Collagen and Chitin from Marine Resources and Their Interdisciplinary Applications

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials of Marine Origin".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 19660

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Center for Climate Change Research, University of Toronto (ONRamp at UTE), Toronto, ON, Canada
Interests: marine collagen; marine chitin; chitosan; marine proteins; marine polysaccharides; drug discovery; biomineralization; biomaterials; marine invertebrates; corals; marine algae; marine fish proteomics; marine biotechnology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine collagen and chitin have great potential applications in drug discovery, drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, antiaging, agriculture, and environmental fields. These two biopolymers also exhibit similar hierarchical structural organizations. After cellulose, chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world, and has been identified in bacteria, fungi, plants, and marine invertebrates. Chitin can also be enzymatically deacetylated to chitosan, a more flexible and soluble biopolymer. As mentioned above, it has many applications, including in the biomedical, environmental, and agricultural sectors. Similarly, nature is a source of massive quantities of collagen, especially in marine organisms. Collagen is the main fibrous structural protein in the extracellular matrix and connective tissue of animals. It contributes greatly to biotechnology products and medical applications.

As a Guest Editor of this Special Issue, I invite you to submit recent innovations in these two biopolymers, including original works, reviews, short communications, and innovations in biological sources and their promising applications.

Dr. Azizur Rahman
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • marine collagen
  • marine chitin
  • chitosan
  • marine proteins and peptides
  • biopolymers
  • corals
  • sponges
  • sea urchins
  • marine fish
  • mollusks/bivalves
  • marine algae
  • marine polysaccharides
  • marine bioactive compounds
  • marine biotechnology
  • marine biomaterials
  • proteomics

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 9123 KiB  
Article
The Characterization and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Chondrosia reniformis Collagen Isolated from Different Body Parts (Ectosome and Choanosome) Envisaging the Development of Biomaterials
by Miguel S. Rocha, Catarina F. Marques, Ana C. Carvalho, Eva Martins, Alexander Ereskovsky, Rui L. Reis and Tiago H. Silva
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22020055 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Chondrosia reniformis is a collagen-rich marine sponge that is considered a sustainable and viable option for producing an alternative to mammalian-origin collagens. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the properties of collagen isolated from different sponge parts, namely the outer region, [...] Read more.
Chondrosia reniformis is a collagen-rich marine sponge that is considered a sustainable and viable option for producing an alternative to mammalian-origin collagens. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the properties of collagen isolated from different sponge parts, namely the outer region, or cortex, (ectosome) and the inner region (choanosome), and how it affects the development of biomaterials. In this study, a brief histological analysis focusing on C. reniformis collagen spatial distribution and a comprehensive comparative analysis between collagen isolated from ectosome and choanosome are presented. The isolated collagen characterization was based on isolation yield, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), SDS-PAGE, dot blot, and amino acid composition, as well as their cytocompatibility envisaging the development of future biomedical applications. An isolation yield of approximately 20% was similar for both sponge parts, as well as the FTIR, CD, and SDS-PAGE profiles, which demonstrated that both isolated collagens presented a high purity degree and preserved their triple helix and fibrillar conformation. Ectosome collagen had a higher OHpro content and possessed collagen type I and IV, while the choanosome was predominately constituted by collagen type IV. In vitro cytotoxicity assays using the L929 fibroblast cell line displayed a significant cytotoxic effect of choanosome collagen at 2 mg/mL, while ectosome collagen enhanced cell metabolism and proliferation, thus indicating the latter as being more suitable for the development of biomaterials. This research represents a unique comparative study of C. reniformis body parts, serving as a support for further establishing this marine sponge as a promising alternative collagen source for the future development of biomedical applications. Full article
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13 pages, 4523 KiB  
Article
