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Mar. Drugs, Volume 22, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 44 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Thirty-two fungal polyketide derivatives, including eleven new compounds together with one new naturally occurring metabolite, were isolated and identified from the deep-sea cold-seep-derived fungus Talaromyces sp. CS-258. Among them, racemic ((±)-11) or epimeric (1315, 25, and 26) mixtures were successfully separated, and 27 represents a rarely reported iodinated compound. Their structures were determined by extensive analysis via NMR, MS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mosher’s method, and ECD or NMR calculation (with DP4+ probability analysis). Possible biosynthetic routes of some isolated compounds were put forward. Eleven compounds showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities against several human and aquatic pathogens. View this paper
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17 pages, 4513 KiB  
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by a Deep-Sea Bacterium Efficiently Inhibit the Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
by Yuanyuan Hu, Ge Liu, Chaomin Sun and Shimei Wu
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050233 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The deep-sea bacterium Spongiibacter nanhainus CSC3.9 has significant inhibitory effects on agricultural pathogenic fungi and human pathogenic bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the notorious multidrug-resistant pathogen affecting human public health. We demonstrate that the corresponding antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa PAO1 are volatile [...] Read more.
The deep-sea bacterium Spongiibacter nanhainus CSC3.9 has significant inhibitory effects on agricultural pathogenic fungi and human pathogenic bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the notorious multidrug-resistant pathogen affecting human public health. We demonstrate that the corresponding antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa PAO1 are volatile organic compounds (VOCs, namely VOC-3.9). Our findings show that VOC-3.9 leads to the abnormal cell division of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by disordering the expression of several essential division proteins associated with septal peptidoglycan synthesis. VOC-3.9 hinders the biofilm formation process and promotes the biofilm dispersion process of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by affecting its quorum sensing systems. VOC-3.9 also weakens the iron uptake capability of P. aeruginosa PAO1, leading to reduced enzymatic activity associated with key metabolic processes, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. Overall, our study paves the way to developing antimicrobial compounds against drug-resistant bacteria by using volatile organic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from the Deep-Sea-Derived Microorganisms 2.0)
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13 pages, 3604 KiB  
Article
Marine-Derived Sulfated Glycans Inhibit the Interaction of Heparin with Adhesion Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
by Jiyuan Yang, Yuefan Song, Ke Xia, Vitor H. Pomin, Chunyu Wang, Mingqiang Qiao, Robert J. Linhardt, Jonathan S. Dordick and Fuming Zhang
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050232 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a notable pathogen behind respiratory infections, employs specialized proteins to adhere to the respiratory epithelium, an essential process for initiating infection. The role of glycosaminoglycans, especially heparan sulfate, is critical in facilitating pathogen–host interactions, presenting a strategic target for therapeutic [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a notable pathogen behind respiratory infections, employs specialized proteins to adhere to the respiratory epithelium, an essential process for initiating infection. The role of glycosaminoglycans, especially heparan sulfate, is critical in facilitating pathogen–host interactions, presenting a strategic target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we assembled a glycan library comprising heparin, its oligosaccharide derivatives, and a variety of marine-derived sulfated glycans to screen the potential inhibitors for the pathogen–host interactions. By using Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopy, we evaluated the library’s efficacy in inhibiting the interaction between M. pneumoniae adhesion proteins and heparin. Our findings offer a promising avenue for developing novel therapeutic strategies against M. pneumoniae infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Application of Marine-Derived Carbohydrates)
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12 pages, 637 KiB  
Article
Denigrins H–L: Sulfated Derivatives of Denigrins D and E from a New Zealand Dictyodendrilla c.f. dendyi Marine Sponge
by Lauren Gris, Michèle R. Prinsep, Linda M. Peters and Christopher N. Battershill
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050231 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Five new sulfated arylpyrrole and arylpyrrolone alkaloids, denigrins H–L (15), along with two known compounds, dictyodendrin B and denigrin G, were isolated from an extract of a New Zealand Dictyodendrilla c.f. dendyi marine sponge. Denigrins H–L represent the first [...] Read more.
Five new sulfated arylpyrrole and arylpyrrolone alkaloids, denigrins H–L (15), along with two known compounds, dictyodendrin B and denigrin G, were isolated from an extract of a New Zealand Dictyodendrilla c.f. dendyi marine sponge. Denigrins H–L represent the first examples of sulfated denigrins, with denigrins H and I (12), as derivatives of denigrin D, containing a pyrrolone core, and denigrins J–L (35), as derivatives of denigrin E (6), containing a pyrrole core. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, ESI, and HR-ESI-MS spectrometric data, as well as comparison with literature data. Compounds 1–5, along with six known compounds previously isolated from the same extract, showed minimal cytotoxicity against the HeLa cervical cancer cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Components from Marine Sponges)
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16 pages, 5380 KiB  
Article
High-Level Extracellular Production of a Trisaccharide-Producing Alginate Lyase AlyC7 in Escherichia coli and Its Agricultural Application
by Xiao-Han Wang, Yu-Qiang Zhang, Xin-Ru Zhang, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Xiao-Meng Sun, Xiao-Fei Wang, Xiao-Hui Sun, Xiao-Yan Song, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Ning Wang, Xiu-Lan Chen and Fei Xu
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050230 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), products of alginate degradation by endotype alginate lyases, possess favorable biological activities and have broad applications. Although many have been reported, alginate lyases with homogeneous AOS products and secretory production by an engineered host are scarce. Herein, the alginate lyase [...] Read more.
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), products of alginate degradation by endotype alginate lyases, possess favorable biological activities and have broad applications. Although many have been reported, alginate lyases with homogeneous AOS products and secretory production by an engineered host are scarce. Herein, the alginate lyase AlyC7 from Vibrio sp. C42 was characterized as a trisaccharide-producing lyase exhibiting high activity and broad substrate specificity. With PelB as the signal peptide and 500 mM glycine as the additive, the extracellular production of AlyC7 in Escherichia coli reached 1122.8 U/mL after 27 h cultivation in Luria-Bertani medium. The yield of trisaccharides from sodium alginate degradation by the produced AlyC7 reached 758.6 mg/g, with a purity of 85.1%. The prepared AOS at 20 μg/mL increased the root length of lettuce, tomato, wheat, and maize by 27.5%, 25.7%, 9.7%, and 11.1%, respectively. This study establishes a robust foundation for the industrial and agricultural applications of AlyC7. Full article
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15 pages, 1515 KiB  
Review
Marine Microalgal Products with Activities against Age-Related Cardiovascular Diseases
by Nova Yurika, Eleonora Montuori and Chiara Lauritano
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050229 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and it is estimated that 17.9 million people die of it each year. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are attributable to an unhealthy and sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition, stress, genetic predisposition, [...] Read more.
