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Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 28695

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Management, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
Interests: surface metrology; topography; coordinate measuring technique; computed tomography; scanning
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Laboratoire d’Automatique, de Mécanique et d’Informatique Industrielles et Humaines, LAMIH, Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, UMR CNRS 8201, 59300 Valenciennes, France
Interests: tribology; surface metrology; topography
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Mechanical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Interests: axiomatic design; surface metrology; sports engineering
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Institute of Materials Engineering, College of Natural Science, University of Rzeszow, Pigonia Street 1, 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: surface topography; roughness; surface modeling; tribology
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Manufacturing Engineering Group (GEF) EEI Campus Lagoas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: surface engineering; tribology; additive manufacturing; dimensional metrology, machining, robotics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary goal of this Special Issue is to present recent trends in surface inspection and description, from both metrological and tribological points of view. Various research problems dedicated to surfaces in different scales will be discussed. An important part of that is the techniques and methods that are and may be used for surface inspection and digitization (including free-form surfaces). These aspects are particularly important for Industry 4.0 and its purely metrological part, Metrology 4.0. Moreover, since we discuss topics related to measurements, uncertainty aspects need to be presented to know how satisfactory the accuracy of measurement is. Another important topic is the separation of different frequencies, i.e., different ideas of filtration and multiscale approach to analysis, including artificial intelligence. This is particularly important for bodies in contact, where tribological behavior and chemical processes on the surface are to be considered. Last but not least, surfaces are important in many different fields of science, often far beyond engineering topics. For this reason, all contributions closely related to applications are also welcome.

We welcome the submission of research papers as well as review articles. The research topics that we would like contributors to address include but are not limited to the following:

  • Surfaces in different scales: micro, meso, and macro;
  • Free-form surfaces and digitization;
  • Description of surfaces;
  • Modeling of surface topographies and profiles;
  • Multiscale analysis of surfaces;
  • Artificial intelligence issues for surfaces;
  • Techniques and methods of surface inspection;
  • Uncertainty in evaluation of surface features and parameters;
  • Tribological behavior of surfaces;
  • Applications of functional surfaces from engineering and non-engineering disciplines;
  • Surfaces and Industry 4.0.

Prof. Michal Wieczorowski
Prof. Dr. Maxence Bigerelle
Prof. Chris Brown
Prof. Pawel Pawlus
Prof. Rafał Reizer
Prof. Dr. Alejandro Pereira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surface metrology
  • tribology
  • wear
  • coordinate measuring techniques
  • scanning
  • surface modeling

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

6 pages, 230 KiB  
Editorial
Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology—Vol.1
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165636 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
The primary goal of this Special Issue was to present recent trends in surface inspection and description, from both metrological and tribological points of view [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)