Low-Molecular-Weight Fish Collagen Peptide (Valine-Glycine-Proline-Hydroxyproline-Glycine-Proline-Alanine-Glycine) Prevents Osteoarthritis Symptoms in Chondrocytes and Monoiodoacetate-Injected Rats
by Wonhee Cho, Jeongjin Park, Jinhee Kim, Minhee Lee, So Jung Park, Kyung Seok Kim, Woojin Jun, Ok-Kyung Kim and Jeongmin Lee
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(12), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21120608 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1436
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-molecular-weight fish collagen (valine-glycine-proline-hydroxyproline-glycine-proline-alanine-glycine; LMWCP) on H2O2- or LPS-treated primary chondrocytes and monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rat models. Our findings indicated that LMWCP treatment exhibited protective effects by preventing [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-molecular-weight fish collagen (valine-glycine-proline-hydroxyproline-glycine-proline-alanine-glycine; LMWCP) on H2O2- or LPS-treated primary chondrocytes and monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rat models. Our findings indicated that LMWCP treatment exhibited protective effects by preventing chondrocyte death and reducing matrix degradation in both H2O2-treated primary chondrocytes and cartilage tissue from MIA-induced osteoarthritis rats. This was achieved by increasing the levels of aggrecan, collagen type I, collagen type II, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3, while simultaneously decreasing catabolic factors such as phosphorylation of Smad, MMP-3, and MMP-13. Additionally, LMWCP treatment effectively suppressed the activation of inflammation and apoptosis pathways in both LPS-treated primary chondrocytes and cartilage tissue from MIA-induced osteoarthritis rats. These results suggest that LMWCP supplementation ameliorates the progression of osteoarthritis through its direct impact on inflammation and apoptosis in chondrocytes. Full article
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21 pages, 9844 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of New Carboxymethyl Chitosan Derivatives Bearing Quinoline Groups
by Linqing Wang, Rui Guo, Xiaorui Liang, Yuting Ji, Jingjing Zhang, Guowei Gai and Zhanyong Guo
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(12), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21120606 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
A total of 16 novel carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives bearing quinoline groups in four classes were prepared by different synthetic methods. Their chemical structures were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. The antioxidant experiment results in vitro [...] Read more.
A total of 16 novel carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives bearing quinoline groups in four classes were prepared by different synthetic methods. Their chemical structures were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. The antioxidant experiment results in vitro (including DPPH radical scavenging ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and ferric reducing antioxidant power) demonstrated that adding quinoline groups to chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) enhanced the radical scavenging ability of CS and CMCS. Among them, both N, O-CMCS derivatives and N-TM-O-CMCS derivatives showed DPPH radical scavenging over 70%. In addition, their scavenging of superoxide anion radicals reached more than 90% at the maximum tested concentration of 1.6 mg/mL. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assay was carried out on L929 cells by the MTT method, and the results indicated that all derivatives showed no cytotoxicity (cell viability > 75%) except O-CMCS derivative 1a, which showed low cytotoxicity at 1000 μg/mL (cell viability 50.77 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, the carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives bearing quinoline groups showed remarkable antioxidant ability and weak cytotoxicity, highlighting their potential use in food and medical applications. Full article
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11 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Chitosan from Marine Amphipods Inhibits the Wilt Banana Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense Tropical Race 4
by Marc Roig-Puche, Federico Lopez-Moya, Miguel Valverde-Urrea, Pablo Sanchez-Jerez, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca and Victoria Fernandez-Gonzalez
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(12), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21120601 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1615
Abstract
In this work, we extracted chitosan from marine amphipods associated with aquaculture facilities and tested its use in crop protection. The obtained chitosan was 2.5 ± 0.3% of initial ground amphipod dry weight. The chemical nature of chitosan from amphipod extracts was confirmed [...] Read more.
