies, i.e., different ideas of filtration and multiscale approaches to analysis, including artificial intelligence. This is particularly important for bodies in contact, where tribological behavior and chemical processes on the surface are to be considered. Last but not least, surfaces are important in many different fields of science, often far beyond engineering topics. For this reason, all contributions closely related to applications are also welcome.

We welcome the submission of research papers as well as review articles. The research topics that we would like contributors to address include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Surfaces in different scales: micro, meso, and macro;
  • Free-form surfaces and digitization;
  • Description of surfaces;
  • Modeling of surface topography and profile;
  • Multiscale analysis of surfaces;
  • Artificial intelligence issues for surfaces;
  • Techniques and methods of surface inspection;
  • Uncertainty in evaluation of surface features and parameters;
  • Tribological behavior of surfaces;
  • Applications of functional surfaces from engineering and non-engineering areas;
  • Surfaces and Industry 4.0.

Prof. Dr. Michal Wieczorowski
Prof. Dr. Maxence Bigerelle
Prof. Dr. Chris Brown
Prof. Dr. Pawel Pawlus
Prof. Dr. Rafał Reizer
Prof. Dr. Alejandro Pereira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surface metrology
  • tribology
  • wear
  • coordinate measuring techniques
  • scanning
  • surface modeling

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 10708 KiB  
Article
Possibilities of Measuring and Detecting Defects of Forged Parts in Die Hot-Forging Processes
Materials 2024, 17(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010213 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
This paper presents research results in the field of industrial die forging, mostly related to the use of advanced measuring techniques and tools, numerical simulations, and other IT tools and methods for a geometrical analysis of the forged items as well as detection [...] Read more.
This paper presents research results in the field of industrial die forging, mostly related to the use of advanced measuring techniques and tools, numerical simulations, and other IT tools and methods for a geometrical analysis of the forged items as well as detection of forging flaws and their prevention, and optimization of the hot-forging processes. The results of the conducted investigations were divided into three main areas. The first area refers to the application of, e.g., optical scanners and programs related to their operation, data analysis, including the construction of virtual gauges, measurements of selected geometrical features of both the manufactured forgings and their physical and virtual models, as well as an analysis of the durability of the forging tools based on the proprietary reverse scanning method. The second area presents the results of measurements and analyses performed with the use of finite element modeling and by means of some special functions in the calculation packages, such as contact, flow lines, trap, or fold, for the detection of forging defects and an analysis of the force parameters. In turn, the third area presents a combination of different methods of measurement and analysis, both FEM and scanning, as well as other IT methods (physical modeling, image analysis, etc.) for the analysis of the geometry and defects of the forgings. The presented results point to the great potential of these types of tools and techniques in forging industry applications as they significantly shorten the time and increase the accuracy of the measurement, as well as providing a lot of valuable information, physical variables, and technological parameters that are difficult or impossible to determine either analytically or through experimental means. The use and development of these techniques and methods are fully justified, both in the aspect of science and the increased effectiveness and efficiency of production. Full article
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16 pages, 4584 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Maximum Height of a Surface Texture
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227109 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Average surface height and maximum amplitude can affect surface functions. In the industry, these parameters can be obtained based on profile measurements. However, variability in maximum profile height is high. A more stable parameter can be obtained from the results of the areal [...] Read more.
Average surface height and maximum amplitude can affect surface functions. In the industry, these parameters can be obtained based on profile measurements. However, variability in maximum profile height is high. A more stable parameter can be obtained from the results of the areal surface topography measurements as the average value of the parallel profiles. The aim of this study is to establish this parameter directly from the result of the areal surface texture by correcting the maximum surface height to material ratios in the range of 0.13–99.87%. This method was tested by measuring 100 surface topographies with a stylus profilometer and a white light interferometer. It can be utilized correctly for deterministic textures and random one- and two-process surfaces for which the correlation between neighboring profile ordinates is not very high. In other cases, the method should be modified. Employing this method, the maximum profile amplitude Pt and parameters characterizing the average profile height Pq, Pa, and the ratios Pq/Pa and Pp/Pt describing the shape of the profile ordinate distribution can be correctly estimated. Pq/Pa and Pp/Pt were more stable than the kurtosis Pku and skewness Psk. The corrected maximum height S±3σ can be adopted as a parameter that characterizes the areal surface texture as more stable than the maximum surface height St. Pq/Pa and Pp/Pt were more steady than kurtosis Pku and skewness Psk. Full article
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14 pages, 5990 KiB  
Article
Erosion–Corrosion Failure Analysis of a Mild Steel Nozzle Pipe in Water–Sand Flow
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227084 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Several leaks appeared in a mild steel (MS) pipe jet nozzle installed in a direct impact test rig after a few months of operation in erosive flow at the Centre for Erosion–Corrosion Research. The locations of perforation leaks were primarily upstream, but severe [...] Read more.