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and it is estimated that 17.9 million people die of it each year. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are attributable to an unhealthy and sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition, stress, genetic predisposition, diabetes, obesity, and aging. Marine microalgae have been the subject of numerous studies for their potential activity against several human diseases. They produce a plethora of primary and secondary metabolites such as essential nutrients, vitamins, pigments, and omega-3 fatty acid. Many of these molecules have antioxidant properties and have been shown to play a role in the prevention of heart diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize recent studies on the discovery of marine microalgal compounds and bioactivities for cardiovascular diseases, including in vitro and in vivo studies, showing and discussing recent discoveries and trends. The most promising results were found for microalgal polysaccharides, peptides and carotenoids. In conclusion, the overall data summarized here show that microalgae-based supplementation has the potential to improve age-related cardiovascular diseases and we expect more clinical studies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids from Marine Organisms, 2nd Edition)
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25 pages, 2608 KiB  
Article
Viral Infection Leads to a Unique Suite of Allelopathic Chemical Signals in Three Diatom Host–Virus Pairs
by Bethanie R. Edwards, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Helen F. Fredricks, Kay D. Bidle and Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050228 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Ecophysiological stress and the grazing of diatoms are known to elicit the production of chemical defense compounds called oxylipins, which are toxic to a wide range of marine organisms. Here we show that (1) the viral infection and lysis of diatoms resulted in [...] Read more.
Ecophysiological stress and the grazing of diatoms are known to elicit the production of chemical defense compounds called oxylipins, which are toxic to a wide range of marine organisms. Here we show that (1) the viral infection and lysis of diatoms resulted in oxylipin production; (2) the suite of compounds produced depended on the diatom host and the infecting virus; and (3) the virus-mediated oxylipidome was distinct, in both magnitude and diversity, from oxylipins produced due to stress associated with the growth phase. We used high-resolution accurate-mass mass spectrometry to observe changes in the dissolved lipidome of diatom cells infected with viruses over 3 to 4 days, compared to diatom cells in exponential, stationary, and decline phases of growth. Three host virus pairs were used as model systems: Chaetoceros tenuissimus infected with CtenDNAV; C. tenuissimus infected with CtenRNAV; and Chaetoceros socialis infected with CsfrRNAV. Several of the compounds that were significantly overproduced during viral infection are known to decrease the reproductive success of copepods and interfere with microzooplankton grazing. Specifically, oxylipins associated with allelopathy towards zooplankton from the 6-, 9-, 11-, and 15-lipogenase (LOX) pathways were significantly more abundant during viral lysis. 9-hydroperoxy hexadecatetraenoic acid was identified as the strongest biomarker for the infection of Chaetoceros diatoms. C. tenuissimus produced longer, more oxidized oxylipins when lysed by CtenRNAV compared to CtenDNAV. However, CtenDNAV caused a more statistically significant response in the lipidome, producing more oxylipins from known diatom LOX pathways than CtenRNAV. A smaller set of compounds was significantly more abundant in stationary and declining C. tenuissimus and C. socialis controls. Two allelopathic oxylipins in the 15-LOX pathway and essential fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were more abundant in the stationary phase than during the lysis of C. socialis. The host–virus pair comparisons underscore the species-level differences in oxylipin production and the value of screening more host–virus systems. We propose that the viral infection of diatoms elicits chemical defense via oxylipins which deters grazing with downstream trophic and biogeochemical effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Defense in Marine Organisms 3rd Edition)
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16 pages, 4094 KiB  
Article
Curdepsidone A Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Inhibits Protective Autophagy via the ROS/PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in HeLa Cells
by Sunjie Xu, Zhimin Li, Xiujuan Xin and Faliang An
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050227 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Among female oncology patients, cervical cancer stands as the fourth most prevalent malignancy, exerting significant impacts on their health. Over 600,000 women received the diagnosis of cervical cancer in 2020, and the illness claimed over 300,000 lives globally. Curdepsidone A, a derivative of [...] Read more.
Among female oncology patients, cervical cancer stands as the fourth most prevalent malignancy, exerting significant impacts on their health. Over 600,000 women received the diagnosis of cervical cancer in 2020, and the illness claimed over 300,000 lives globally. Curdepsidone A, a derivative of depsidone, was isolated from the secondary metabolites of Curvularia sp. IFB-Z10. In this study, we revised the molecular structure of curdepsidone A and investigated the fundamental mechanism of the anti-tumor activity of curdepsidone A in HeLa cells for the first time. The results demonstrated that curdepsidone A caused G0/G1 phase arrest, triggered apoptosis via a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, blocked the autophagic flux, suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway, and increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Furthermore, the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) promoted apoptosis induced by curdepsidone A, while the PI3K agonist (IGF-1) eliminated such an effect. ROS scavenger (NAC) reduced curdepsidone A-induced cell apoptosis and the suppression of autophagy and the PI3K/AKT pathway. In conclusion, our results revealed that curdepsidone A hindered cell growth by causing cell cycle arrest, and promoted cell apoptosis by inhibiting autophagy and the ROS-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway. This study provides a molecular basis for the development of curdepsidone A as a new chemotherapy drug for cervical cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compound Discovery through OSMAC Approach)
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26 pages, 2776 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Composition, Anti-Inflammatory Property, and Anti-Atopic Effect of Chaetomorpha linum Extract
by Luisa Frusciante, Michela Geminiani, Alfonso Trezza, Tommaso Olmastroni, Pierfrancesco Mastroeni, Laura Salvini, Stefania Lamponi, Andrea Bernini, Daniela Grasso, Elena Dreassi, Ottavia Spiga and Annalisa Santucci
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050226 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Utilizing plant-based resources, particularly their by-products, aligns with sustainability principles and circular bioeconomy, contributing to environmental preservation. The therapeutic potential of plant extracts is garnering increasing interest, and this study aimed to demonstrate promising outcomes from an extract obtained from an underutilized plant [...] Read more.