In this work, we extracted chitosan from marine amphipods associated with aquaculture facilities and tested its use in crop protection. The obtained chitosan was 2.5 ± 0.3% of initial ground amphipod dry weight. The chemical nature of chitosan from amphipod extracts was confirmed via Raman scattering spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This chitosan showed an 85.7–84.3% deacetylation degree. Chitosan from biofouling amphipods at 1 mg·mL−1 virtually arrested conidia germination (ca. sixfold reduction from controls) of the banana wilt pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense Tropical Race 4 (FocTR4). This concentration reduced (ca. twofold) the conidia germination of the biocontrol fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc123). Chitosan from amphipods at low concentrations (0.01 mg·mL−1) still reduced FocTR4 germination but did not affect Pc123. This is the first time that chitosan is obtained from biofouling amphipods. This new chitosan valorizes aquaculture residues and has potential for biomanaging the diseases of food security crops such as bananas. Full article
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17 pages, 6832 KiB  
Article
On the Mechanical Properties of Microfibre-Based 3D Chitinous Scaffolds from Selected Verongiida Sponges
by Tomas Duminis, Marcin Heljak, Wojciech Święszkowski, Alexander Ereskovsky, Izabela Dziedzic, Marek Nowicki, Martyna Pajewska-Szmyt, Alona Voronkina, Stefan R. Bornstein and Hermann Ehrlich
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(9), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21090463 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Skeletal constructs of diverse marine sponges remain to be a sustainable source of biocompatible porous biopolymer-based 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and technology, especially structures isolated from cultivated demosponges, which belong to the Verongiida order, due to the renewability of their chitinous, fibre-containing [...] Read more.
Skeletal constructs of diverse marine sponges remain to be a sustainable source of biocompatible porous biopolymer-based 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and technology, especially structures isolated from cultivated demosponges, which belong to the Verongiida order, due to the renewability of their chitinous, fibre-containing architecture focused attention. These chitinous scaffolds have already shown excellent and promising results in biomimetics and tissue engineering with respect to their broad diversity of cells. However, the mechanical features of these constructs have been poorly studied before. For the first time, the elastic moduli characterising the chitinous samples have been determined. Moreover, nanoindentation of the selected bromotyrosine-containing as well as pigment-free chitinous scaffolds isolated from selected verongiids was used in the study for comparative purposes. It was shown that the removal of bromotyrosines from chitin scaffolds results in a reduced elastic modulus; however, their hardness was relatively unaffected. Full article
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25 pages, 17762 KiB  
Article
Spongin as a Unique 3D Template for the Development of Functional Iron-Based Composites Using Biomimetic Approach In Vitro
by Anita Kubiak, Martyna Pajewska-Szmyt, Martyna Kotula, Bartosz Leśniewski, Alona Voronkina, Parvaneh Rahimi, Sedigheh Falahi, Korbinian Heimler, Anika Rogoll, Carla Vogt, Alexander Ereskovsky, Paul Simon, Enrico Langer, Armin Springer, Maik Förste, Alexandros Charitos, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski and Hermann Ehrlich
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(9), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21090460 - 22 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Marine sponges of the subclass Keratosa originated on our planet about 900 million years ago and represent evolutionarily ancient and hierarchically structured biological materials. One of them, proteinaceous spongin, is responsible for the formation of 3D structured fibrous skeletons and remains enigmatic with [...] Read more.
Marine sponges of the subclass Keratosa originated on our planet about 900 million years ago and represent evolutionarily ancient and hierarchically structured biological materials. One of them, proteinaceous spongin, is responsible for the formation of 3D structured fibrous skeletons and remains enigmatic with complex chemistry. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of spongin with iron ions in a marine environment due to biocorrosion, leading to the occurrence of lepidocrocite. For this purpose, a biomimetic approach for the development of a new lepidocrocite-containing 3D spongin scaffold under laboratory conditions at 24 °C using artificial seawater and iron is described for the first time. This method helps to obtain a new composite as “Iron-Spongin”, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Furthermore, sophisticated techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, microscope technique, and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine the structure. This research proposed a corresponding mechanism of lepidocrocite formation, which may be connected with the spongin amino acids functional groups. Moreover, the potential application of the biocomposite as an electrochemical dopamine sensor is proposed. The conducted research not only shows the mechanism or sensor properties of “Iron-spongin” but also opens the door to other applications of these multifunctional materials. Full article
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25 pages, 4624 KiB  
Article
Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses to Decipher the Chitinolytic Response of Jeongeupia spp.
by Nathanael D. Arnold, Daniel Garbe and Thomas B. Brück
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(8), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21080448 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
In nature, chitin, the most abundant marine biopolymer, does not accumulate due to the action of chitinolytic organisms, whose saccharification systems provide instructional blueprints for effective chitin conversion. Therefore, discovery and deconstruction of chitinolytic machineries and associated enzyme systems are essential for the [...] Read more.