Several leaks appeared in a mild steel (MS) pipe jet nozzle installed in a direct impact test rig after a few months of operation in erosive flow at the Centre for Erosion–Corrosion Research. The locations of perforation leaks were primarily upstream, but severe wall thinning was also noticed adjacent to the exit section. In this paper, a failure analysis was carried out on the leaking of a pipe jet nozzle, and the results are discussed in detail. The investigation carried out includes visual observation, scanning electron microscopy, 3D scanning, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and laser profilometry measurements. In addition, numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the discrete phase model (DPM) were conducted to investigate the root cause of the failure of leaks in the pipe jet nozzle. Further CFD-DPM simulations were performed on three different pipe jet designs for liquid–solid flow conditions, and were compared to find an alternative design to prevent the failure of the pipe jet nozzles. It was found that the increase in turbulence along with multiple impacts of particles on the wall generate leaks and cracks in the pipe jet nozzle. Moreover, the CFD-DPM showed a five-fold reduction in the maximum erosion rate; this was observed in the replacement of failed pipes with the proposed alternative nozzle pipe design featuring a chamfer reducer section. The CFD-DPM analysis of all geometric configurations showed that alteration of reducer section design has the greatest impact on erosive wear mitigation. Full article
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29 pages, 39526 KiB  
Article
Changes in Areal Surface Textures Due to Ball Burnishing
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175904 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The description of the areal texture of the surface is more comprehensive than that of roughness profiles. Ball burnishing led to an improvement in surface quality. In this work, the changes in areal surface textures due to ball burnishing were studied. Three surfaces [...] Read more.
The description of the areal texture of the surface is more comprehensive than that of roughness profiles. Ball burnishing led to an improvement in surface quality. In this work, the changes in areal surface textures due to ball burnishing were studied. Three surfaces of steel, two after milling and one after grinding, were subjected to ball burnishing. In the burnishing process, the burnishing pressure and width were variable parameters. Surface topographies before and after burnishing were measured using a white light interferometer. Ball burnishing was found to lead to a decrease in surface amplitude. The highest relative reduction was 94%. The changes in roughness height were greater with a higher amplitude of the surface texture before burnishing. The hybrid parameters also decreased as a result of ball burnishing. The characteristics of changes in spatial parameters mainly depended on the surface texture before burnishing. Full article
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13 pages, 7778 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Osteon Orientation on Surface Topography Parameters after Machining of Cortical Bone Tissue
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124293 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Mechanical processing of cortical bone tissue is one of the most common surgical procedures. A critical issue accompanying this processing is the condition of the surface layer, which can stimulate tissue growth and serve as a drug carrier. A comparison of the surface [...] Read more.
Mechanical processing of cortical bone tissue is one of the most common surgical procedures. A critical issue accompanying this processing is the condition of the surface layer, which can stimulate tissue growth and serve as a drug carrier. A comparison of the surface condition before and after orthogonal and abrasive processing was conducted to validate the influence of bone tissue’s processing mechanism and orthotropic properties on the surface topography. A cutting tool with a defined geometry and a custom-made abrasive tool was used. The bone samples were cut in three directions, depending on the orientation of the osteons. The cutting forces, acoustic emission, and surface topography were measured. The level of isotropy and the topography of the grooves showed statistical differences relative to the anisotropy directions. After orthogonal processing, the surface topography parameter Ra was determined from 1.38 ± 0.17 μm to 2.82 ± 0.32. In the case of abrasive processing, no correlation was found between the orientation of osteons and topographical properties. The average groove density for abrasive machining was below 1004 ± 0.7, and for orthogonal, it was above 1156 ± 58. Due to the positive properties of the developed bone surface, it is advisable to cut in the transverse direction and parallel to the axis of the osteons. Full article
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26 pages, 7559 KiB  
Article
Metrological Aspects of Assessing Surface Topography and Machining Accuracy in Diagnostics of Grinding Processes
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062195 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
The paper presents probabilistic aspects of diagnostics of grinding processes with consideration of metrological aspects of evaluation of topography of machined surfaces and selected problems of assessment of machining accuracy. The processes of creating the geometric structure of the ground surface are described. [...] Read more.