Utilizing plant-based resources, particularly their by-products, aligns with sustainability principles and circular bioeconomy, contributing to environmental preservation. The therapeutic potential of plant extracts is garnering increasing interest, and this study aimed to demonstrate promising outcomes from an extract obtained from an underutilized plant waste. Chaetomorpha linum, an invasive macroalga found in the Orbetello Lagoon, thrives in eutrophic conditions, forming persistent mats covering approximately 400 hectares since 2005. The biomass of C. linum undergoes mechanical harvesting and is treated as waste, requiring significant human efforts and economic resources—A critical concern for municipalities. Despite posing challenges to local ecosystems, the study identified C. linum as a natural source of bioactive metabolites. Phytochemical characterization revealed lipids, amino acids, and other compounds with potential anti-inflammatory activity in C. linum extract. In vitro assays with LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 and TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells showed the extract inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) productions, and reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions via NF-κB nuclear translocation, in RAW 264.7 cells. It also reduced chemokines (TARC/CCL17, RANTES/CCL5, MCP-1/CCL2, and IL-8) and the cytokine IL-1β production in HaCaT cells, suggesting potential as a therapeutic candidate for chronic diseases like atopic dermatitis. Finally, in silico studies indicated palmitic acid as a significant contributor to the observed effect. This research not only uncovered the untapped potential of C. linum but also laid the foundation for its integration into the circular bioeconomy, promoting sustainable practices, and innovative applications across various industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 3.0)
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25 pages, 10099 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Activities of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Marine Algae: In Vitro and In Vivo Insights of Coating Tomato Fruit to Protect against Penicillium italicum Blue Mold
by Ragaa A. Hamouda, Fatimah Q. Almaghrabi, Ohoud M. Alharbi, Abla D. M. Al-Harbi, Rahaf M. Alsulami and Abrar M. Alhumairi
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050225 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
In an attempt to reduce such decay induced by pathogenic causes, several studies investigated the effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) that play a vital role in saving food products, especially fruits. Current research delves into biogenic silver nanoparticles (using marine alga Turbinaria turbinata (Tt/Ag-NPs) [...] Read more.
In an attempt to reduce such decay induced by pathogenic causes, several studies investigated the effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) that play a vital role in saving food products, especially fruits. Current research delves into biogenic silver nanoparticles (using marine alga Turbinaria turbinata (Tt/Ag-NPs) and their characterization using FT-IR, TEM, EDS, and zeta potential. Some pathogenic fungi, which cause fruit spoilage, were isolated. We studied the impact of using Tt/Ag-NPs to protect against isolated fungi in vitro, and the influence of Tt/Ag-NPs as a coating of tomato fruit to protect against blue mold caused by Penicillium italicum (OR770486) over 17 days of storage time. Five treatments were examined: T1, healthy fruits were used as the positive control; T2, healthy fruits sprayed with Tt/Ag-NPs; T3, fruits infected with P. italicum followed by coating with Tt/Ag-NPs (pre-coating); T4, fruits coated with Tt/Ag-NPs followed by infection by P. italicum (post-coating); and T5, the negative control, fruits infected by P. italicum. The results displayed that Tt/Ag-NPs are crystalline, spherical in shape, with size ranges between 14.5 and 39.85 nm, and negative charges. Different concentrations of Tt/Ag-NPs possessed antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Penicillium expansum, Alternaria alternate, and Stemphylium vesicarium. After two days of tomatoes being infected with P. italicum, 55% of the fruits were spoilage. The tomato fruit coated with Tt/Ag-NPs delayed weight loss, increased titratable acidity (TA%), antioxidant%, and polyphenol contents, and decreased pH and total soluble solids (TSSs). There were no significant results between pre-coating and post-coating except in phenol contents increased in pre-coating. A particular focus is placed on the novel and promising approach of utilizing nanoparticles to combat foodborne pathogens and preserve commodities, with a spotlight on the application of nanoparticles in safeguarding tomatoes from decay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Synthesis with Marine Substances 2.0)
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13 pages, 8423 KiB  
Article
Predigested Mixture of Arachidonic and Docosahexaenoic Acids for Better Bio-Accessibility
by Assamae Chabni, Blanca Pardo de Donlebún, Marina Romero and Carlos F. Torres
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050224 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
A predigested product from arachidonic acid oil (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil in a 2:1 (w/w) ratio has been developed and evaluated in an in vitro digestion model. To produce this predigested lipid mixture, first, the two oils [...] Read more.
A predigested product from arachidonic acid oil (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil in a 2:1 (w/w) ratio has been developed and evaluated in an in vitro digestion model. To produce this predigested lipid mixture, first, the two oils were enzymatically hydrolyzed up to 90% of free fatty acids (FFAs) were achieved. Then, these two fatty acid (FA) mixtures were mixed in a 2:1 ARA-to-DHA ratio (w/w) and enzymatically esterified with glycerol to produce a mixture of FFAs, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerides. Different glycerol ratios and temperatures were evaluated. The best results were attained at 10 °C and a glycerol-to-FA molar ratio of 3:1. The bio-accessibility of this predigested mixture was studied in an in vitro digestion model. A total of 90% of the digestion product was found in the micellar phase, which contained 30% monoacylglycerides, more than 50% FFAs, and a very small amount of triacylglycerols (3% w/w). All these data indicate an excellent bio-accessibility of this predigested mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Therapeutic Applications of Fish Oil, 2nd Edition)
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29 pages, 2889 KiB  
Article
Extracellular Vesicles from Ecklonia cava and Phlorotannin Promote Rejuvenation in Aged Skin
by Sosorburam Batsukh, Seyeon Oh, Ji Min Lee, Judy Hong Jin Joo, Kuk Hui Son and Kyunghee Byun
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050223 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Plant-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) elicit diverse biological effects, including promoting skin health. EVs isolated from Ecklonia cava (EV-EC) carry heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which inhibits key regulators such as TNF-α, MAPKs, and NF-κB, consequently downregulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Aging exacerbates oxidative stress, [...] Read more.