In nature, chitin, the most abundant marine biopolymer, does not accumulate due to the action of chitinolytic organisms, whose saccharification systems provide instructional blueprints for effective chitin conversion. Therefore, discovery and deconstruction of chitinolytic machineries and associated enzyme systems are essential for the advancement of biotechnological chitin valorization. Through combined investigation of the chitin-induced secretome with differential proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, a holistic system biology approach has been applied to unravel the chitin response mechanisms in the Gram-negative Jeongeupia wiesaeckerbachi. Hereby, the majority of the genome-encoded chitinolytic machinery, consisting of various glycoside hydrolases and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, could be detected extracellularly. Intracellular proteomics revealed a distinct translation pattern with significant upregulation of glucosamine transport, metabolism, and chemotaxis-associated proteins. While the differential transcriptomic results suggested the overall recruitment of more genes during chitin metabolism compared to that of glucose, the detected protein-mRNA correlation was low. As one of the first studies of its kind, the involvement of over 350 unique enzymes and 570 unique genes in the catabolic chitin response of a Gram-negative bacterium could be identified through a three-way systems biology approach. Based on the cumulative data, a holistic model for the chitinolytic machinery of Jeongeupia spp. is proposed. Full article
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20 pages, 13921 KiB  
Article
The Loss of Structural Integrity of 3D Chitin Scaffolds from Aplysina aerophoba Marine Demosponge after Treatment with LiOH
by Izabela Dziedzic, Alona Voronkina, Martyna Pajewska-Szmyt, Martyna Kotula, Anita Kubiak, Heike Meissner, Tomas Duminis and Hermann Ehrlich
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(6), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21060334 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Aminopolysaccharide chitin is one of the main structural biopolymers in sponges that is responsible for the mechanical stability of their unique 3D-structured microfibrous and porous skeletons. Chitin in representatives of exclusively marine Verongiida demosponges exists in the form of biocomposite-based scaffolds chemically bounded [...] Read more.
Aminopolysaccharide chitin is one of the main structural biopolymers in sponges that is responsible for the mechanical stability of their unique 3D-structured microfibrous and porous skeletons. Chitin in representatives of exclusively marine Verongiida demosponges exists in the form of biocomposite-based scaffolds chemically bounded with biominerals, lipids, proteins, and bromotyrosines. Treatment with alkalis remains one of the classical approaches to isolate pure chitin from the sponge skeleton. For the first time, we carried out extraction of multilayered, tube-like chitin from skeletons of cultivated Aplysina aerophoba demosponge using 1% LiOH solution at 65 °C following sonication. Surprisingly, this approach leads not only to the isolation of chitinous scaffolds but also to their dissolution and the formation of amorphous-like matter. Simultaneously, isofistularin-containing extracts have been obtained. Due to the absence of any changes between the chitin standard derived from arthropods and the sponge-derived chitin treated with LiOH under the same experimental conditions, we suggest that bromotyrosines in A. aerophoba sponge represent the target for lithium ion activity with respect to the formation of LiBr. This compound, however, is a well-recognized solubilizing reagent of diverse biopolymers including cellulose and chitosan. We propose a possible dissolution mechanism of this very special kind of sponge chitin. Full article
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15 pages, 3011 KiB  
Article
A Thermostable Type I Collagen from Swim Bladder of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
by Honghui Jiang, Yuanyuan Kong, Lili Song, Jing Liu and Zhihong Wang
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21050280 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
As a major component of the extracellular matrix, collagen has been used as a biomaterial for many purposes including tissue engineering. Commercial collagen derived from mammals is associated with a risk of prion diseases and religious restrictions, while fish-derived collagen can avoid such [...] Read more.