The paper presents probabilistic aspects of diagnostics of grinding processes with consideration of metrological aspects of evaluation of topography of machined surfaces and selected problems of assessment of machining accuracy. The processes of creating the geometric structure of the ground surface are described. It was pointed out that the distribution of features important for process diagnostics depends on the mechanism of cumulative effects of random disturbances. Usually, there is a multiplicative mechanism or an additive mechanism of the component vectors of relative displacements of the tool and workpiece. The paper describes a method for determining the classification ability of specific parameters used to evaluate stereometric features of ground surfaces. It is shown that the ability to differentiate the geometric structure of a certain set of surfaces using a selected parameter depends on the geometric mean of the differences in normalized and sorted, consecutive values of this parameter. A methodology is presented for evaluating the ability of various parameters to distinguish different geometric structures of surfaces. Further, on the basis of analyses of a number of grinding processes, a methodology was formulated for proceeding leading to a comprehensive evaluation of machining accuracy and forecasting its results. It was taken into account that in forecasting the accuracy of grinding, it is necessary to determine the deviations, arising under the conditions of multiplicative interaction of the effects of various causes of inaccuracy. Examples are given of processes in which, due to the deformation of the technological system, dependent on the position of the zone and machining force, varying temperature fields and tool wear, the distributions of dimensional deviations are not the realization of stationary processes. It was emphasized that on the basis of the characteristics of the dispersion of the deviation value in the sum set of elements, it is not possible to infer its causes. Only the determination of the “instantaneous” values of the deviation dispersion parameters allows a more complete diagnosis of the process. Full article
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17 pages, 5959 KiB  
Article
Research on the Durability and Reliability of Industrial Layered Coatings on Metal Substrate Due to Abrasive Wear
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051779 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
This paper discusses the issue of evaluating the durability and reliability of organic coatings applied on the outer surfaces of roofing sheets. Two sheets, i.e., ZA200 and S220GD, were selected as research objects. Metal surfaces of these sheets are protected with multilayer organic [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the issue of evaluating the durability and reliability of organic coatings applied on the outer surfaces of roofing sheets. Two sheets, i.e., ZA200 and S220GD, were selected as research objects. Metal surfaces of these sheets are protected with multilayer organic coatings to protect them against weather conditions, assembly, and operational damages. The durability of these coatings was tested by evaluating their resistance to tribological wear using the ball-on-disc method. The testing was conducted in reversible gear according to a sinuous trajectory at a 3 Hz frequency. The test load was 5 N. When the coating was scratched, the metallic counter sample touched the metallic surface of the roofing sheet, which indicated a significant drop in electrical resistance. It is assumed that the number of performed cycles specifies the durability of the coating. Weibull analysis was applied to examine the findings. The reliability of the tested coatings was evaluated. The tests have confirmed that the structure of the coating is essential for the durability and reliability of products. The research and analysis included in this paper present important findings. Full article
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24 pages, 27882 KiB  
Article
Top-down Determination of Fluctuations in Topographic Measurements
Materials 2023, 16(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020473 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
A top-down method is presented and studied for quantifying topographic map height (z) fluctuations directly from measurements on surfaces of interest. Contrary to bottom-up methods used in dimensional metrology, this method does not require knowledge of transfer functions and fluctuations of [...] Read more.