Plant-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) elicit diverse biological effects, including promoting skin health. EVs isolated from Ecklonia cava (EV-EC) carry heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which inhibits key regulators such as TNF-α, MAPKs, and NF-κB, consequently downregulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Aging exacerbates oxidative stress, upregulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling and worsening extracellular matrix degradation in the skin. E. cava-derived phlorotannin (PT) mitigates MAPK and NF-κB signaling. We evaluated the impact of EV-EC and PT on skin rejuvenation using an in vitro keratinocyte senescence model and an in vivo aged-mouse model. Western blotting confirmed the presence of HSP70 in EV-EC. Treatment with EV-EC and PT in senescent keratinocytes increased HSP70 expression and decreased the expression of TNF-α, MAPK, NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and MMPs. Oxidative stress was also reduced. Sequential treatment with PT and EV-EC (PT/EV-EC) yielded more significant results compared to individual treatments. The administration of PT/EV-EC to the back skin of aged mice mirrored the in vitro findings, resulting in increased collagen fiber accumulation and improved elasticity in the aged skin. Therefore, PT/EV-EC holds promise in promoting skin rejuvenation by increasing HSP70 expression, decreasing the expression of MMPs, and reducing oxidative stress in aged skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Pharmacology)
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17 pages, 2191 KiB  
Article
The Role of Nitrate Supply in Bioactive Compound Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity in the Cultivation of Porphyra linearis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales) for Future Cosmeceutical and Bioremediation Applications
by Débora Tomazi Pereira, Nathalie Korbee, Julia Vega and Félix L. Figueroa
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050222 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Porphyra sensu lato has economic importance for food and pharmaceutical industries due to its significant physiological activities resulting from its bioactive compounds (BACs). This study aimed to determine the optimal nitrate dosage required in short-term cultivation to achieve substantial BAC production. A nitrate [...] Read more.
Porphyra sensu lato has economic importance for food and pharmaceutical industries due to its significant physiological activities resulting from its bioactive compounds (BACs). This study aimed to determine the optimal nitrate dosage required in short-term cultivation to achieve substantial BAC production. A nitrate experiment using varied concentrations (0 to 6.5 mM) revealed optimal nitrate uptake at 0.5 mM in the first two days and at 3 and 5 mM in the last five days. Polyphenols and carbohydrates showed no differences between treatments, while soluble proteins peaked at 1.5 and 3 mM. Total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were highest in algae incubated at 5 and 6.5 mM, and the highest antioxidant activity was observed in the 5 mM, potentially related to the MAAs amount. Total carbon and sulfur did not differ between treatments, while nitrogen decreased at higher nitrate. This discovery highlights the nuanced role of nitrate in algal physiology, suggesting that biological and chemical responses to nitrate supplementation can optimize an organism’s health and its commercially significant bioactive potential. Furthermore, given its ability to absorb high doses of nitrate, this alga can be cultivated in eutrophic zones or even in out-/indoor tanks, becoming an excellent option for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and bioremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Sea to Skin: Advancements in Marine-Based Cosmeceuticals)
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24 pages, 9403 KiB  
Article
Antiviral Shrimp lncRNA06 Possesses Anti-Tumor Activity by Inducing Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer Stem Cells in a Cross-Species Manner
by Ahmad Khan, Anas Mohammed and Xiaobo Zhang
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050221 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Virus infection causes the metabolic disorder of host cells, whereas the metabolic disorder of cells is one of the major causes of tumorigenesis, suggesting that antiviral molecules might possess anti-tumor activities by regulating cell metabolism. As the key regulators of gene expression, long [...] Read more.
Virus infection causes the metabolic disorder of host cells, whereas the metabolic disorder of cells is one of the major causes of tumorigenesis, suggesting that antiviral molecules might possess anti-tumor activities by regulating cell metabolism. As the key regulators of gene expression, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in the regulation of cell metabolism. However, the influence of antiviral lncRNAs on tumorigenesis has not been explored. To address this issue, the antiviral and anti-tumor capacities of shrimp lncRNAs were characterized in this study. The results revealed that shrimp lncRNA06, having antiviral activity in shrimp, could suppress the tumorigenesis of human gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) via triggering apoptosis of GCSCs in a cross-species manner. Shrimp lncRNA06 could sponge human miR-17-5p to suppress the stemness of GCSCs via the miR-17-5p-p21 axis. At the same time, shrimp lncRNA06 could bind to ATP synthase subunit beta (ATP5F1B) to enhance the stability of the ATP5F1B protein in GCSCs, thus suppressing the tumorigenesis of GCSCs. The in vivo data demonstrated that shrimp lncRNA06 promoted apoptosis and inhibited the stemness of GCSCs through interactions with ATP5F1B and miR-17-5p, leading to the suppression of the tumorigenesis of GCSCs. Therefore, our findings highlighted that antiviral lncRNAs possessed anti-tumor capacities and that antiviral lncRNAs could be the anti-tumor reservoir for the treatment of human cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Pharmacology)
18 pages, 4227 KiB  
Article
Immunotherapeutic Potential of Mollusk Hemocyanins in Murine Model of Melanoma
by Emiliya Stoyanova, Nikolina Mihaylova, Nikola Ralchev, Silviya Bradyanova, Iliyan Manoylov, Yuliana Raynova, Krassimira Idakieva and Andrey Tchorbanov
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050220 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
The development of antitumor drugs and therapy requires new approaches and molecules, and products of natural origin provide intriguing alternatives for antitumor research. Gastropodan hemocyanins-multimeric copper-containing glycoproteins have been used in therapeutic vaccines and antitumor agents in many cancer models. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
The development of antitumor drugs and therapy requires new approaches and molecules, and products of natural origin provide intriguing alternatives for antitumor research. Gastropodan hemocyanins-multimeric copper-containing glycoproteins have been used in therapeutic vaccines and antitumor agents in many cancer models. Materials and Methods: We established a murine model of melanoma by challenging C57BL/6 mice with a B16F10 cell line for solid tumor formation in experimental animals. The anticancer properties of hemocyanins isolated from the marine snail Rapana thomasiana (RtH) and the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa (HaH) were evaluated in this melanoma model using various schemes of therapy. Flow cytometry, ELISA, proliferation, and cytotoxicity assays, as well as histology investigations, were also performed. Results: Beneficial effects on tumor growth, tumor incidence, and survival of tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice after administration of the RtH or HaH were observed. The generation of high titers of melanoma-specific IgM antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and tumor-specific CTLs, and high levels of tumor-infiltrated M1 macrophages enhanced the immune reaction and tumor suppression. Discussion: Both RtH and HaH exhibited promising properties for applications as antitumor therapeutic agents and future experiments with humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
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13 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Marine Prostanoids with Cytotoxic Activity from Octocoral Clavularia spp.