As a major component of the extracellular matrix, collagen has been used as a biomaterial for many purposes including tissue engineering. Commercial collagen derived from mammals is associated with a risk of prion diseases and religious restrictions, while fish-derived collagen can avoid such issues. In addition, fish-derived collagen is widely available and low-cost; however, it often suffers from poor thermal stability, which limits its biomedical application. In this study, collagen with a high thermal stability was successfully extracted from the swim bladder of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (SCC). The results demonstrated that it was a type I collagen with high purity and well-preserved triple-helix structure. Amino acid composition assay showed that the amounts of threonine, methionine, isoleucine and phenylalanine in the collagen of swim bladder of silver carp were higher than those of bovine pericardium. After adding salt solution, swim-bladder-derived collagen could form fine and dense collagen fibers. In particular, SCC exhibited a higher thermal denaturation temperature (40.08 °C) compared with collagens from the swim bladder of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (GCC, 34.40 °C), bovine pericardium (BPC, 34.47 °C) and mouse tail (MTC, 37.11 °C). Furthermore, SCC also showed DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power. These results indicate that SCC presents a promising alternative source of mammalian collagen for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Full article
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14 pages, 2505 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Water-Soluble Sulfonated Chitin Derivatives for Potential Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity
by Fang Luan, Zhenhua Xu, Kai Wang, Xin Qi and Zhanyong Guo
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(11), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20110668 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Chitin is a natural renewable and useful biopolymer limited by its insolubility; chemical derivatization can enhance the solubility and bioactivity of chitin. The purpose of this study was to synthesize novel water-soluble chitin derivatives, sulfo-chitin (SCT) and sulfopropyl-chitin (SPCT), as antioxidant and antifungal [...] Read more.
Chitin is a natural renewable and useful biopolymer limited by its insolubility; chemical derivatization can enhance the solubility and bioactivity of chitin. The purpose of this study was to synthesize novel water-soluble chitin derivatives, sulfo-chitin (SCT) and sulfopropyl-chitin (SPCT), as antioxidant and antifungal agents. The target derivatives were characterized by means of elemental analysis, FTIR, 13C NMR, TGA and XRD. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the chitin derivatives was estimated by free radical scavenging ability (against DPPH-radical, hydroxyl-radical and superoxide-radical) and ferric reducing power. In addition, inhibitory effects against four fungi were also tested. The findings show that antioxidant abilities and antifungal properties were in order of SPCT > SCT > CT. On the basis of the results obtained, we confirmed that the introduction of sulfonated groups on the CT backbone would help improve the antioxidant and antifungal activity of CT. Moreover, its efficacy as an antioxidant and antifungal agent increased as the chain length of the substituents increased. This derivatization strategy might provide a feasible way to broaden the utilization of chitin. It is of great significance to minimize waste and realize the high-value utilization of aquatic product wastes. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

16 pages, 4135 KiB  
Review
Unlocking the Therapeutic Potential of Marine Collagen: A Scientific Exploration for Delaying Skin Aging
by Azizur Rahman, Rameesha Rehmani, Diana Gabby Pirvu, Siqi Maggie Huang, Simron Puri and Mateo Arcos
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040159 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Aging is closely associated with collagen degradation, impacting the structure and strength of the muscles, joints, bones, and skin. The continuous aging of the skin is a natural process that is influenced by extrinsic factors such as UV exposure, dietary patterns, smoking habits, [...] Read more.