A top-down method is presented and studied for quantifying topographic map height (z) fluctuations directly from measurements on surfaces of interest. Contrary to bottom-up methods used in dimensional metrology, this method does not require knowledge of transfer functions and fluctuations of an instrument. Fluctuations are considered here to be indicative of some kinds of uncertainties. Multiple (n), successive topographic measurements (z = z(x,y)) are made at one location without moving the measurand relative to the measurement instrument. The measured heights (z) at each position (x,y) are analyzed statistically. Fluctuation maps are generated from the calculated variances. Three surfaces were measured with two interferometric measuring microscopes (Bruker ContourGT™ and Zygo NewView™ 7300). These surfaces included an anisotropic, turned surface; an isotropic, sandblasted surface; and an abraded, heterogeneous, multilayer surface having different, complex, multiscale morphologies. In demonstrating the method, it was found that few non-measured points persisted for all 100 measurements at any location. The distributions of uncertainties are similar to those of certain features on topographic maps at the same locations, suggesting that topographic features can augment measurement fluctuations. This was especially observed on the abraded ophthalmic lens; a scratch divides the topographic map into two zones with different uncertainty values. The distributions of fluctuations can be non-Gaussian. Additionally, they can vary between regions within some measurements. Full article
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18 pages, 14490 KiB  
Article
Parametric Characterization of Machined Textured Surfaces
Materials 2023, 16(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010163 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Surface topography in general is not easy to characterize due to a great number of different features that appear on it. It is still more challenging for machined textured surfaces that are of high functional significance for tribological purposes. For practical reasons, there [...] Read more.
Surface topography in general is not easy to characterize due to a great number of different features that appear on it. It is still more challenging for machined textured surfaces that are of high functional significance for tribological purposes. For practical reasons, there is a need to describe such surfaces using only a small number of parameters. Which of them represent surface details the best is still an open issue. To find out which parameters can be the most suitable in that case, three groups of machined textured surfaces were prepared. They were plateau-honed cylinder surfaces made of gray cast iron, steel, and bronze surfaces with isolated dimples and steel surfaces after abrasive blasting followed by lapping. All of them were measured by means of a white light interferometer. Different parameters and relationships were evaluated and based on them correlation and regression analyses were used. The basic description contained statistically independent parameters that can be used in production control, while the wider description in scientific research. In general, parameters of random surfaces were more intercorrelated than those of surfaces with isolated dimples. As was found for the basic description of random two-process surfaces, five parameters were enough while description of textured surfaces with isolated oil pockets needed six. In wider, scientific description, regardless the surface type seven parameters contained the necessary information about the surface. It was also proved that a pair of parameters, the emptiness coefficient Sp/Sz and Sq/Sa, can describe the shape of the ordinate distribution of machined textured surfaces better than, for example, skewness Ssk and kurtosis Sku, commonly used for that purpose. Full article
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18 pages, 15695 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Manufacturing of Steel Inclined Walls by Directed Energy Deposition Based on Dimensional and 3D Surface Roughness Measurements
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144994 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Robotic-directed energy deposition has attracted the attention of the research community and industry as a process capable of producing large metallic parts. The selection of the manufacturing conditions is a critical step in improving the process efficiency and quality of the produced parts. [...] Read more.
Robotic-directed energy deposition has attracted the attention of the research community and industry as a process capable of producing large metallic parts. The selection of the manufacturing conditions is a critical step in improving the process efficiency and quality of the produced parts. The present work aims at analyzing the geometry and surface topography of walls built using several conditions and inclination angles, without additional supports except for the substrate. The walls were made of AWS A5.18. ER70S-6 steel using the Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing process. The study used both dimensional and 3D topography measurements to analyze the results. As findings, the travel speed played an important role in the size of the cross-section due to the heat input to the welding zone. Heat accumulation was a critical factor in the size and accuracy of the beads. Moreover, intermediate cooling provided structures with more uniform dimensions, smaller width, and higher layer growth. The inclination of the pieces influenced the width and uniformity of the beads, generating minor imperfections on the downside of the pieces because of gravity. Full article
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15 pages, 15391 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Selected Measurement Errors on Surface Texture Parameters
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144758 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
Surface texture measurement, characterized by areal parameters, is very susceptible to measurement errors. Various types of errors differently affect surface texture parameters. In this paper, two types of measurement errors were investigated. To analyze the impact of the presence of scratches, circular valleys [...] Read more.
Surface texture measurement, characterized by areal parameters, is very susceptible to measurement errors. Various types of errors differently affect surface texture parameters. In this paper, two types of measurement errors were investigated. To analyze the impact of the presence of scratches, circular valleys of various diameters were added to surface textures measured by a white light interferometer. Measurement errors were larger for higher scratches. Skewness and kurtosis were mostly affected by the presence in valleys, and changes of spatial parameters were also comparatively high. The difference between the results of measurement of the same surface details two times after a break of three months was also studied. This difference was caused by errors of relocation, spikes and non-measured point presences, high-frequency noise, and surface ageing. Spatial parameters were found to be the most stable. Full article
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