Marine Chitin

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018) | Viewed by 56511

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As a result of our call in 2017 for submissions to a Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017, in Marine Drugs, we are now pleased to tell you that this issue has been published. Over twenty high class papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition we now seek to publish a further Special Issue, Marine Chitin, 2018, in Marine Drugs. As before, we plan to produce a strong, very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Despite significant advances in chitin and chitosan research since the 1970s, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances need reporting.

We look forward very much to your input.

Dr. Hitoshi Sashiwa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chitin

  • chitosan

  • chito-oligosaccharide

  • glucosamine

  • N-acetyl-D-glucosamine

  • chemical modification

  • controlled drug delivery

  • hydrogels

  • tissue engineering

  • nanomaterial

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3594 KiB  
Article
Novel Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives with 1,2,3-Triazolium and Their Free Radical-Scavenging Activity
by Qing Li, Xueqi Sun, Guodong Gu and Zhanyong Guo
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040107 - 28 Mar 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4536
Abstract
Chitosan is an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, which exhibits attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of chitosan is often performed for its potential of providing high bioactivity and good water solubility. A new class of chitosan derivatives possessing 1,2,3-triazolium [...] Read more.
Chitosan is an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, which exhibits attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of chitosan is often performed for its potential of providing high bioactivity and good water solubility. A new class of chitosan derivatives possessing 1,2,3-triazolium charged units by associating “click reaction” with efficient 1,2,3-triazole quaternization were designed and synthesized. Their free radical-scavenging activity against three free radicals was tested. The inhibitory property and water solubility of the synthesized chitosan derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over chitosan. It is hypothesized that triazole or triazolium groups enable the synthesized chitosan to possess obviously better radical-scavenging activity. Moreover, the scavenging activity against superoxide radical of chitosan derivatives with triazolium (IC50 < 0.01 mg mL−1) was more efficient than that of derivatives with triazole and Vitamin C. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, the same pattern were observed, which should be related to the triazolium grafted at the periphery of molecular chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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17 pages, 4730 KiB  
Article
First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case
by Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Lamiaa A. Shaala, Diaa T. A. Youssef, Sameh S. Elhady, Mikhail V. Tsurkan, Iaroslav Petrenko, Marcin Wysokowski, Konstantin Tabachnick, Heike Meissner, Viatcheslav N. Ivanenko, Nicole Bechmann, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski and Hermann Ehrlich
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020068 - 20 Feb 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5195
Abstract
Sponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to [...] Read more.
Sponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin. The unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture of such chitinous skeletons opens the widow for their recent applications as adsorbents, as well as scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomimetics. This study has the ambitious goal of monitoring other orders beyond Verongiida demosponges and finding alternative sources of naturally prestructured chitinous scaffolds; especially in those demosponge species which can be cultivated at large scales using marine farming conditions. Special attention has been paid to the demosponge Mycale euplectellioides (Heteroscleromorpha: Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae) collected in the Red Sea. For the first time, we present here a detailed study of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge, as well as its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools. Calcofluor white staining, Fourier-transform Infrared Spcetcroscopy (FTIR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy, as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of a-chitin in the skeleton of M. euplectellioides. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of the Mycale genus is a promising step in their evaluation of these globally distributed sponges as new renewable sources for both biologically active metabolites and chitin, which are of prospective use for pharmacology and biomaterials oriented biomedicine, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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15 pages, 1475 KiB  
Article
Low Molecular Weight Chitosan-Insulin Complexes Solubilized in a Mixture of Self-Assembled Labrosol and Plurol Oleaque and Their Glucose Reduction Activity in Rats
by Amani M. Elsayed, Aseel H. Khaled, Mayyas M. Al Remawi, Nidal A. Qinna, Hussam Abu Farsakh and Adnan A. Badwan
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16010032 - 16 Jan 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4612
Abstract
Oral insulin delivery that better mimics physiological pathways is a necessity as it ensures patient comfort and compliance. A system which is based on a vehicle of nano order where positively charged chitosan interacts with negatively charged insulin and forms a polyelectrolyte complex [...] Read more.
Oral insulin delivery that better mimics physiological pathways is a necessity as it ensures patient comfort and compliance. A system which is based on a vehicle of nano order where positively charged chitosan interacts with negatively charged insulin and forms a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) solubilizate, which is then solubilized into an oily phase of oleic acid, labrasol, and plurol oleaque-protects insulin against enzymatic gastrointestinal reduction. The use of an anionic fatty acid in the oily phase, such as oleic acid, is thought to allow an interaction with cationic chitosan, hence reducing particle size. Formulations were assessed based on their hypoglycaemic capacities in diabetic rats as compared to conventional subcutaneous dosage forms. 50 IU/kg oral insulin strength could only induce blood glucose reduction equivalent to that of 5 IU/kg (1 International unit = 0.0347 mg of human insulin). Parameters that influence the pharmacological availability were evaluated. A preliminary investigation of the mechanism of absorption suggests the involvement of the lymphatic route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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1965 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides
by Yao Jiang, Chuhan Fu, Sihui Wu, Guihua Liu, Jiao Guo and Zhengquan Su
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15110332 - 25 Oct 2017
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 5857
Abstract
The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD) in chitooligosaccharides (COS). This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in [...] Read more.