by Ming-Ya Cheng, I-Chi Hsu, Shi-Ying Huang, Ya-Ting Chuang, Tzi-Yi Ke, Hsueh-Wei Chang, Tian-Huei Chu, Ching-Yeu Chen and Yuan-Bin Cheng
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050219 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Octocoral of the genus Clavularia is a kind of marine invertebrate possessing abundant cytotoxic secondary metabolites, such as prostanoids and dolabellanes. In our continuous natural product study of C. spp., two previously undescribed prostanoids [clavulone I-15-one (1) and 12-O-deacetylclavulone [...] Read more.
Octocoral of the genus Clavularia is a kind of marine invertebrate possessing abundant cytotoxic secondary metabolites, such as prostanoids and dolabellanes. In our continuous natural product study of C. spp., two previously undescribed prostanoids [clavulone I-15-one (1) and 12-O-deacetylclavulone I (2)] and eleven known analogs (313) were identified. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated based on analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and IR data. Additionally, all tested prostanoids (1 and 313) showed potent cytotoxic activities against the human oral cancer cell line (Ca9-22). The major compound 3 showed cytotoxic activity against the Ca9-22 cells with the IC50 value of 2.11 ± 0.03 μg/mL, which echoes the cytotoxic effect of the coral extract. In addition, in silico tools were used to predict the possible effects of isolated compounds on human tumor cell lines and nitric oxide production, as well as the pharmacological potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Soft Corals and Their Derived Microorganisms)
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15 pages, 6393 KiB  
Article
Novel Metabolites from the Marine-Derived Fungus Peniophora sp. SCSIO41203 Show Promising In Vitro Antitumor Activity as Methuosis Inducers in PC-3 Cells
by Bin Yang, Surun Shao, Mingyi Nie, Qingqing Tie, Xiaoyan Pang, Xiuping Lin, Xuefeng Zhou, Yonghong Liu, Xueni Wang and Yunqiu Li
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050218 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Two new cytochalasin derivatives, peniotrinins A (1) and B (2), three new citrinin derivatives, peniotrinins C–E (4, 5, 7), and one new tetramic acid derivative, peniotrinin F (12), along with nine structurally related [...] Read more.
Two new cytochalasin derivatives, peniotrinins A (1) and B (2), three new citrinin derivatives, peniotrinins C–E (4, 5, 7), and one new tetramic acid derivative, peniotrinin F (12), along with nine structurally related known compounds, were isolated from the solid culture of Peniophora sp. SCSIO41203. Their structures, including the absolute configurations of their stereogenic carbons, were fully elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, quantum chemical calculations, and the calculated ECD. Interestingly, 1 is the first example of a rare 6/5/5/5/6/13 hexacyclic cytochalasin. We screened the above compounds for their anti-prostate cancer activity and found that compound 3 had a significant anti-prostate cancer cell proliferation effect, while compounds 1 and 2 showed weak activity at 10 μM. We then confirmed that compound 3 exerts its anti-prostate cancer effect by inducing methuosis through transmission electron microscopy and cellular immunostaining, which suggested that compound 3 might be first reported as a potential anti-prostate methuosis inducer. Full article
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12 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
Synthetic ShK-like Peptide from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai Has Human Voltage-Gated Potassium-Channel-Blocking Activity
by Ye-Ji Kim, Yejin Jo, Seung Eun Lee, Jungeun Kim, Jae-Pil Choi, Nayoung Lee, Hyokyoung Won, Dong Ho Woo and Seungshic Yum
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050217 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 468
Abstract
We identified a new human voltage-gated potassium channel blocker, NnK-1, in the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai based on its genomic information. The gene sequence encoding NnK-1 contains 5408 base pairs, with five introns and six exons. The coding sequence of the NnK-1 precursor is [...] Read more.
We identified a new human voltage-gated potassium channel blocker, NnK-1, in the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai based on its genomic information. The gene sequence encoding NnK-1 contains 5408 base pairs, with five introns and six exons. The coding sequence of the NnK-1 precursor is 894 nucleotides long and encodes 297 amino acids containing five presumptive ShK-like peptides. An electrophysiological assay demonstrated that the fifth peptide, NnK-1, which was chemically synthesized, is an effective blocker of hKv1.3, hKv1.4, and hKv1.5. Multiple-sequence alignment with cnidarian Shk-like peptides, which have Kv1.3-blocking activity, revealed that three residues (3Asp, 25Lys, and 34Thr) of NnK-1, together with six cysteine residues, were conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that these three residues are crucial for the binding of the toxin to voltage-gated potassium channels. This notion was confirmed by an electrophysiological assay with a synthetic peptide (NnK-1 mu) where these three peptides were substituted with 3Glu, 25Arg, and 34Met. In conclusion, we successfully identified and characterized a new voltage-gated potassium channel blocker in jellyfish that interacts with three different voltage-gated potassium channels. A peptide that interacts with multiple voltage-gated potassium channels has many therapeutic applications in various physiological and pathophysiological contexts. Full article
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28 pages, 1219 KiB  
Review
Engineering Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Microalgae: Recent Progress and Perspectives
by Yanhui Song, Fangzhong Wang, Lei Chen and Weiwen Zhang
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050216 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Microalgal lipids hold significant potential for the production of biodiesel and dietary supplements. To enhance their cost-effectiveness and commercial competitiveness, it is imperative to improve microalgal lipid productivity. Metabolic engineering that targets the key enzymes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway, along with [...] Read more.