Aging is closely associated with collagen degradation, impacting the structure and strength of the muscles, joints, bones, and skin. The continuous aging of the skin is a natural process that is influenced by extrinsic factors such as UV exposure, dietary patterns, smoking habits, and cosmetic supplements. Supplements that contain collagen can act as remedies that help restore vitality and youth to the skin, helping combat aging. Notably, collagen supplements enriched with essential amino acids such as proline and glycine, along with marine fish collagen, have become popular for their safety and effectiveness in mitigating the aging process. To compile the relevant literature on the anti-aging applications of marine collagen, a search and analysis of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase, covering publications from 1991 to 2024. From in vitro to in vivo experiments, the reviewed studies elucidate the anti-aging benefits of marine collagen, emphasizing its role in combating skin aging by minimizing oxidative stress, photodamage, and the appearance of wrinkles. Various bioactive marine peptides exhibit diverse anti-aging properties, including free radical scavenging, apoptosis inhibition, lifespan extension in various organisms, and protective effects in aging humans. Furthermore, the topical application of hyaluronic acid is discussed as a mechanism to increase collagen production and skin moisture, contributing to the anti-aging effects of collagen supplementation. The integration of bio-tissue engineering in marine collagen applications is also explored, highlighting its proven utility in skin healing and bone regeneration applications. However, limitations to the scope of its application exist. Thus, by delving into these nuanced considerations, this review contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the potential and challenges associated with marine collagen in the realm of anti-aging applications. Full article
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14 pages, 513 KiB  
Review
The Importance of Chitosan Coatings in Dentistry
by Anna Paradowska-Stolarz, Marcin Mikulewicz, Joanna Laskowska, Bożena Karolewicz and Artur Owczarek
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(12), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21120613 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1961
Abstract
A Chitosan is a copolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucose amine and D-glucose amine that can be easily produced. It is a polymer that is widely utilized to create nanoparticles (NPs) with specific properties for applications in a wide range of human activities. Chitosan is a [...] Read more.
A Chitosan is a copolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucose amine and D-glucose amine that can be easily produced. It is a polymer that is widely utilized to create nanoparticles (NPs) with specific properties for applications in a wide range of human activities. Chitosan is a substance with excellent prospects due to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, haemostatic, analgesic, mucoadhesive, and osseointegrative qualities, as well as its superior film-forming capacity. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) serve a variety of functions in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, including dentistry. According to recent research, chitosan and its derivatives can be embedded in materials for dental adhesives, barrier membranes, bone replacement, tissue regeneration, and antibacterial agents to improve the management of oral diseases. This narrative review aims to discuss the development of chitosan-containing materials for dental and implant engineering applications, as well as the challenges and future potential. For this purpose, the PubMed database (Medline) was utilised to search for publications published less than 10 years ago. The keywords used were “chitosan coating” and “dentistry”. After carefully selecting according to these keywords, 23 articles were studied. The review concluded that chitosan is a biocompatible and bioactive material with many benefits in surgery, restorative dentistry, endodontics, prosthetics, orthodontics, and disinfection. Furthermore, despite the fact that it is a highly significant and promising coating, there is still a demand for various types of coatings. Chitosan is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide that has many medical applications because of its antimicrobial properties. This article aims to review the role of chitosan in dental implantology. Full article
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18 pages, 1192 KiB  
Review
Polyvinyl Alcohol-Chitosan Scaffold for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Application: A Review
by Kavitha Ganesan Nathan, Krishnamurithy Genasan and Tunku Kamarul
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21050304 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) holds great promise for addressing the growing need for innovative therapies to treat disease conditions. To achieve this, TERM relies on various strategies and techniques. The most prominent strategy is the development of a scaffold. Polyvinyl alcohol-chitosan [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) holds great promise for addressing the growing need for innovative therapies to treat disease conditions. To achieve this, TERM relies on various strategies and techniques. The most prominent strategy is the development of a scaffold. Polyvinyl alcohol-chitosan (PVA-CS) scaffold emerged as a promising material in this field due to its biocompatibility, versatility, and ability to support cell growth and tissue regeneration. Preclinical studies showed that the PVA-CS scaffold can be fabricated and tailored to fit the specific needs of different tissues and organs. Additionally, PVA-CS can be combined with other materials and technologies to enhance its regenerative capabilities. Furthermore, PVA-CS represents a promising therapeutic solution for developing new and innovative TERM therapies. Therefore, in this review, we summarized the potential role and functions of PVA-CS in TERM applications. Full article
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