The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD) in chitooligosaccharides (COS). This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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5350 KiB  
Article
Effect of Protonation State and N-Acetylation of Chitosan on Its Interaction with Xanthan Gum: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study
by Suha M. Dadou, Musa I. El-Barghouthi, Samer K. Alabdallah, Adnan A. Badwan, Milan D. Antonijevic and Babur Z. Chowdhry
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15100298 - 25 Sep 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7179
Abstract
Hydrophilic matrices composed of chitosan (CS) and xanthan gum (XG) complexes are of pharmaceutical interest in relation to drug delivery due to their ability to control the release of active ingredients. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDs) have been performed in order to obtain information [...] Read more.
Hydrophilic matrices composed of chitosan (CS) and xanthan gum (XG) complexes are of pharmaceutical interest in relation to drug delivery due to their ability to control the release of active ingredients. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDs) have been performed in order to obtain information pertaining to the effect of the state of protonation and degree of N-acetylation (DA) on the molecular conformation of chitosan and its ability to interact with xanthan gum in aqueous solutions. The conformational flexibility of CS was found to be highly dependent on its state of protonation. Upon complexation with XG, a substantial restriction in free rotation around the glycosidic bond was noticed in protonated CS dimers regardless of their DA, whereas deprotonated molecules preserved their free mobility. Calculated values for the free energy of binding between CS and XG revealed the dominant contribution of electrostatic forces on the formation of complexes and that the most stable complexes were formed when CS was at least half-protonated and the DA was ≤50%. The results obtained provide an insight into the main factors governing the interaction between CS and XG, such that they can be manipulated accordingly to produce complexes with the desired controlled-release effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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11306 KiB  
Article
Production of Chitin from Penaeus vannamei By-Products to Pilot Plant Scale Using a Combination of Enzymatic and Chemical Processes and Subsequent Optimization of the Chemical Production of Chitosan by Response Surface Methodology
by José A. Vázquez, Patrícia Ramos, Jesús Mirón, Jesus Valcarcel, Carmen G. Sotelo and Ricardo I. Pérez-Martín
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15060180 - 16 Jun 2017
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 6965
Abstract
The waste generated from shrimp processing contains valuable materials such as protein, carotenoids, and chitin. The present study describes a process at pilot plant scale to recover chitin from the cephalothorax of Penaeus vannamei using mild conditions. The application of a sequential enzymatic–acid–alkaline [...] Read more.
The waste generated from shrimp processing contains valuable materials such as protein, carotenoids, and chitin. The present study describes a process at pilot plant scale to recover chitin from the cephalothorax of Penaeus vannamei using mild conditions. The application of a sequential enzymatic–acid–alkaline treatment yields 30% chitin of comparable purity to commercial sources. Effluents from the process are rich in protein and astaxanthin, and represent inputs for further by-product recovery. As a last step, chitin is deacetylated to produce chitosan; the optimal conditions are established by applying a response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, deacetylation reaches 92% as determined by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), and the molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan is estimated at 82 KDa by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Chitin and chitosan microstructures are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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3002 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Obtained from Shells of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone)
by Rayane Santa Cruz Martins De Queiroz Antonino, Bianca Rosa Paschoal Lia Fook, Vítor Alexandre De Oliveira Lima, Raid Ícaro De Farias Rached, Eunice Paloma Nascimento Lima, Rodrigo José Da Silva Lima, Carlos Andrés Peniche Covas and Marcus Vinícius Lia Fook
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15050141 - 15 May 2017
Cited by 246 | Viewed by 16090
Abstract
The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. [...] Read more.
The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscosimetry. Samples of white chitosan with acetylation degrees below 9 % were obtained, as determined by FTIR and UV-first derivative spectroscopy. The change in the morphology of samples was followed by SEM. The ash content of chitosan samples were all below 0.063 % . Chitosan was soluble in 1 % acetic acid with insoluble contents of 0.62 % or less. XRD patterns exhibited the characteristic peaks of chitosan centered at 10 and 20 degrees in 2 θ . The molecular weight of chitosan was between 2.3 and 2.8 × 10 5 g/mol. It is concluded that the procedure developed in the present work allowed obtaining chitosans with physical and chemical properties suitable for pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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11958 KiB  
Article
Bioresponsive Materials for Drug Delivery Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Composite Microparticles
by Xiaoting Yan, Zongrui Tong, Yu Chen, Yanghe Mo, Huaiyu Feng, Peng Li, Xiaosai Qu and Shaohua Jin
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15050127 - 28 Apr 2017
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5258
Abstract
Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) microparticles are a potential candidate for hemostatic wound dressing. However, its low swelling property limits its hemostatic performance. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with excellent hydrophilicity. In the current study, a novel CMCS/PGA composite microparticles with a dual-network [...] Read more.
Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) microparticles are a potential candidate for hemostatic wound dressing. However, its low swelling property limits its hemostatic performance. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with excellent hydrophilicity. In the current study, a novel CMCS/PGA composite microparticles with a dual-network structure was prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. The structure and thermal stability of the composite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of preparation conditions on the swelling behavior of the composite were investigated. The results indicate that the swelling property of CMCS/PGA composite microparticles is pH sensitive. Levofloxacin (LFX) was immobilized in the composite microparticles as a model drug to evaluate the drug delivery performance of the composite. The release kinetics of LFX from the composite microparticles with different structures was determined. The results suggest that the CMCS/PGA composite microparticles are an excellent candidate carrier for drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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