Research

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11 pages, 4666 KiB  
Article
Changes in Microstructure and Abrasion Resistance during Miller Test of Hadfield High-Manganese Cast Steel after the Formation of Vanadium Carbides in Alloy Matrix
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031021 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Hadfield cast steel is characterized by high wear resistance, but this is only when it is subjected to the effect of dynamic loads. During unloaded abrasion, e.g., sand abrasion, its wear resistance is very low and comparable to the wear of carbon cast [...] Read more.
Hadfield cast steel is characterized by high wear resistance, but this is only when it is subjected to the effect of dynamic loads. During unloaded abrasion, e.g., sand abrasion, its wear resistance is very low and comparable to the wear of carbon cast steel. To increase the wear resistance of this alloy for operation under the conditions of low pressure or low stress, primary vanadium carbides were produced by the metallurgical process to obtain a two-phase structure after alloy solidification. Compared to samples made of Hadfield cast steel, the primary, very hard carbides, evenly distributed in an austenitic or austenitic-martensitic matrix, increase (at least three times) the wear resistance of samples tested in an abrasive mixture of silicon carbide and water. The changes in microstructure and hardness obtained in alloys after heat treatment (quenching at 1000–1150 °C in water and tempering at 600 °C) are presented. The bulk hardness of the matrix ranged from 370 HV to 660 HV. After heat treatment, the secondary, dispersed vanadium carbides, precipitated in the alloy matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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18 pages, 50842 KiB  
Article
Effect of Surface Texture on the Structural Adhesive Joining Properties of Aluminum 7075 and TEPEX®
Materials 2022, 15(3), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030887 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
In the process of continuous improvement of manufacturing processes, this study was developed within the framework of the Ecovoss project, based on the inclusion of lightweight and new materials parts in the automotive sector. The objective was based on the replacement of aluminum [...] Read more.
In the process of continuous improvement of manufacturing processes, this study was developed within the framework of the Ecovoss project, based on the inclusion of lightweight and new materials parts in the automotive sector. The objective was based on the replacement of aluminum welding operations with the option of adhesive operations with other types of materials such as polyamides or, in this case, a TEPEX® composite material (Dynalite 202-c200/50% TYP 13). The aim of this work is to test the best texturing of substrate made in 7075 aluminum specimens manufactured by robotic polishing with an ABB 6640 robot. Another substrate is TEPEX composite. A structural adhesive film AF-163-2 from the 3M company (St Paul, MN, USA) is used, which must be applied according to the manufacturing procedure. The tests carried out are based on the topographic measurement of the surfaces to be joined with an Alicona focus variation microscope, and the uniaxial shear tests of adhesive samples have been analyzed. The texture of the surface failure has been analyzed, and the results confirm a significant correlation between the texture parameters of initial surfaces and maximum shear stress. The expected results should provide a better understanding of the surfaces aimed to optimize the adhesion of the studied materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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13 pages, 6450 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Cutting Abilities of the Multilayer Grinding Wheels—Case of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Grinding
Materials 2022, 15(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010022 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
This paper presents an effectiveness analysis of the grinding process with the use of a new multi-layer abrasive tool. The designed abrasive tool consists of external layers with a conventional structure, whose task is to decrease the grinding wheel load and ensure high [...] Read more.
This paper presents an effectiveness analysis of the grinding process with the use of a new multi-layer abrasive tool. The designed abrasive tool consists of external layers with a conventional structure, whose task is to decrease the grinding wheel load and ensure high grinding volumetric efficiency. The inner layer of the grinding wheel contains a 30% addition of abrasive aggregates. The task of the inner layer is to provide lower roughness of the machined surface. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to evaluate the topography of the designed abrasive tool and to analyze the middle layer properties influencing the machined surface roughness. The differentiation of the active surface features of the abrasive tool was determined for the conventional layer and the layer with the addition of abrasive aggregates. The machining potential of the layers was also determined using the Shos parameter. The surface topography of Ti-6Al-4V alloys ground with the use of a multi-layer wheel and a conventional grinding wheel was analyzed. With the application of the bootstrap hypothesis, the set of roughness parameters differentiating the topography of ground surfaces was determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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14 pages, 42721 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Tool Geometry for the Stamping Process of Large-Size Car Body Components Using a 3D Optical Measurement System
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247608 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The paper presents a method for checking the geometry of stamped car body parts using a 3D optical measurement system. The analysis focuses on the first forming operation due to the deformation and material flow associated with stall thresholds. An essential element of [...] Read more.
The paper presents a method for checking the geometry of stamped car body parts using a 3D optical measurement system. The analysis focuses on the first forming operation due to the deformation and material flow associated with stall thresholds. An essential element of the analysis is determining the actual gap occurring between the forming surfaces based on the die and punch geometry used in the first stamping operation. The geometry of car body elements at individual production stages was analyzed using an optical laser scanner. The control carried out in this way allowed one to correctly position the tools (punch and die), thus introducing the correction of technological parameters, having a fundamental influence on the specific features of the final product. This type of approach has not been used before to calibrate the technological line and setting of shaping tools. The influence of the manufactured product geometry in intermediate operations on the final geometry features was not investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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18 pages, 13629 KiB  
Article