Microalgal lipids hold significant potential for the production of biodiesel and dietary supplements. To enhance their cost-effectiveness and commercial competitiveness, it is imperative to improve microalgal lipid productivity. Metabolic engineering that targets the key enzymes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway, along with transcription factor engineering, are effective strategies for improving lipid productivity in microalgae. This review provides a summary of the advancements made in the past 5 years in engineering the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotic microalgae. Furthermore, this review offers insights into transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and transcription factor engineering aimed at enhancing lipid production in eukaryotic microalgae. Finally, the review discusses the challenges and future perspectives associated with utilizing microalgae for the efficient production of lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Marine Microbial Natural Products)
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14 pages, 2491 KiB  
Review
New Insight into Utilization of Fish By-Product Proteins and Their Skin Health Promoting Effects
by Dongcheng Liu, Yongxin Ren, Saiyi Zhong and Baojun Xu
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050215 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
In regions reliant on fisheries for livelihoods, a significant number of fish by-products are generated annually due to processing. These discarded parts contain valuable biological resources, such as proteins, fish oils, and trace elements, thus holding enormous potential for reutilization. In recent years, [...] Read more.
In regions reliant on fisheries for livelihoods, a significant number of fish by-products are generated annually due to processing. These discarded parts contain valuable biological resources, such as proteins, fish oils, and trace elements, thus holding enormous potential for reutilization. In recent years, fish by-product proteins have been widely utilized in skincare products due to their rich collagen content, biosafety, and biocompatibility. This review summarizes the research into and applications of fish by-product proteins in skin health, including alleviating oxidative stress and skin inflammation, reducing DNA damage, mitigating melanin production, improving skin hydration, slowing skin matrix degradation, and promoting synthesis. Additionally, the possibility of improving skin health by improving the abundance of gut microbiota is also discussed. This review underscores the importance of fish by-product proteins in the fisheries, food processing, cosmetics, and biomedical industries. Full article
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11 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Alkaloids from the Mangrove-Derived Fungus Nigrospora oryzae SYSU-MS0024
by Xiaokun Chen, Senhua Chen, Heng Guo, Xin Lu, Hongjie Shen, Lan Liu, Li Wang, Bin Chen, Yi Zhang and Yayue Liu
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050214 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Chemical investigation of marine fungus Nigrospora oryzae SYSU-MS0024 cultured on solid-rice medium led to the isolation of three new alkaloids, including a pair of epimers, nigrosporines A (1) and B (2), and a pair of enantiomers, (+)-nigrosporine C (+)- [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of marine fungus Nigrospora oryzae SYSU-MS0024 cultured on solid-rice medium led to the isolation of three new alkaloids, including a pair of epimers, nigrosporines A (1) and B (2), and a pair of enantiomers, (+)-nigrosporine C (+)-3, and (−)-nigrosporine C (−)-3, together with eight known compounds (411). Their structures were elucidated based on extensive mass spectrometry (MS) and 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses and compared with data in the literature. The absolute configurations of compounds 13 were determined by a combination of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, Mosher’s method, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction technique using Cu Kα radiation. In bioassays, compound 2 exhibited moderate inhibition on NO accumulation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on BV-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner at 20, 50, and 100 μmol/L and without cytotoxicity in a concentration of 100.0 μmol/L. Moreover, compound 2 also showed moderate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 103.7 μmol/L. Compound 5 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 167.0 μmol/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structural Studies on Marine Natural Products)
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23 pages, 3410 KiB  
Review
Spongia Sponges: Unabated Sources of Novel Secondary Metabolites
by Qi-Bin Yang and Lin-Fu Liang
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050213 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Marine sponges of the genus Spongia have proven to be unabated sources of novel secondary metabolites with remarkable scaffold diversities and significant bioactivities. The discovery of chemical substances from Spongia sponges has continued to increase over the last few years. The current work [...] Read more.
Marine sponges of the genus Spongia have proven to be unabated sources of novel secondary metabolites with remarkable scaffold diversities and significant bioactivities. The discovery of chemical substances from Spongia sponges has continued to increase over the last few years. The current work provides an up-to-date literature survey and comprehensive insight into the reported metabolites from the members of the genus Spongia, as well as their structural features, biological activities, and structure–activity relationships when available. In this review, 222 metabolites are discussed based on published data from the period from mid-2015 to the beginning of 2024. The compounds are categorized into sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, meroterpenes, linear furanoterpenes, steroids, alkaloids, and other miscellaneous substances. The biological effects of these chemical compositions on a vast array of pharmacological assays including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, neuroprotective, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory, and phytoregulating activities are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Components from Marine Sponges)
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11 pages, 2271 KiB  
Article
A Hadal Streptomyces-Derived Echinocandin Acylase Discovered through the Prioritization of Protein Families
by Xuejian Jiang, Hongjun Shu, Shuting Feng, Pinmei Wang, Zhizhen Zhang and Nan Wang
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050212 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Naturally occurring echinocandin B and FR901379 are potent antifungal lipopeptides featuring a cyclic hexapeptide nucleus and a fatty acid side chain. They are the parent compounds of echinocandin drugs for the treatment of severe fungal infections caused by the Candida and Aspergilla species. [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring echinocandin B and FR901379 are potent antifungal lipopeptides featuring a cyclic hexapeptide nucleus and a fatty acid side chain. They are the parent compounds of echinocandin drugs for the treatment of severe fungal infections caused by the Candida and Aspergilla species. To minimize hemolytic toxicity, the native fatty acid side chains in these drug molecules are replaced with designer acyl side chains. The deacylation of the N-acyl side chain is, therefore, a crucial step for the development and manufacturing of echinocandin-type antibiotics. Echinocandin E (ECE) is a novel echinocandin congener with enhanced stability generated via the engineering of the biosynthetic machinery of echinocandin B (ECB). In the present study, we report the discovery of the first echinocandin E acylase (ECEA) using the enzyme similarity tool (EST) for enzymatic function mining across protein families. ECEA is derived from Streptomyces sp. SY1965 isolated from a sediment collected from the Mariana Trench. It was cloned and heterologously expressed in S. lividans TK24. The resultant TKecea66 strain showed efficient cleavage activity of the acyl side chain of ECE, showing promising applications in the development of novel echinocandin-type therapeutics. Our results also provide a showcase for harnessing the essentially untapped biodiversity from the hadal ecosystems for the discovery of functional molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnological Applications of Marine Enzymes)
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14 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of an Oligo-Fucoidan-Based Formula against Osteoarthritis Development via iNOS and COX-2 Suppression following Monosodium Iodoacetate Injection
by Yi-Fen Chiang, Ko-Chieh Huang, Kai-Lee Wang, Yun-Ju Huang, Hsin-Yuan Chen, Mohamed Ali, Tzong-Ming Shieh and Shih-Min Hsia
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050211 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disorder characterized by cartilage degradation and chronic inflammation, accompanied by high oxidative stress. In this study, we utilized the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA model to investigate the efficacy of oligo-fucoidan-based formula (FF) intervention in mitigating OA progression. [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disorder characterized by cartilage degradation and chronic inflammation, accompanied by high oxidative stress. In this study, we utilized the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA model to investigate the efficacy of oligo-fucoidan-based formula (FF) intervention in mitigating OA progression. Through its capacity to alleviate joint bearing function and inflammation, improvements in cartilage integrity following oligo-fucoidan-based formula intervention were observed, highlighting its protective effects against cartilage degeneration and structural damage. Furthermore, the oligo-fucoidan-based formula modulated the p38 signaling pathway, along with downregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, contributing to its beneficial effects. Our study provides valuable insights into targeted interventions for OA management and calls for further clinical investigations to validate these preclinical findings and to explore the translational potential of an oligo-fucoidan-based formula in human OA patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 3.0)
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22 pages, 1255 KiB  
Review
Marine Compounds and Age-Related Diseases: The Path from Pre-Clinical Research to Approved Drugs for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes
by Maria Elisa Giuliani, Giorgia Bigossi, Giovanni Lai, Serena Marcozzi, Dario Brunetti and Marco Malavolta
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050210 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Ageing represents a main risk factor for several pathologies. Among them, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are predominant in the elderly population and often require prolonged use of multiple drugs due to their chronic nature and the high proportion [...] Read more.