Anomalies in the Geometric Surface Structure of Shaped Elements Composed of Inconel 718 Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247524 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
This paper presents the results of investigation that was performed on shafts composed of Inconel 718. Tests were performed in dry and wet conditions. Cutting parameters, such as feed and depth of cut, were constant. The cutting speed was changed. The investigation was [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of investigation that was performed on shafts composed of Inconel 718. Tests were performed in dry and wet conditions. Cutting parameters, such as feed and depth of cut, were constant. The cutting speed was changed. The investigation was performed for various shaft shapes: cylindrical, taper 30°, taper 45°, and sphere. For that reason, the value of the angle between the machined surface and the cutting edge changed. The lowest values of the roughness parameters, Ra and Rz, were obtained for a larger value of the angle between the machined surface and cutting edge. The investigation showed that cutting speed, machining conditions (dry and wet machining), and the variable angle between the machined surface and the cutting edge influenced the surface roughness. Application of a higher cutting speed resulted in lower roughness values. Lower values of roughness parameters were obtained by wet machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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21 pages, 8184 KiB  
Article
Wear Analysis of Forging Tools Used in an Industrial Production Process—Hot Forging in Closed Dies of the “Head-Disk” of an Engine Valve Forging
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227063 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The article performs an analysis of the durability of punches applied in the process of producing a valve forging from chromium-nickel steel. A forging of this type is made in two operations: coextrusion of a long shank, followed by finishing forging in closed [...] Read more.
The article performs an analysis of the durability of punches applied in the process of producing a valve forging from chromium-nickel steel. A forging of this type is made in two operations: coextrusion of a long shank, followed by finishing forging in closed dies of the valve head. The product obtained in this way (after other additional finishing procedures) constitutes the key element of the combustion engine (resistant to high pressures and temperatures) in motor trucks. Unfortunately, a significant problem in this production process is a relatively low durability of the forging tools, especially the punch used in the second forging operation. The key element at this stage, deciding about the punch’s further operation, is the area of the so-called “calotte”. The short-term life of the tools results from very hard performance conditions present during the forging process (periodical high mechanical and thermal loads, long path of friction). The latter cause intensive abrasive wear as well as high adhesion of the forging material to the tool surface. Based on the performed studies, including the following: technology analysis, numerical modelling, macro analyses combined with 3D scanning of tool sections as well as microstructural tests and hardness measurements, it was established that it is crucial to properly select the process parameters (charge and tool temperature, tribological conditions), as even slight changes introduced into them significantly affect the operation time of the forging tools. Mastering and proper implementation of the analyzed forging technology requires numerous further studies and tests, which will enable its perfection and thus increase the durability of the tools as well as the quality of the produced items. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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19 pages, 6199 KiB  
Article
Non-Contact Multiscale Analysis of a DPP 3D-Printed Injection Die for Investment Casting
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226758 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
The investment casting method supported with 3D-printing technology, allows the production of unit castings or prototypes with properties most similar to those of final products. Due to the complexity of the process, it is very important to control the dimensions in the initial [...] Read more.
The investment casting method supported with 3D-printing technology, allows the production of unit castings or prototypes with properties most similar to those of final products. Due to the complexity of the process, it is very important to control the dimensions in the initial stages of the process. This paper presents a comparison of non-contact measurement systems applied for testing of photopolymer 3D-printed injection die used in investment casting. Due to the required high quality of the surface parameters, the authors decided to use the DPP (Daylight Polymer Printing) 3D-printing technology to produce an analyzed injection die. The X-ray CT, Structured blue-light scanner and focus variation microscope measurement techniques were used to avoid any additional damages to the injection die that may arise during the measurement. The main objective of the research was to analyze the possibility of using non-contact measurement systems as a tool for analyzing the quality of the surface of a 3D-printed injection die. Dimensional accuracy analysis, form and position deviations, defect detection, and comparison with a CAD model were carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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14 pages, 3606 KiB  
Article
Frictional Properties of the TiNbTaZrO Orthodontic Wire—A Laboratory Comparison to Popular Archwires
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216233 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Background. This study aimed to determine the kinetic frictional force (FF) of the recently produced TiNbTaZrO (Gummetal) orthodontic wire and compare it to the widely used wires of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NiTi), cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and titanium-molybdenum (TiMo) alloys. Methods. Five types of [...] Read more.
Background. This study aimed to determine the kinetic frictional force (FF) of the recently produced TiNbTaZrO (Gummetal) orthodontic wire and compare it to the widely used wires of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NiTi), cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and titanium-molybdenum (TiMo) alloys. Methods. Five types of 0.016″ × 0.022″ wires were ligated with elastic ligatures to 0.018″ × 0.025″ SS brackets. The dynamic FFs between the brackets and ligated wires were measured utilizing a specialized tensile tester machine. Prior sample sizes for different archwires were conducted using power analysis for the general linear models. The existence of significant differences in FF between examined materials was initially confirmed by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with further evidence of pairwise differences by Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference test. Results. The pairwise differences between means of kinetic FFs for NiTi, CoCr, and Gummetal wires were not statistically significant (adjusted p-value > 0.05). Stainless steel alloy presented the lowest FF values significantly different from other groups (adjusted p-value < 0.05). On the contrary, TiMo wires showed significantly greater FFs (adjusted p-value < 0.05) than other alloys. Conclusions. Gummetal orthodontic wire exhibits similar frictional resistance as NiTi and CoCr wires. Bendable TiNbTaZrO wire might be used for sliding mechanics due to its favorable frictional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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16 pages, 56634 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Properties of Electroless Ni-P/Si3N4 Nanocomposite Coatings Deposited on the AW-7075 Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164487 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