Ageing represents a main risk factor for several pathologies. Among them, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are predominant in the elderly population and often require prolonged use of multiple drugs due to their chronic nature and the high proportion of co-morbidities. Hence, research is constantly looking for novel, effective molecules to treat CVD and T2DM with minimal side effects. Marine active compounds, holding a great diversity of chemical structures and biological properties, represent interesting therapeutic candidates to treat these age-related diseases. This review summarizes the current state of research on marine compounds for the treatment of CVD and T2DM, from pre-clinical studies to clinical investigations and approved drugs, highlighting the potential of marine compounds in the development of new therapies, together with the limitations in translating pre-clinical results into human application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products with Anti-aging Activity)
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17 pages, 3153 KiB  
Article
Effects of UV/H2O2 Degradation on the Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Fucoidan
by Zhicheng He, Biyang Zhu, Lijuan Deng and Lijun You
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050209 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The applications of fucoidan in the food industry were limited due to its high molecular weight and low solubility. Moderate degradation was required to depolymerize fucoidan. A few studies have reported that fucoidan has potential antibacterial activity, but its antibacterial mechanism needs further [...] Read more.
The applications of fucoidan in the food industry were limited due to its high molecular weight and low solubility. Moderate degradation was required to depolymerize fucoidan. A few studies have reported that fucoidan has potential antibacterial activity, but its antibacterial mechanism needs further investigation. In this study, the degraded fucoidans were obtained after ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide treatment (UV/H2O2) at different times. Their physicochemical properties and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were investigated. The results showed that the average molecular weights of degraded fucoidans were significantly decreased (up to 22.04 times). They were mainly composed of fucose, galactose, and some glucuronic acid. Fucoidan degraded for 90 min (DFuc-90) showed the strongest antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, with inhibition zones of 27.70 + 0.84 mm and 9.25 + 0.61 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 8 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively. DFuc-90 could inhibit the bacteria by damaging the cell wall, accumulating intracellular reactive oxygen species, reducing adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and inhibiting bacterial metabolic activity. Therefore, UV/H2O2 treatment could effectively degrade fucoidan and enhance its antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polysaccharides from Seaweeds)
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14 pages, 2384 KiB  
Article
Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on the Red Microalga Porphyridium purpureum CNMN-AR-02, Cultivated on Two Nutrient Media
by Ludmila Rudi, Liliana Cepoi, Tatiana Chiriac, Svetlana Djur, Ana Valuta and Vera Miscu
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050208 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 10 and 20 nm nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the growth and biochemical composition of microalga Porphyridium purpureum CNMN-AR-02 in two media which differ by the total amount of mineral salts (MM1 with 33.02 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 10 and 20 nm nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the growth and biochemical composition of microalga Porphyridium purpureum CNMN-AR-02 in two media which differ by the total amount of mineral salts (MM1 with 33.02 g/L and MM2 with 21.65 g/L). Spectrophotometric methods were used to estimate the amount of biomass and its biochemical composition. This study provides evidence of both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of AgNPs on different parameters depending on the concentration, size, and composition of the nutrient medium. In relation to the mineral medium, AgNPs exhibited various effects on the content of proteins (an increase up to 20.5% in MM2 and a decrease up to 36.8% in MM1), carbohydrates (a decrease up to 35.8% in MM1 and 39.6% in MM2), phycobiliproteins (an increase up to 15.7% in MM2 and 56.8% in MM1), lipids (an increase up to 197% in MM1 and no changes found in MM2), antioxidant activity (a decrease in both media). The composition of the cultivation medium has been revealed as one of the factors influencing the involvement of nanoparticles in the biosynthetic activity of microalgae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biotechnology of Microalgae)
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18 pages, 1619 KiB  
Review
Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid, on Post-Surgical Complications in Surgical Trauma Patients: Mechanisms, Nutrition, and Challenges
by Asma Ouagueni, Raed M. Al-Zoubi, Ahmad Zarour, Abdulla Al-Ansari and Hiba Bawadi
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050207 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of the specific outcomes associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), focusing on their purported effects on post-surgical complications in trauma patients. A comprehensive investigation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was conducted until February 2023 [...] Read more.