The article presents the results of mechanical and tribological tests of Ni-P/Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings deposited on the AW-7075 aluminum alloy using the chemical reduction method. The influence of the chemical composition on the Vickers microhardness determined by the DSI method [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of mechanical and tribological tests of Ni-P/Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings deposited on the AW-7075 aluminum alloy using the chemical reduction method. The influence of the chemical composition on the Vickers microhardness determined by the DSI method was examined. The nanocomposite layers were made of Si3N4 silicon nitride in a polydisperse powder with a particle size ranging from 20 to 25 nm. The influence of the content of the dispersion layer material on the adhesion to the substrate was analyzed. The abrasive wear was tested and determined in the reciprocating motion using the “ball-on-flat” method. The surface topography was examined by the contact method with the use of a profilometer. Based on the obtained test results, it was found that the Ni-P/Si3N4 layers produced in the bath with the Si3N4 nanoparticle content in the amount of 2 g/dm3 are more resistant to wear and show greater adhesion than the Ni-P/Si3N4 layers deposited in the bath with 5 g/dm3 of the dispersion phase. NiP/Si3N4 layers provide protection against abrasive wear under various loads and environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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14 pages, 2730 KiB  
Article
Fast and Precise Non-Contact Measurement of Cylindrical Surfaces with Air Gauges
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133728 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
In this paper, the results of an investigation on the application of air gauges in the measurement of out-of-roundness parameters are presented. The principle of the measuring system is explained, in particular the novel design of the floating gauge head. An algorithm for [...] Read more.
In this paper, the results of an investigation on the application of air gauges in the measurement of out-of-roundness parameters are presented. The principle of the measuring system is explained, in particular the novel design of the floating gauge head. An algorithm for fully automated measurement and data processing is described. The results from a series of initial measurements provided the data for further simulations, which revealed possible sources of errors. The simulations helped to evaluate the influence of some of the parameters on the final measurement results. After various accuracy tests, the method accuracy (MA) parameter was calculated in relation to the dedicated reference form tester. The result MA = 9.29% was judged to be highly satisfactory considering the short measurement time and non-contact method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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19 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
High-Performance Face Milling of 42CrMo4 Steel: Influence of Entering Angle on the Measured Surface Roughness, Cutting Force and Vibration Amplitude
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092196 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
High feed Milling is a new milling method, which allows to apply high feed rates and increase machining efficiency. The method utilizes face cutters with a very small entering angle, of about 10°–20°. Thus, the cut layer cross-section is different than in traditional [...] Read more.
High feed Milling is a new milling method, which allows to apply high feed rates and increase machining efficiency. The method utilizes face cutters with a very small entering angle, of about 10°–20°. Thus, the cut layer cross-section is different than in traditional milling. In order to examine the high feed milling (HFM), experimental tests were conducted, preceded by an analysis of cutting zones when milling with an HF face cutter. The face milling tests of 42CrMo4 steel with the use of an HF cutter characterized by an entering angle, dependent on axial depth of cut ap and insert radius r values, as well as with a conventional face cutter with the entering angle of 45° were performed. The study focused on analyzing the vibration amplitude, cutting force components in the workpiece coordinate system, and surface roughness. The experimental tests proved, that when milling with constant cut layer thickness, the high feed cutter allowed to obtain twice the cutting volume in comparison with the conventional face cutter. However, higher machining efficiency resulted in an increase in cutting force components. Furthermore, the results indicate significantly higher surface roughness and higher vibration amplitudes when milling with the HF cutter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

29 pages, 9004 KiB  
Review
Functional Importance of Surface Texture Parameters
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185326 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 4160
Abstract
Areal 3D analysis of surface texture gives more opportunities than a study of 2D profiles. Surface topography evaluation, considered as 3D dimensional analysis in micro or nanoscales, plays an important role in many fields of science and life. Among many texture parameters, those [...] Read more.
Areal 3D analysis of surface texture gives more opportunities than a study of 2D profiles. Surface topography evaluation, considered as 3D dimensional analysis in micro or nanoscales, plays an important role in many fields of science and life. Among many texture parameters, those connected with height are the most often used. However, there are many other parameters and functions that can provide additional important information regarding functional behaviour of surfaces in different applications. The knowledge about the functional importance of various surface properties is low. This review tries to fill this gap. Surface texture parameters are presented in various groups: height, spatial, hybrid, functional, feature, and others. Based on experiences of the present authors and literature review, the relationships among various surface parameters and functional properties are described. A proposal of a selection of parameters on the basis of their functional significations is provided. Considerations for future challenges are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Inspection and Description in Metrology and Tribology)
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