This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of the specific outcomes associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), focusing on their purported effects on post-surgical complications in trauma patients. A comprehensive investigation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was conducted until February 2023 using the PubMed database. Surgical trauma is characterized by a disruption in immune response post surgery, known to induce systemic inflammation. Omega-3 PUFAs are believed to offer potential improvements in multiple post-surgical complications because of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Inconsistent findings have emerged in the context of cardiac surgeries, with the route of administration playing a mediating role in these outcomes. The effects of omega-3 PUFAs on post-operative atrial fibrillation have exhibited variability across various studies. Omega-3 PUFAs have demonstrated positive effects in liver surgery outcomes and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Omega-3 is suggested to offer potential benefits, particularly in the perioperative care of patients undergoing traumatic procedures. Incorporating omega-3 in such cases is hypothesized to contribute to a reduction in certain surgical outcomes, such as hospitalization duration and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Therefore, comprehensive assessments of adverse effects can aid in identifying the presence of subtle or inconspicuous side effects associated with omega-3. Full article
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19 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Anti-Melanogenic Effects of Takifugu flavidus Muscle Hydrolysate in B16F10 Melanoma Cells and Zebrafish
by Jinjin Hu, Bei Chen, Shuaijie Qu, Shuji Liu, Xiaoyu Yang, Kun Qiao, Yongchang Su, Zhihui Liu, Xiaoe Chen, Zhiyu Liu and Qin Wang
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050206 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Abnormal melanogenesis can lead to hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase (TYR), a key rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production, is an important therapeutic target for these disorders. We investigated the TYR inhibitory activity of hydrolysates extracted from the muscle tissue of Takifugu flavidus (TFMH). We used computer-aided [...] Read more.
Abnormal melanogenesis can lead to hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase (TYR), a key rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production, is an important therapeutic target for these disorders. We investigated the TYR inhibitory activity of hydrolysates extracted from the muscle tissue of Takifugu flavidus (TFMH). We used computer-aided virtual screening to identify a novel peptide that potently inhibited melanin synthesis, simulated its binding mode to TYR, and evaluated functional efficacy in vitro and in vivo. TFMH inhibited the diphenolase activities of mTYR, reducing TYR substrate binding activity and effectively inhibiting melanin synthesis. TFMH indirectly reduced cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in vitro by downregulating melanocortin 1 receptor expression, thereby inhibiting expression of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, further decreasing TYR, tyrosinase related protein 1, and dopachrome tautomerase expression and ultimately impeding melanin synthesis. In zebrafish, TFMH significantly reduced black spot formation. TFMH (200 μg/mL) decreased zebrafish TYR activity by 43% and melanin content by 52%. Molecular dynamics simulations over 100 ns revealed that the FGFRSP (T-6) peptide stably binds mushroom TYR via hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions. T-6 (400 μmol/L) reduced melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells by 71% and TYR activity by 79%. In zebrafish, T-6 (200 μmol/L) inhibited melanin production by 64%. TFMH and T-6 exhibit good potential for the development of natural skin-whitening cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Fish)
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22 pages, 10611 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Efficacy of Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Mitigating Jellyfish Toxin-Induced Skin Damage: Insights into Protective and Reparative Mechanisms
by Hao Geng, Rongfeng Li, Lichao Teng, Chunlin Yu, Wenjie Wang, Kun Gao, Aoyu Li, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu and Pengcheng Li
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050205 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The escalation of jellyfish stings has drawn attention to severe skin reactions, underscoring the necessity for novel treatments. This investigation assesses the potential of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, specifically protocatechuic acid (PCA) and gentisic acid (DHB), for alleviating Nemopilema nomurai Nematocyst Venom (NnNV)-induced injuries. [...] Read more.
The escalation of jellyfish stings has drawn attention to severe skin reactions, underscoring the necessity for novel treatments. This investigation assesses the potential of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, specifically protocatechuic acid (PCA) and gentisic acid (DHB), for alleviating Nemopilema nomurai Nematocyst Venom (NnNV)-induced injuries. By employing an in vivo mouse model, the study delves into the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds. Through a combination of ELISA and Western blot analyses, histological examinations, and molecular assays, the study scrutinizes the inflammatory response, assesses skin damage and repair mechanisms, and investigates the compounds’ ability to counteract venom effects. Our findings indicate that PCA and DHB significantly mitigate inflammation by modulating critical cytokines and pathways, altering collagen ratios through topical application, and enhancing VEGF and bFGF levels. Furthermore, both compounds demonstrate potential in neutralizing NnNV toxicity by inhibiting metalloproteinases and phospholipase-A2, showcasing the viability of small-molecule compounds in managing toxin-induced injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Toxins)
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19 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Polyketides from the Deep-Sea Cold-Seep-Derived Fungus Talaromyces sp. CS-258
by Zhenger Wu, Xiao-Ming Li, Sui-Qun Yang, Bin-Gui Wang and Xin Li
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22050204 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Thirty-two fungal polyketide derivatives, including eleven new compounds, namely (3R,5′R)-5-hydroxytalaroflavone (1), talaroisochromenols A–C (3, 5, and 11), (8R,9R,10aR)-5-hydroxyaltenuene (13), (8R,9R,10aS [...] Read more.
Thirty-two fungal polyketide derivatives, including eleven new compounds, namely (3R,5′R)-5-hydroxytalaroflavone (1), talaroisochromenols A–C (3, 5, and 11), (8R,9R,10aR)-5-hydroxyaltenuene (13), (8R,9R,10aS)-5-hydroxyaltenuene (14), (8R,9S,10aR)-5-hydroxyaltenuene (15), nemanecins D and E (25 and 26), 2,5-dimethyl-8-iodochromone (27), and talarofurolactone A (29), together with one new naturally occurring but previously synthesized metabolite, 6-hydroxy-4-methoxycoumarin (28), were isolated and identified from the deep-sea cold-seep-derived fungus Talaromyces sp. CS-258. Among them, racemic ((±)-11) or epimeric (1315, 25, and 26) mixtures were successfully separated by chiral or gradient elution HPLC. Meanwhile, compound 27 represents a rarely reported naturally occurring iodinated compound. Their planar structures as well as absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis via NMR, MS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mosher’s method, and ECD or NMR calculation (with DP4+ probability analysis). Possible biosynthetic routes of some isolated compounds, which are related to chromone or isochromone biosynthetic pathways, were put forward. The biological analysis results revealed that compounds 7, 9, 10, 1822, 24, 30, and 31 showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities against several human and aquatic pathogens with MIC ranges of 0.5–64 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from the Deep-Sea-Derived Microorganisms 2.0)
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